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Emerging animal diseases: from science to policy - Favv

Emerging animal diseases: from science to policy - Favv

62 European Food

62 European Food Security Authority. The risk of a Rift Valley fe- ver incursion and its persistence within the Community. EFSA Journal, 2005, 238, 1-128. El Akkad AM, 1978. Rift Valley fever outbreak in Egypt, October-December 1977. Journal of the Egyptian Public Health Association, 53, 123-128. Sellers R.F., Pedgely D. E., Tucker M. R., 1977. Possible spread of African horse sickness on the wind. Journal of Hygiene 79, 279-298. Shope R E, Peter C. J., Davies F. G., 1982. The spread of Rift Valley fever and approaches to its control. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 60, 299-304. Sellers R. F., Pedgley D. E., Tucker M. R., 1982. Rift Valley fever, Egypt 1977: Disease spread by windborne insect vectors. The Veterinary Record 110, 73-77. Davies F. G. & Walker A. R. 1974. The isolation of ephemeral fever virus from cattle and Culicoides midges in Kenya. Veterinary Record 95, 63-64 Bevan L. E. W. 1912, Ephemeral fever or three day sickness of cattle. Veterinary Journal, 68, 458-461. Davies F. G. Shaw, T. & Ochieng P., 1975, Observations on the epidemiology of ephemeral fever in Kenya, Journal of Hygiene, Cambridge, 75, 231-235. Sellars R. F. 1980. Weather, host and vector-their interplay in the spread of insect borne animal diseases. Journal of Hygiene, Cambridge, 85, 65-102. Davies F. G. 1991. Lumpy skin disease. A Capripox virus infection of cattle in Africa. FAO Publication, Rome 1991. Ali, AQ. A., Esmat M, Attia H., Selim A. & Abdel-Hamid Y. M. 1990. Clinical and pathological studies on Lumpy skin disease in Egypt. Veterinary Record, 127, 549-550. Howell P.G .1963 Emerging Diseases of Animals. African Horse Sickness FAO Agricultural Studies, 61, 71-108. Lubroth, J. 1988. African Horse sickness and the epizootic in Spain in 1987. Equine Practice 10, 26-33. Reid N. R. 1961. African Horse Sickness. British Veterinary Journal, 118, 137-142.

Risk assessment of the re-emergence of bovine brucellosis/tuberculosis Claude Saegerman*, Sarah Porter, Marie-France Humblet University of Liège, Belgium *Scientific Committee, FASFC, Brussels, Belgium Context Several definitions of a(n) (re-)emerging disease coexist but with a common denominator. An emerging disease is a disease of which the true incidence increases significantly in a given population and area and during a given period, in comparison with the usual epidemiological situation of this disease. This increase in true incidence is due to several factors such as the evolution or the modification of a pathogenic agent or of an existing parasite, resulting in a change of host, of vector, of pathogenicity or strain. Specific social, ecological, climatic, environmental or demographic factors precipitate the emergence of a disease, but it is difficult to establish a ranking of causes and of mechanisms [19]. Several models for understanding emerging risks are proposed such as (i) the convergence model for zoonotic diseases [10]; (ii) the pan European pro-active identification of emerging risks in food production model (PERIAPT) concerning emerging risk in the food chain [23] and (iii) the generalised model for rare events [17, 18]. Bovine brucellosis (bB) and bovine tuberculosis (bTB) are two World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) reportable zoonoses and are of considerable socioeconomic concern and of major importance in the international trade of animals and animal products. These diseases are two of the seven neglected endemic worldwide zoonoses [25]. Despite these diseases being largely eradicated from herds in developed countries by a test-and-slaughter programme [21] their worldwide status as zoonoses remains of great concern. With these two examples, we describe some original contributions that explain the usefulness of risk assessment in the case of possible (re-)emergence of these diseases in a Member state of the European Union. Basic facts Bovine tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis) is a chronic, infectious and contagious disease of livestock, wildlife and humans. In livestock, particularly in cattle, the disease causes diminished productivity, but seldom death. Zoonotic tuberculosis is of important public health concern worldwide, especially in developing countries because of deficiencies in preventive and/or control measures. In developed countries, the disease has almost been eradicated after 63

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