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Risk assessment of the re-emergence of bovine brucellosis/tuberculosis Claude Saegerman*, Sarah Porter, Marie-France Humblet University of Liège, Belgium *Scientific Committee, FASFC, Brussels, Belgium Context Several definitions of a(n) (re-)emerging disease coexist but with a common denominator. An emerging disease is a disease of which the true incidence increases significantly in a given population and area and during a given period, in comparison with the usual epidemiological situation of this disease. This increase in true incidence is due to several factors such as the evolution or the modification of a pathogenic agent or of an existing parasite, resulting in a change of host, of vector, of pathogenicity or strain. Specific social, ecological, climatic, environmental or demographic factors precipitate the emergence of a disease, but it is difficult to establish a ranking of causes and of mechanisms . Several models for understanding emerging risks are proposed such as (i) the convergence model for zoonotic diseases ; (ii) the pan European pro-active identification of emerging risks in food production model (PERIAPT) concerning emerging risk in the food chain  and (iii) the generalised model for rare events [17, 18]. Bovine brucellosis (bB) and bovine tuberculosis (bTB) are two World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) reportable zoonoses and are of considerable socioeconomic concern and of major importance in the international trade of animals and animal products. These diseases are two of the seven neglected endemic worldwide zoonoses . Despite these diseases being largely eradicated from herds in developed countries by a test-and-slaughter programme  their worldwide status as zoonoses remains of great concern. With these two examples, we describe some original contributions that explain the usefulness of risk assessment in the case of possible (re-)emergence of these diseases in a Member state of the European Union. Basic facts Bovine tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis) is a chronic, infectious and contagious disease of livestock, wildlife and humans. In livestock, particularly in cattle, the disease causes diminished productivity, but seldom death. Zoonotic tuberculosis is of important public health concern worldwide, especially in developing countries because of deficiencies in preventive and/or control measures. In developed countries, the disease has almost been eradicated after 63