76 Lessons learned Many examples of outbreaks of animaldiseases (BSE, Footand Mouth disease, Classical Swine fever, Avian influenza, Bluetongue,…) have shown the dramatic consequences which those incidents in the food chain may have on society. The time has come to reconsider animal health control plans in the perspective of a global changing world with increased risk of (re)emerging animaldiseases in general and emerging zoonoses in particular. Improved pro-active management of emerging diseases There is a need for a more pro-active approach toanimal disease control. Crisis should be prevented rather than managed. Risk-evaluation procedures need to be applied in order to focus the efforts of policy makers on the diseases with major priority. The overwintering of bluetongue virus strain 8 has shown that Culicoides transmitted viruses have the potential to become endemic in northern Europe. Other examples of arthropod-borne viral diseases potentially at risk for introduction in Europe have been given. The acquisition of basic knowledge about the characteristics, pathogenesis and risk factors of these emergent diseases has to be encouraged and diagnostic and strategic control plans have to be worked out. The development of a higher immunological status of the animal (wildlife) population to infectious diseases with major risk of introduction is also important. Strategic vaccine banks have to be build up and new vaccines have to be developed. The public sector and the pharmaceutical industry have to work together in that respect. Think globally - act locally It was shown that globalisation, climate change, … have a major impact on human and animal health and on emergence and re-emergence of animaldiseases and zoonoses. The approach of mankind towards emerging diseases has, on one hand, to be on a global scale necessitating an interdisciplinary approach, international collaboration, information exchange and development of trans-boundary control strategies. On the other hand much attention has to be paid to the management of the local situation in regard toanimal and public health surveillance, control of the food chain, diagnostic infrastructure, preparedness for crisis situations, rapid decision models,… A world of one health Zoonoses have had an important share in the (re)-emergence of infectious diseases during the last decades. The interaction between human and animal health is an important phenomenon to be considered when dealing with emerging diseases. An interdisciplinary approach in dealing with these new challenges to the animal and public health sector is therefore necessary. An efficient collaboration between the veterinary and medical profession needs to be installed as well in the field, in the administration, in research as in the advisory bodies.
Maintain a high level of laboratory infrastructure, make available efficient diagnostic tools and establish a wellfunctioning information exchange network Early diagnosis is the mayor key to successful control and management of emerging diseases. The response capacity of a country towards emerging animaldiseases largely depends upon availability of good veterinary infrastructure, expertise, diagnostic laboratories, short decision procedures and good surveillance capabilities as a whole. Information exchange needs to be encouraged: i.e. GLEWS (Global Early Warning System for animaldiseases including zoonoses) a joint OIE/FAO/WHO initiative, aims at improving information exchange on animal disease outbreaks and epidemiological analysis. Also on a national level there is a great need to have a well functioning disease surveillance network for emerging issues in production animals as well as in wildlife. The animal producer and the practicing veterinary surgeon have a key role in recognizing emerging issues or diseases and in informing – as soon as possible - the public authorities. Vice-versa a constructive relationship between animal and public health officials and professionals in the field has to be established. Adequate continuing education has to be foreseen in order to instruct the professionals in the field to recognize emerging issues and animaldiseases. Veterinary schools play an important role in that respect. Research related to the food chain in general and toanimal health in particular is of strategic importance to society Several speakers addressed the importance of scientific research to study the new challenges facing animal and public health in order to be able to develop a pro-active disease control approach. Research is a vital instrument to build knowledge in order to make substantial progress in the identification of emerging hazards and the understanding of the host/pathogen relationship. There is an urgent need: • to better understand the mechanisms that underlie emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases, their epidemiology and transmission dynamics, • to develop new tools for rapid, massive and global identification of emerging pathogens, • to develop methods to worldwide observe and predict new global trends which may affect the human/animal/ environment bond, • to study vector ecology, virus reservoirs and pathogens circulating in wildlife, • to develop new multivalent vaccines and therapeutic molecules,… As scientific development of new diagnostic tools and veterinary vaccines and drugs is very expensive and as economical benefits in the veterinary and animal sector have been borderline, there is an urgent need for efficient investment of public money in prioritized research topics (especially those dealing with emerging animaldiseases and zoonoses, vector 77
The key factor that is driving the animal auto-immune disease diagnostics market is the increased chances of the transmission of the zoonotic diseases and increased awareness about the auto-immune diseases in the companion animals.