4 years ago



34 evaluation of safety

34 evaluation of safety assessment, which will ensure that food additives, once permitted, are kept under continuous observation and re-evaluation. The Novel Foods and Novel Food Ingredients Regulation (EC) 258/97 requires safety assessment of any food product, which does not have a significant history of use, or is produced using a new production process, which gives rise to significant changes in the composition, structure, or function. The legislation is being reviewed in Europe with specific reference to foods modified by new production processes, such as nanotechnology and nanoscience. Conclusion An overview of nanotechnology applications in the food and related sectors shows they offer a variety of benefits to the whole food chain – from new or improved tastes, textures, to a potential reduction in the dietary intake of fat and other food additives, enhanced absorption of nutrients, preservation of quality and freshness, and better traceability and security of food products. However, although predicted to grow rapidly in the future, most food related applications are currently at R&D stage. There are also a number of knowledge gaps in our current understanding of the properties, behaviour and effects of nanomaterials, which make it difficult to assess the potential risk to consumers. A careful consideration of the nature of materials and applications can, however, provide a basis for conceptual risk assessment. For example, products containing natural food nano-structures may not require as detailed evaluation as the products containing insoluble/biopersistent nanomaterials. The existence of stringent regulatory controls provides reassurance that only safe products derived from nanotechnologies will be permitted on the market. There is, however, a need for a case-by-case safety evaluation of nanotechnologyderived food products, as recommended in the recent EFSA opinion (EFSA, 2009), before they are placed on the market. References _______________________________________________ Bradley E.L., Castle L. & Chaudhry Q. 2010. Nanoparticles in food contact materials and articles, in preparation.

Cedervall T., Lynch I., Foy M., Berggard T., Donnelly S.C., Cagney G., Linse S. & Dawson K.A. 2007. Detailed identification of plasma proteins adsorbed on copolymer nanoparticles. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 46, 5754-5756. Chaudhry Q., Castle L. & Watkins R. (Eds.). 2010. Nanotechnologies in Food. Royal Society of Chemistry Publishers, Cambridge, UK. Chaudhry Q., Scotter M., Blackburn J., Ross B., Boxall A., Castle L., Aitken R. & Watkins R. 2008. Applications and implications of nanotechnologies for the food sector. Food Additives and Contaminants 25(3), 241-258. Cientifica ‘Nanotechnologies in the Food Industry’, published August 2006, Clegg S.M., Knight A.I., Beeren C.J.M. & Wilde P.J. 2009. Fat reduction whilst maintaining the sensory characteristics of fat using multiple emulsions. 5th International Symposium on Food Rheology and Structure (ISFRS, 2009), pp. 238–241. des Rieux A., Fievez V., Garinot M., Schneider Y.J., Preat V. 2006 Nanoparticles as potential oral delivery systems of proteins and vaccines: a mechanistic approach. Journal of Control Release 116, 1-27. Desai M.P., Labhasetwar V., Amidon G.L. & Levy R.J. 1996. Gastrointestinal uptake of biodegradeable microparticles: effect of particle size. Pharmaceutical Research 13, 1838-1845. Dobrovolskaia M. 2007 Immunological properties of engineered nanomaterials. Nature Nanotechnology 2, 469-478. Donaldson K., Stone V., Tran C.L., Kreyling W., Borm P.J. 2004. Nanotoxicology. Occupational and Environmental Medicine 619, 727-728. Donaldson K., Stone V., Clouter A., Renwick L. & MacNee W. 2001. Ultrafine particles. Journal of Occupational Environmental Medicine 58, 211-216. EFSA - European Food Safety Authority. 2009. The potential risks arising from nanoscience and nanotechnologies on food and feed safety (EFSA-Q-2007-124a). The EFSA Journal 958, 1-39. 1178620753812_1211902361968.htm Geiser M., Rothen-Rutishauser B., Kapp N., Schürch S., Kreyling W., Schulz H., Semmler M., Im Hof V., Heyder J. & Gehr P. 2005. Ultrafine particles cross cellular membranes by nonphagocytic mechanisms in lungs and in cultured cells. Environmental Health Perspectives 113 (11), 1555-1560. Hillyer J.F. & Albrecht R.M. 2001. Gastrointestinal persorption and tissue distribution of differently sized colloidal gold nanoparticles. Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 90, 1927-1936. Hoet P., Bruske-Hohlfeld I. & Salata O. 2004. Nanoparticles - known and unknown health risks. Journal of Nanobiotechnology 2, 1-15. Hwang L.S. & Yeh A.-I. 2010. Applying nanotechnology in food in Taiwan. Paper presented at the International Conference on Food Applications of Nanoscale Science (ICOFANS), Tokyo, Japan, 9-11 June 2010. 35

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