4 years ago



64 Conclusion

64 Conclusion Investigation of the possible toxicity of nanoparticles in food is an important issue although there is no clear request from the actual legislation. The physicochemical parameters of the NPs should be well described and the use of appropriate dose metrics is of high importance for the toxicity testing. The characterization of NPs before and after administration in vitro and in vivo is also considered the ideal in screening studies. In this regard, we are involved in a national project aiming at developing methods for risk assessment of NPs in food (RT 10/5 NANORISK, ‘Development of methods for assessing toxic effects of ingested engineered nanoparticles’). This project relies on three pillars: the detection and characterization of NPs in complex matrices; in vivo tests on rats (oral intake) using OECD guidelines and focussing on the toxicokinetics, acute and chronic effects; in vitro tests focussed on the intestinal function. The in vitro tests will be conducted on simple matrices before switching to food and feed matrices. Caco-2 cells layers and co-cultures including M cells and/or a mucus layer will be compared and the fate of NPs will be studied. Nano-silver was selected as a first model as it is already used in food for its antibacterial properties. A second model nanomaterial will be selected in a later stage of the project. References _______________________________________________ AFSSA. 2009. Nanotechnologies et nanoparticules dans l’alimentation humaine et animale. pp. 27. Bouwmeester H., Dekkers S., Noordam M.Y., hagens W.I., Bulder A.S., de Heer C., ten Voorde S., Wijnhoven S., Marvin H. & Sips A. 2009. Review of health safety aspects of nanotechnologies in food production. Regulatory and Pharmacology 53, 52-62. Bouwmeester H., Dekkers S., Noordam M., Hagens W., Bulder A., de Heer C., ten Voorde S., Wijnhoven S. & Sips A. 2007. Health impact of nanotechnologies in food production. RIKILT/RIVM report 2007.014

des Rieux A., Fievez V., Théate I., Mast J., Préat V. & Schneider Y.-J. 2007. An improved in vitro model of human intestinal follicle-associated epithelium to study nanoparticle transport by M cells. Eur. J. Pharm. Sci. 30, 380-391. des Rieux A., Fievez V., Garinot M., Schneider Y.-.J. & Préat V. 2006. Nanoparticles as potential oral delivery systems of proteins and vaccines: A mechanistic approach. J. Contr. Rel. 116, 1-27. Koeneman B.A., Zhang Y., Hristovski K., Westerhoff P., Chen Y., Crittenden J.C. & Capco D.G. 2009a. Experimental approach for an in vitro toxicity assay with non-aggregated quantum dots. Toxicol. In Vitro 23, 955-962. Koeneman B.A., Zhang Y., Westerhoff P., Chen Y., Crittenden J.C. & Capco D.G. 2009b. Toxicity and cellular responses of intestinal cells exposed to titanium dioxide. Cell Biol. Toxicol. 26(3), 225-238. Kreyling W.G., Semmeler-Behnke M. & Möller W. 2006. Health implications of nanoparticles. J. Nanoparticle Res. 8, 543-562. Nollevaux G., Devillé C., El Moualij B., Zorzi W., Deloyer P., Schneider Y.-J., Peulen O. & Dandrifosse G. 2006. Development of a serum-free co-culture of human intestinal epithelium cell-lines (Caco-2/HT29-5M21). BMC Cell Biology 7, 20-31. Oberdörster G., Maynard A., Donaldson K., Castranova V., Fitzpatrick J., Ausman K., Carter J., Karn B., Kreyling W., Lai D., Olin S., Monteiro-Riviere N., Warheit D. & Yang H. and a report from the ILSI research foundation/risk science institute nanomaterial toxicity screening working group. 2005. Principles for characterizing the potential human health effects from exposure to nanomaterials: elements of screening strategy. Particle and Fibre Toxicology 2, 8-42. Rabolli V., Thomassen L.C., Princen C., Napierska D., Gonzalez L., Kirsch-Volders M., Hoet P.H., Huaux F., Kirschhock C.E., Martens J.A. & Lison D. 2010. Influence of size, surface area and microporosity on the in vitro cytotoxic activity of amorphous silica nanoparticles in different cell types. Nanotoxicology 4(3), 307-318. SCENIHR - Scientific Committee on Emerging and Newly-Identified Health Risks, DG Health & Consumer Protection. 2009. Risk assessment of products of nanotechnologies. Sergent T., Piront N., Meurice J., Toussaint O. & Schneider Y.J. 2010. Anti-inflammatory effects of dietary phenolic compounds in an in vitro model of inflamed human intestinal épithélium. Chemico-Biological Interactions, in press. Sergent T., Ribonnet L., Kolosova A., Garsou S., Schaut A., De Saeger S., Van Peteghem C., Larondelle Y., Pussemier L. & Schneider Y.J. 2008. Molecular and cellular effects of food contaminants and secondary plant components and their plausible interactions at the intestinal level. Food and Chemical Toxicology 46, 813–841. Van De Walle J., Hendrickx A., Romier B., Larondelle Y. & Schneider Y.J. 2010. Inflammatory parameters in Caco-2 cells: Effect of stimuli nature, concentration, combination and cell différentiation. Toxicol. In Vitro 24, 1441–1449. 65

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