4 years ago



78 producers who may

78 producers who may incorporate nanotechnology in products without indicating it on the label. German (Die Welt, ARD, Der Spiegel) and British (Observer, BBC Focus magazine) media have started reporting about food applications of nanotechnology, in some cases very critically”. This paragraph points to some key issues – very sensitive area; natural; labelling; critical media reporting and trust. It also mentions another GM-type situation, which has long been a concern of those developing applications of nano packaging and ingredients. Given that those who ignore history are sometimes condemned to relive the past, it is informative to reflect on the lessons of GM food and on what lies behind the continuing resistance to GM ingredients among wide sections of the European public. Food; a sensitive topic Food and genetic modification/nanotechnology (bio-nano) bring together the old and the new. Biotechnology has a short history dating back to the 1970s with the development of rDNA technologies; nanotechnology has an even shorter history. It was only in the early 1990s that so-called vegetarian cheese made with a GM enzyme, and subsequently the FLVR SVR tomato emerged as consumer products. By contrast, the production, preparation and consumption of food are as old as human society. Over the millennia and across the world, food and eating, while arguably the most basic biological function, have evolved to be a central feature of culture - shaping social organisation, the division of labour, and demarcating religions, races, communities, classes and genders. Food, according to Claude Fischler an eminent French social scientist, is constitutive of both cultural and individual identity through the process of ‘incorporation’ - the crossing of the barrier between the ‘outside world’ and the ‘inside world’ of the body. Food intake is not merely physical. With the food we also absorb beliefs and collective representations – as suggested by the age old aphorism ‘you are what you eat’. In the last half century the Western world has witnessed a change from food shortages to surpluses. Anxieties about having enough to eat have been replaced with concerns related to the ever increasing distance between ‘the farm and the fork’. The modern eater is an increasingly anxious consumer, torn between the appeal of cheap, convenient and palatable processed food, and the

epulsion or menace of factory farming and pesticides, and additives to replace natural ingredients. The perceived, and to some extent, real consequences are new and subtle dangers, less visible, understood or controllable. While culture gave earlier generations principles about what and what not to eat, the clues of texture, flavour and even intuition fail to protect us from the perceived hazards of eating in modern times. The consequent psychological, political and ethical distress resonates in worries about being ‘at risk’ from pesticides, residues, pollutants and additives. The most common complaint about contemporary processed foods typically is that “one does not know what one eats anymore”. It encapsulates the contemporary food consumer’s dilemma: “I am what I eat; I don’t know what I eat; thus I don’t know what/who I am”. With the decline of tradition and culture we see the emergence of individual choice – for some desirable, for others the cause of anxiety, bewilderment and the state of ‘gastro-anomie’ to use Claude Fischler’s term. Individuals are often at a loss as to how to make choices in the general nutritional cacophony - conflicting norms (or normlessness), prescriptions and proscriptions about food. Anxieties about food are evidenced in food scares, pathological eating disorders and a normlessness that some social scientists link to the trend of rising obesity. All in all, in our modern times food is as likely to be seen as a source of stress rather than pleasure. To ‘re-identify’ with food, to re-appropriate it (“knowing what they eat”) and to introduce a new logic into everyday eating, people search for new strategies, seen in the demand for food labelling, legal protection against the use of chemicals and biotechnology, the adoption of individual alternative diets, ranging from more or less rigid vegetarian, organic, low-calorie or low carb etc. Food anxieties have led to new ‘strategies of confidence’ including the development of repertoires of trusted food, for example organic food, fair trade, vegetarian or local food; brand loyalty – with brands standing for familiarity and reassurance of safety and quality. This strategy fuels Ritzer’s ‘McDonaldization’ of taste. In many, if not all cultures, but at the very least in the United States, France, Britain, Switzerland, Italy and Germany, the adjective “natural” associated with food is considered positive. As such it is a common theme in the advertising of food products. Naturalness is affected more, in people’s perception, by addition, 79

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