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Articulando gênero e geração aos estudos de saúde e sexualidade ...

Articulando gênero e geração aos estudos de saúde e sexualidade ...

monthly household income

monthly household income of 500 US dollars) had finished high school as opposed to 24% of the general sample. Employment rate is quite low; with only 26.7% among them have regular paid work. Although the number of 20 to 24 years old working (28.8%) is higher than among those between 15 to 19 years old (24.6%), it is not as high as might be expected. Among married women the employment rate is lower (23.4%) than among single women (28.2%). Among those employed, only 31.6% have access to social security and other benefits. Over 90% of those who work are concentrated in only 5 types of jobs: working as maids, nannies, hairdressers and/or manicurists, cashiers or salesperson, and a few as secretaries or receptionists (data not shown). These jobs are in the low specialized end of the service sector and have low paying, or what many call dead end jobs. Our respondents earn in average less than national minimum wage (around US$ 100.00). Compared to their partners or husbands, while they are generally not much older (with a 4 year difference), and have the same amount of schooling on average (9 years), with even fewer having graduated high school (18.9%) than the respondents, 75.8% of them are working right now. When we consider the kinds of jobs these men hold, we find much more diverse and better paid occupations: construction workers, mechanics, plumbers, repairmen, drivers and police officers, as well as other types of jobs in the service sector (data not shown). Gender unbalance in economic power and access to economic resources is explicitly demonstrated in this data. Sexual and Reproductive History and Practices According to our results, most respondents (71.9%) had sexual intercourse at least once. At the time of first intercourse they were on average 15.79 years old. Their partners were on average 20.62 years old at the time, an age difference of 4 years, which is also similar to what was found by other researchers. Disaggregating by age group, 52% of 15 to 19 year olds and 92.1% of 20 to 24 year olds has had sexual intercourse. Among single women, 55.3% already had their first sexual experience. The partner at first sexual intercourse had the same median age (20) in both age groups. In average they have had two sexual partners. Sexual practices other than vaginal sex (such as oral and anal sex) were reported by a much lower number of respondents and tended to occur after they had their first vaginal intercourse. Non-penetrative practices were also reported in lower numbers, the most common was sex at the entrance of vagina, reported by 41% of them. Pre-marital sex is the norm; among all the 258 respondents who had at least one sexual intercourse, only 6.2% of them had their first sexual experience with their husbands. Among the 137 respondents who had ever been married, the percentage of first experience with husband was higher but not by much: 9.5%. Religion did not seem to play a role in avoiding or delaying sexual initiation, nor in

avoiding pre-marital sex. Catholics and Pentecostals had the same probability of having engaged in pre-marital sex by age of 16. Currently 70.3% use some contraceptive method: 34.1% use condoms, 32.5% the pill, 9% use intravenous hormones and 5.5% use IUD. However 86.4% declared not using any contraceptive method at the time of their first pregnancy. Lack of knowledge is not an explanation for the fact most of them were not using any contraceptive method at the time they got pregnant. Only one to them claimed she did not know any contraceptive method, all of other cited at least one. Lack of knowledge is thus not the reason for non-use of contraception. In fact 53% of respondents declared they wanted their first pregnancy, so that non-use of contraceptives or condoms is more likely to be related to a desire for early motherhood. Among those who ever had sex, 63.2% have been pregnant at least once and most of them (84%) had their first pregnancy before 20 years old. The rate of very early pregnancy was also high: 10.9% got pregnant before they were 15 years old. Median age at first pregnancy was 17. This means that on average they get pregnant one year after they start having sex. The prevalence of adolescent pregnancy (from 13 to 19 years old) was 38.2%. Most of them got pregnant by a partner who were at least 4 years older than them, and only 21.6% of them were living with that partner when they got pregnant (this number is slight higher among 20 to 24 years old); 24% of them started living with their partner after they became pregnant, however more them half of them stayed home. Among those who started to live with their partners only 51% are still living with them. Not surprisingly adolescents/women who were married/united at least once are much more likely to ever been pregnant than single women: 90,5% of them compared to 17.4%. The practice of abortion seems to be extremely underreported, only 2.0% admitted ever having an abortion. A much higher number (18%) declared having miscarriages, induced abortions may also be concealed among these numbers. Among those who have ever been pregnant, 87.6% had at least one child born alive and 44.6% two or more children. About eight percent (7.8%) were pregnant at the time of the interviews (this number was about the same for both age groups). Among those with at least one child born alive, 19.3% had children with 2 or 3 different partners. Pre-natal care prevalence is high with 97% of them getting pre-natal care (and 80% having 6 or more consultations) at their last pregnancy, generally at their local health centre. Social and Economic Determinants of Sexual and Reproductive Behaviour

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