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Articulando gênero e geração aos estudos de saúde e sexualidade ...

Articulando gênero e geração aos estudos de saúde e sexualidade ...

Some correlations were

Some correlations were found between some social and economic indicators and the frequency of sexual experience and pregnancy, age at first pregnancy, number of pregnancies and desire for first pregnancy comparing the two age groups (adolescents between 15 to 19 years old, and young women between 20 to 24 years old). Income and education influence both the chance of having had both vaginal sex and have ever been pregnant. Although we did not find a significant correlation between family income and education with the probability of having vaginal sex among adolescents, young women with a high school education or higher were less likely to have had experienced sexual intercourse, as well as those with a higher family income. Almost a hundred percent of those in the lowest income level have had vaginal sex, while only 80.6% of those at the highest income level ever had. Among young women with a high school diploma, 80.6% had compared to over 97% to all other educational level groups. Age at first intercourse is also influenced by income. Among those in the upper income level the median age of sexual initiation was 17, while among those in the lowest income level it was much lower at 14. In both age groups, respondents who lived in households headed by their mothers were more likely to have engaged in vaginal sex. However, although adolescents/young women living in mother headed household had a higher rate of vaginal sex than those in father headed households, they were less likely to have ever been pregnant than the latter. Education and income are also found correlated to the chance of ever being pregnant, although education had a clearer role among older women. The more educated the adolescent/woman, the higher the possibility she has never been pregnant. Among 20 to 24 years old with 2 to 5 years of education who were sexually active, 91.7% had at least one pregnancy while among those with a high school degree who were sexually active only 51.0% had ever been pregnant. Income had a significant effect in both groups: respondents who were in the top income level were less likely to ever been pregnant, than those in the two lower income levels. Religion did not appear to be correlated to probability of pregnancy. Paid work outside of the home seems to be negatively associated with having children for both age groups. However it is difficult to establish a causal relationship here: it may be that women who work outside home were less likely to get pregnant or that women who ever got pregnant are less likely to work outside because they have small children. We also found that education influences age at first pregnancy. Almost 19% of young women with 2 to 5 years of education who ever got pregnant, had their first pregnancy by age 14, compared to 3.3% among those with high school education. Some indicators of less traditional gender interactions such as to have talked to a partner about condom use before first intercourse, desire for first intercourse and co-decision with partner on contraceptive use were also associated with a lower frequency of pregnancy.

Adherence to Gender Stereotypes and Sexual and Reproductive Behavior In the questionnaire, we had three boxes with several different statements. We asked the respondents to choose whether they agreed or disagreed with, or had no opinion on, each statement. One box had statements about stereotypical gender roles in general, another had statements about stereotypical gender roles related to financial matters and the last had statements regarding stereotypical gender roles related to sexuality. Based on the frequencies of the answers, we separated the respondents into three groups. The first one showed a high level of adherence to stereotypical beliefs on gender roles, the second one a medium level and the last one a low level of adherence to stereotypical beliefs. We found that adolescents who held more stereotypical beliefs regarding gender roles on family, economy and sexuality were more likely of having had sex and gotten pregnant than those with less adherence to traditional gender beliefs, who were more likely of both having had sex and not gotten pregnant and never having had sexual intercourse. Among 15 to 19 years old females only 12,4% who had a low level of adherence to traditional beliefs on women’s and men’s role regarding economic matters have had sex and gotten pregnant compared to 25% among those with a high level of adherence to more traditional beliefs in this area. Also among 15 to 19 years old 19% of those who had a low level of adherence to traditional beliefs regarding gender roles have had sex and gotten pregnant compared to 29.5% among those with a high level of adherence to more traditional beliefs on gender roles. Finally, among 15 to 19 years old 51% of those who had a low level of adherence to traditional beliefs regarding gender roles in sexual matters have not had sex compared to 44.8% among those with a high level of adherence to more traditional beliefs in this area. Determinants of Condom Use Condom use at first intercourse was found to be strongly negatively correlated to have ever being pregnant among the respondents, and since condoms are used both to protect against risk of sexually transmitted infection and to prevent pregnancy we also considered its use as a reasonable proxy indicator of reproductive health risk. We found associations between young women’s susceptibility to pregnancy measured through condom use and selected indicators of sexuality, mobility, and freedom from threat from a husband/partner, even after controlling for confounders of age and marital status: To have talked to a partner about condom use before first intercourse was the single factor most likely to have influenced condom use at the adolescents/young women first time’ followed by having a partner who ever refused to use condoms. These findings indicate the importance

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