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2 – BOUNDARY

2 – BOUNDARY CONDITIONS Figure 2.2: Bird’s eye view of the MSTS integration space between the MEOP (grey) and MSOP (light blue). The MSTS shall be placed in front of the MSOP window close to the MRAD (wine red). Property Value Priority Weight 25 g 3 Dimensions max. 20 × 20 × 5 mm 3 2 Frequency (fig. 2.1) worst case 10 Hz, 2 depends on operation Close time max. 6 ms 2 Open time max. 6 ms 2 Close area slit area: ca. 1.5 × 5 mm incl. 3 overlap Lifetime 2 years 3 Power consumption average 0.6 W at 3.3 V (3 W peak) 2 Control 3.3 V digital 1 Mechanical robustness nominal as specified in section 3 3.2.3.4 in [11] EMC properties low conducted and radiative 2 emission Operation temperature range −30 . . . 50 ◦ C without heater, 2 0 . . . 50 ◦ C with heater Non operation temperature range −30 . . . 50 ◦ C 2 Space qualification yes 3 (e.g. out gassing, radiation, vacuum) Fail safe integration yes, fail open 3 Position feedback yes, closed / open 2 Temperature feedback yes 3 Applicability for IR 7 − 14 µm 3 Table 2.1: MSTS requirements and their design priorities weighted from 1 (lowest priority) to 3 (highest priority). 8

Chapter 3 Shutter Actuation Principles 3.1 Shutter Study In a preliminary phase of the MSTS design, common shutter actuation principles and mechanisms were studied and summarized in [5]. Already space qualified or even flown actuators were particularly investigated. However, no one of these shutter mechanisms can fulfill all boundary conditions listed in table 2.1. Nevertheless, a lot of information about actuation principles and control electronics designs could be gathered. The investigated actuation principles comprise • motor driven shutters, • electromagnetic field driven shutters, • piezo actuator driven shutters and • piezo motor driven shutters. The actuation principles of these four shutters are sketched in figure 3.1. Termed as non applicable principles for the MSTS, but listed for the sake of completeness are • opaque fluid based optical shutters and • liquid crystal optical shutters. The most promising and withal space qualified shutter design considered in [5] is the Laser Chopper Mechanism (LCM) included in the ALADIN instrument for the ADM-Aeolus satellite which will be launched in 2009 [9]. This voice coil based shutter mechanism persisted > 6 · 10 9 cycles in the testing phase. 9

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