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F / mN F / mN 150 100 50

F / mN F / mN 150 100 50 0 −50 −100 −150 −200 5 – ANALYSIS, CALCULATIONS AND EXPERIMENTS −250 −5 −4 −3 −2 −1 0 x / mm 1 2 3 4 5 150 100 50 0 −50 −100 −150 −200 Figure 5.6: Helmholtz VCA simulation with d = 0.5 mm. −250 −5 −4 −3 −2 −1 0 x / mm 1 2 3 4 5 Figure 5.7: Helmholtz VCA simulation with d = 1.5 mm. 42

F / mN F max / mN 150 100 50 0 −50 −100 −150 −200 5 – ANALYSIS, CALCULATIONS AND EXPERIMENTS −250 −5 −4 −3 −2 −1 0 x / mm 1 2 3 4 5 Figure 5.8: Helmholtz VCA simulation with d = 2.5 mm. −170 −175 −180 −185 −190 −195 −200 −205 −210 0 0.5 1 1.5 d / mm 2 2.5 3 Figure 5.9: Maximum force to clearance characteristic of the simulated Helmholtz VCA. 43