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Download - Hochschule München

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Abstract Carbon (C),

Abstract Carbon (C), beryllium (B) and tungsten (W) are potential candidates as Plasma Facing Materials (PFM) for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). During operation, co-deposited layers are formed from the eroded PFM, which will grow with time. At Max-Planck Institut für Plasmaphysik, the interaction between plasma and PFM (deuterium retention and erosion behavior) are still being investigated. Hence, amorphous metal-doped carbon films (a-C:Me, Me: W, Ti, Zr, V) have been produced by dual magnetron sputtering and studied after heat treatment up to 1300K by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS) and X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). All doping metals, except for tungsten, showed clear carbide formation at 1300K using XRD. Basic information on the phase formation on a-C:W films of the three possible tungsten carbides in the non-thermal equilibrium W-C system is required. For this study, amorphous tungsten-doped carbon films (a-C:W) were produced by magnetron sputter deposition with tungsten concentration in the range of 6 to 30 at.%. The films were then annealed at various temperatures up to 2800K. Carbide phases formed after heat treatment and their crystallite sizes were investigated by XRD. In addition, the crystallite size distribution and sample morphology were determined by a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) on cross-section prepared by a focused Ion Beam (FIB). Phase identification of nanometer-sized crystallites was done at TU Warsaw with nano-diffraction in a Scanning Transmission Electron Microscope (STEM) as part of co-operation. Within the specimens, all three carbide phases, WC, W2C and WC1-x, were found by XRD as function of the two parameters, concentration and temperature. Within the lower concentrated specimens, WC1-x is the dominant carbide throughout the complete temperature range. W2C is dominant within the middle concentrated films and in the temperature range of 1450K to 2200K. WC becomes dominant for the higher concentrations and at 2500K for the middle concentrated specimens. Crystal sizes ranging from 2 nm up to 1μm were found for WC, whereas W2C and WC1-x crystals remain relative small (~15 nm). Special designed multi-layers were produced i

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