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Electro Optical Characterisation of Short Wavelength Semiconductor ...

Electro Optical Characterisation of Short Wavelength Semiconductor ...

Chapter 3

Chapter 3 Characterisation Life can only be understood backwards; but it must be lived forwards. Søren Kierkegaard One is always enthusiastic to see the results of the job done. It is not much different by the laser diodes. There is too much physics behind every crystal being grown and processed to laser diodes. After each of these two main steps (growth and technology) methods are possible to check the results. Characterisation is actually nothing but this result check. In the following sections the different characterisation methods, i.e. structural characterisation and opto-electrical characterisation are delineated. As the main concern of this thesis is the opto-electrical characterisation which will be delved, there will be only a brief introduction to some of the possible methods of structural characterisation with no deep going details. 3.1 Structural and Optical Characterisation Two main purposes are aimed doing structural characterisation. One is the verification of the sample structure concerning layer compositions; and the other one is the determination of the crystalline perfection which is more or less the density of the defects in the material. 3.1.1 High Resolution X-Ray Diffraction The most important structural characterisation method is the high resolution x-ray diffraction (HRXRD or short XRD). X-ray diffraction technique is based on the elastic scattering of the photons at the electron cores of the atoms forming the sample and collecting the scattered radiation by a detector. The scattered beam direction contains information about the crystal structure and the plane spacing d [46] which satisfies the Bragg condition 2dsinθ = nλ; n = 1, 2, 3, · · · (3.1) where θ is the angle of incidence and λ the wavelength of the incident beam. As can be seen from this equation, the plane spacing can be calculated out of the given information of the wave. 21

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