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Electro Optical Characterisation of Short Wavelength Semiconductor ...

Electro Optical Characterisation of Short Wavelength Semiconductor ...

Characterisation by 2 in order to obtain the total light output of a device. incoming ray of light collection port detection port detector aperture integrating sphere Figure 3.3: When a ray of light enters the sphere from any direction, it strikes the inner wall and is reflected diffusely as a diffuse Lambertian source. Each of these reflected rays is again reflected by the wall and again, etc. Very quickly the light is randomised within the sphere. Hence, the detector ”samples” the light within the sphere regardless of how the light entered the sphere. 3.2.4 Electroluminescence Electroluminescence (EL) is an opto electrical phenomenon where a material emits light in response to an electric current passed through it, or to a strong electric field. Emission wavelength is if not the most, one of the most important characteristics of a laser diode which is determined by the composition of the materials in the active region. Although a PL measurement roughly predicts the spectral region in which a device emits, in order to obtain the precise wavelength, the emission spectrum needs to be measured under electrical current injection. Electroluminescence spectra of a laser diode can be obtained using a spectrometer. A spectrometer is consisting of a monochromator, generally using a diffraction grating, and a photo detector. Fig. 3.4 depicts the electroluminescence measuring site in use during this thesis. The light coming out from the device is focused by a system of lenses on the entrance slit of the spectrometer FHR 1000 from Jobin-Yvon [53]. Due to the long focal point of 1m, 26

current source + − 000 111 000 111 000 111 000 111 needle sample converging lens computer Figure 3.4: Electroluminescence measurement Opto-Electrical Characterisation spectrometer the spectral resolution of this spectrometer is 0.008nm [54]. The system is fully computer controlled using a software package delivered by the spectrometer manufacturer. The laser diode devices measured in this thesis are all electrically pumped up to their current threshold, as this was determined through L/I & I/V characterisation. In case of LEDs, a moderate current, also measured, is applied. 27

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