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Electro Optical Characterisation of Short Wavelength Semiconductor ...

Electro Optical Characterisation of Short Wavelength Semiconductor ...

Preface ing the

Preface ing the characterisation methods partly used. The fourth chapter evaluates the raw data of measurements and discusses the results. And a summary, as hopefully expected, is the end of the main matter of this thesis. ii

Contents Preface i 1 Basic Concepts 3 1.1 Historical Background . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 1.2 Physics of Semiconductor Lasers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 1.2.1 Crystals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 1.2.2 Light in Crystal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 1.3 Laser Device . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 1.3.1 Heterostructures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 1.3.2 Epitaxy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 2 Developing Laser Diodes 15 2.1 Growth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 2.1.1 Metalorganic Vapour Phase Epitaxy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 2.1.2 Molecular Beam Epitaxy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 2.2 Processing Technology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 2.2.1 Planar waveguide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 2.2.2 Ridge waveguide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 3 Characterisation 21 3.1 Structural and Optical Characterisation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 3.1.1 High Resolution X-Ray Diffraction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 3.1.2 Photoluminescence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 3.1.3 SEM & FIB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 3.2 Opto-Electrical Characterisation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 3.2.1 Current Injection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 3.2.2 Current-Voltage Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 3.2.3 Output Light-Current Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 3.2.4 Electroluminescence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 4 Data Analysis 29 4.1 ZnSe Devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 4.1.1 Characterisation of ZnSe laser diodes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 4.1.2 ZnSe results in brief . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 4.2 GaN Devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 1

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