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Structural analogy in language and its limits [Contrast and analogy v.2]

Structural analogy in language and its limits [Contrast and analogy v.2]

John Anderson 12 I adopt

John Anderson 12 I adopt this suggestion concerning dependency in onsets here; namely, that it is based on anti-sonority – though the head in this case satisfies the formal criteria for headhood only rather weakly: any consonant, not just voiceless plosives, can constitute an onset; we are merely claiming that non-plosives are onsets faute de mieux, as it were. The prototypical onset is a voiceless plosive, and so the consonant closest to a voiceless plosive in sonority is head in an onset cluster. It is only in this weak sense that the less sonorous consonant can be said to be characteristic of the onset. (But motivations for headhood in consonant clusters which are based simply on relative sonority are even weaker.) I thus interpret the second consonant in clamps as an adjunct to the first, with a structure as shown in (26): (26) {V} | {C\{V}} {V} | | {C\{V}} {C\{C}} {V} {cor,obs\{V}} : : | : : : {V/{C}} {C\{V}} : : : : | : : : : {C\{C}} {C\{V}} : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : k + l + a + m + p + s The appropriate subconfiguration is allowed for by (27): (27) cluster headship {Ci} ⇒ { \{Cj}}, iff {Cj} < {Ci} (27) will also apply to the /m/, which, as shown in (26), is thereby adjoined to the /p/. The dependency created is the vehicle for the agreement in articulation between these two elements, which is a property of the construction that together they constitute. 5 Application of (27) thus results in a subconfiguration in which an element, /m/, is dependent on two others. Notice too that the /l/ is also susceptible to (16), so that we should substitute (28) for (26):

13 Structural analogy in language, and its limits (28) {V} | {C\{V}} {V} | | {C\{V}} {C\{V}\{C} {V} : : | : : {V} {cor,obs\{V}} : : | : : : {V/{C}} {C\{V}} : : : : | : : : : {C\{C}} {C\{V}} : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : k + l + a + m + p + s This again results in double-motherhood, or ambidependency, of the /l/ in this case. We return to the significance of this ‘maximisation’ of dependencies in §1.4. We can now finally return to the sonority sequencing discrepancies illustrated by (11.a), which are not restricted to English, but recur in different forms in sundry languages – frequently involving a /s/-type consonant: (11) a. sport, strip, squeeze The second two examples in (11.a) show an extra segment to the left compared with what we have considered so far, which have all involved two-member onsets. The /s/ therein and in the first example also does not satisfy sonority sequencing requirements and cannot be serialised thereby. Moreover, not only is the /s/ the only segment-type that can occur in this position, but also the set of consonants that can occur in the position following it is restricted to the minimal obstruents, representing neutralisations of /p/ ≠ /b/ etc – if we leave aside here the /sf/ sequence found in loan words like sphere and sphincter. I suggest that /s/ is another adjunct, but of a specific type. This emerges from the formulation in (29.a): (29) a. empty segment adjunction { },{ {p/t/k}} ⇒ {s},{|C|{p/t/k}}, & {s} ⇒ { \{|C|}}, both in the environment ___ ( {|V|} b. { },{ {p/t/k}} c. { },{ {p/t/k}},{ {l/r}} d. {s},{|C|{p/t/k}} e. {s},{|C|{p/t/k}},{V;C{l/r}} (29.b) and (c) give the contrastive, lexical specification for such two- and three-member onset combinations; And (29.d) and (e) fill in the redundant specifications in accordance with the first part of (29.a), ‘< >’ signals the optional presence of the liquids. In these representations, ‘s’ abbreviates the specification for /s/, ‘p/t/k’, within the inner brackets, abbreviates the secondary categorisation of /p/, /t/ and /k/, and ‘l/r’ abbreviates the secondary categorisation of /l/ and /r/. In the latter two instances, (29.d) and (e) fill in only the pri-

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