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Structural analogy in language and its limits [Contrast and analogy v.2]

Structural analogy in language and its limits [Contrast and analogy v.2]

John Anderson 68 (148)

John Anderson 68 (148) {N} | {P:N}\{N/{prt}}} {N/prt}} : | : { {prt}} : | : {N;P{erg}} : | : {P;N} : | : {P:N\{P;N}} {P;N/{abs,{erg}} : : : : : : : : { {abs}} : : : | : : : {N/{prt}} : : : | : : : {prt} : : : | : : : {N;P} : : : : : : : : : decrepit former physics students The circumstantial adjective in (148) corresponds to the adverb in (149): (149) They were formerly students As observed above, again in §2.2, the adjective in (67) is ambiguous between an attributive interpretation and a circumstantial/adjunct one: (67) a beautiful singer Such derivational relationships have important consequences for the syntax. The categorial incorporations involved are again a response to interface requirements, in this case the need to be able to provide an economical label for an entity in terms of a characteristic and relevant activity. This is one manifestation of the metonymic basis for many derivational relationships. It is also manifested in the verb-to-noun conversions sampled in (150) (ultimately from Clark & Clark 1979): (150) Some verb-to-noun conversions in English type examples agentive cook, spy resultative win, guess goal drop, dump patient smoke, drink actional run, climb, smoke

69 Structural analogy in language, and its limits In each of these ‘the label for an event is used for an entity which plays one of a set of roles in the event’ (Colman & Anderson in press). They also illustrate the importance of the functional category of functors for the description of derivational relationships. (The labels for the semantic relations involved are illustrative only, and do not embody claims about the theory of functoral secondary categories.) I do not pursue this here, however (but see e.g. Colman & Anderson in press, and references therein). But we can see the same impulse and the same semantic relations at work in the formation of denominal verbs in (151): (151) Some noun-to-verb conversions in English type examples locatum-based newspaper the shelves, rouge the cheeks goal-based pot the begonias, table, garage, field, ground, seat, can duration-based winter in California, overnight at the White House agent-based police the park, clown, soldier, butcher translative-based cripple the man, crumb the bread; the trail forked instrument-based bicycle, nail, knife In this case, ‘the label for an entity is used for an event in which the entity plays one of a set of semantic roles’ (Colman & Anderson in press). Such derivational relationships accommodate concepts to different ‘modes of signifying’. This rich patterning of derivational relationships is thus motivated by the requirements of the semantic interface, and is not manifested in the phonology, where there are no such requirements, and the invocation of derivational relationships between different phonological categories would indeed make nonsense of the perceptual basis of the categorial features. For the phonology such relationships are both unnecessary and not possible. Other derivational relationships can be seen as allowing for compact expression of complex scenes, scenes which contain other scenes as part of their structure. This is well illustrated by causative constructions such as that in (152.b), from Turkish, which is based derivationally on the intransitive in (a): (152) a. Hasan öl-dü Hasan die-past (‘Hasan died’) b. Ali Hasan-ı öl-dür-dü Ali Hasan-acc die-cause-past (‘Ali killed Hasan’) c. Kasap et-i kes-ti butcher meat-acc cut-past (‘The butcher cut the meat’) d. Hasan kasab-a et-i kes-tir-di Hasan butcher-dat meat-acc cut-cause-past (‘Hasan had the butcher cut the meat’) e. Ahmet Hasan-a et-i piş-ir-t-ti Ahmet Hasan-dat meat-acc cook-cause-cause-past (‘Ahmet made Hasan cook the meat’) (examples from Aissen 1979, Comrie 1985). (152.c) shows the causative of a transitive, (b); and (152.e) shows a causative of a causative (acc = accusative; dat = dative). No such representational requirements as are served by these derivational structures are evident

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