Views
5 years ago

The domain of semantic roles

The domain of semantic roles

4 The

4 The domain of semantic roles dying or growing, we have the Object; where there is a transfer or movement of something to a person, the receiver as destination is taken as the Goal” (1971a: 42). Many investigators follow Fillmore (1968) in recognizing also an Instrumental case relation, allegedly illustrated by both of (3): (3) a. The vandals dented the BMW with a hammer b. A hammer dented the BMW and some (cf. e.g. Fillmore 1971a: 9) a distinctive Path: (4) Heinz travelled through Celle Anderson (1971, 1977), however, rejects both of these last as case relations, as well as most of the others that have been proposed, in favour of a very restricted set. Much of this disagreement can be understood in terms of diverse interpretations of, and lack of attention to, the distributional and substantive constraints which case relations conform to. The need for these constraints as well as differences in their application can perhaps best be appreciated on the basis of an examination of a Case on whose validity most researchers seem to be agreed, the Agentive. We can provide Agentive, as “source of the action”, with a distinctive semantic definition, and we can associate phrases so defined with a distinctive distribution, particularly in relation to their role in the subject selection hierarchy, as the preferred subject. Occurrence of Agentive apparently correlates with other semantico-syntactic properties: zero-manifestation in imperatives (Kill Albert! etc.), adverbial selection: (5) a. Emma killed Albert in cold blood/deliberately b. *Albert died in cold blood/deliberately where interpretation of (b) requires some extension of our normal understanding of the argument-type demanded by die. Agentives are also, perhaps, “typically animate” (Fillmore 1968), even preferentially human, as in these examples; whereas the animacy of the Neutral is very much contingent on the particular predicator selected. Some phrases that share their basic distribution with Agentives like Emma in (5.a) are not human, or even animate, however: (6) a. Lightning killed Albert b. Albert was killed by lightning and lack many of the associated properties. This can perhaps be allowed for in terms of Fillmore’s description of the Agentive as “typically animate”; perhaps, to reformulate this somewhat, lightning in (6) is a non-central Agentive. But what of (7): (7) a. The poison killed Albert b. Albert was killed by the poison

John Anderson 5 and the like? For Fillmore (1968) the poison in (7) is an Instrumental, which in the presence of an Agentive is necessarily marked by with: (8) a. Emma killed Albert with the poison b. Albert was killed with the poison (by Emma) But the relation of the poison in (7.a) is in fact indeterminate, given Fillmore’s definitions (it could be either Agentive or Instrumental), or a non-existent ambiguity is predicted for its role in such a predication (cf. Dougherty 1970; Anderson 1977: section 1.7.3). One solution to this is to suggest that Instrumentals only ever occur with predicates that also take an Agentive (an instrument presupposes an agent), and are thus circumstantial (see section 5), and to regard the poison in (7) as Agentive: it is a non-central agent that we interpret as normally fitting (as an Instrument) into a frame or scene which includes an (unspecified) ultimate agent. Likewise, there is no distributional reason to recognize a distinct Force case (Huddleston 1970) associated with lightning in (6): volition and the capacity to wield an instrument are not necessarily to be attributed to non-central agentives. The fact that the poison in (7) and (8) is now interpreted as bearing two different semantic relations is analogous to the situation we associated with the “customer” role above: an entity bearing the same role, say “instrument”, in a “real-world” situation may be represented linguistically in different ways (cf. the “customer” of (1.a) and (2)), in this instance as Agentive or Instrumental. This kind of invariance of representation is not something that should be assumed. A similar position is argued for by Schlesinger 1995: ch.4. Similarly, it can be argued that though Fillmore (1971a: section 4) eliminates Result (or Factitive) uniformly in favour of Goal, a particular “result” situation again may be associated with different case structures. Thus, while it seems appropriate to associate his description of Result as “the end-result role of a thing which comes into existence as a result of the action identified by the predicator”, and thus as a Goal, with examples like (9): (9) I converted my impressions into a poem this is not the case (sic!) with the examples, like (10): (10) I wrote a poem which Fillmore himself cites as instantiating a Goal: the goal in (10) is the existing of a poem; a poem itself is more appropriately seen as a Neutral, it represents the entity which undergoes the action of being brought into existence, in the same way as in (11): (11) I destroyed a poem an entity is represented (as a Neutral) as being removed from existence, and is, of course, no more a Source than a poem is a Goal in (10). (9)-(11) represent

Interlinguas & Semantic Roles
Foundations of Semantic Web Chapter 4 - OWL
1403178628.0842A Glossary of Semantics and Pragmatics
Auto-inhibitory role of the EF-SAM domain of STIM proteins in store ...
Examples of ontologies in the biomedical domain
KAF: a generic semantic annotation format
Development of a Domain Specific, Controlled Vocabulary ... - VIVO
Semantically Federating Multi- Agent Organizations - IRIT
Frame Semantics, Constructions, and the FrameNet Lexical Database
Semantic Enrichment of Data from Literature - Glasgow DSpace ...
KAF: a generic semantic annotation format
Brokering Transfer Equity: The Role of Institutional Agents
Roles and Benefits of Financial Institutions in Sustainable Property ...
ICRMP Roles & Responsibilities 2012 - Idaho Association of ...
The role of ECB in relation to the modified EFSF and the future ESM
Two faces of trust : the roles of calculative and relational trust in work ...
Semantic Integration - Software Engineering Integration for Flexible ...
Roles and Benefits of Financial Institutions in Sustainable Property ...
The Soft Underbelly of System Change: The Roles of Leadership ...
New Roles for New Times: - Association of Research Libraries
Sugar's Functional Roles in Cooking & Food Preparation
role in overseeing compliance program effectiveness - Health Care ...
The Critical Role of Boards in Association resiliency - Floodplain ...
Who, other than the driver, has a role in reducing SPADs? - RSSB
The Roles of Inflammation and Oral Care in the ... - IneedCE.com
Childhood Obesity: The Role of Health Policy - Association of ...
Developing the role of school support staff - Department for Education
Semantic Roles and Grammatical Relations.