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Guenter Hilmer - Phd Thesis - Glamorgan Dspace - University of ...

Guenter Hilmer - Phd Thesis - Glamorgan Dspace - University of ...

Abstract The creation

Abstract The creation and development of educational hypermedia by teachers and educational staff is often limited by their lack of computing skills, time and support from the educational institutions. Especially the lack of com- puting skills is a hinderance to most of today’s educational experts. The problem is to find out how those educational experts could be supported by computer based tools which are tailored especially to their needs without having any technical limitations. In this study the separation of technical and educational content in ed- ucational hypermedia is examined as a solution to this problem. The main hypothesis of this study is that the separation of technical and educational content is possible if it is based on a fine-grained structure of different teach- ing and learning strategies and their conversion into an authoring tool. Such an authoring tool would make the creation of educational hypermedia very easy for teachers and therefore enable them to overcome the existing obsta- cles. The development of a new model, the creation of a new XML language and the implementation of a new authoring tool form the basis for a detailed investigation. The investigation was done by undertaking several research tasks like the evaluation of the XML language and the authoring tool by a group of educational experts of different knowledge domains, the practical usage of the authoring tool for the creation of real-life based educational material and the analysis of the gained research results. The analysis of the qualitative data showed that the separation of educa- tional and technical content in educational hypermedia is possible and that it can be applied by educational experts with low computing skills as well as by technical experts with no educational background. Furthermore, the analysis allowed some additional insights into the creation of educational material by teachers and how it can be improved. The main conclusion of this study is that authoring tools in educational hypermedia should use the separation of educational and technical content based on different teaching and learning strategies which allows educational experts with low computing skills to create educational content for delivery via the World Wide Web. 2

CONTENTS CONTENTS Contents 1 Introduction 19 1.1 Aim of project . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 1.2 Justification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 1.3 The two main domains of educational hypermedia . . . . . . . . . 20 1.4 Problem areas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 1.5 Approach . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 1.6 Research objective . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 2 Literature Review 25 2.1 Definition and history of e-learning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 2.1.1 Definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 2.1.2 History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 2.2 Forms of e-learning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 2.2.1 Computer Based Training . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 2.2.2 Web Based Training . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 2.2.3 Hypermedia Authoring Tools (HATs) . . . . . . . . . . . 29 2.2.4 Simulations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 2.2.5 Video conferencing / Teleteaching . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 2.2.6 Learning Management Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 2.2.7 Learning Content Management Systems . . . . . . . . . 33 2.2.8 Game based learning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 2.2.9 Blended learning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 2.2.10 Web based collaboration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 2.2.11 Microworlds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 2.2.12 Visualisations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 2.2.13 Learning communities and social learning . . . . . . . . . 36 2.3 Advantages and disadvantages of e-learning . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 2.3.1 Advantages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 3

  • Page 1: Separation of educational and techn
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  • Page 13 and 14: LIST OF TABLES LIST OF TABLES List
  • Page 15 and 16: List of Abbreviations ADL - Advance
  • Page 17 and 18: Declaration This work has not previ
  • Page 19 and 20: 1 Introduction 1.1 Aim of project 1
  • Page 21 and 22: 1.4 Problem areas 1 INTRODUCTION ea
  • Page 23 and 24: 1.5 Approach 1 INTRODUCTION Secondl
  • Page 25 and 26: 2 Literature Review 2 LITERATURE RE
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  • Page 45 and 46: 2.5 Educational research 2 LITERATU
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    2.7 E-learning and meta-data projec

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    2.7 E-learning and meta-data projec

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    2.8 Knowledge and learning objects

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    2.9 Project management and e-learni

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    2.9 Project management and e-learni

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    2.10 Reuse of material 2 LITERATURE

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    2.11 Adaptive Hypermedia System 2 L

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    2.11 Adaptive Hypermedia System 2 L

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    2.12 Technology 2 LITERATURE REVIEW

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    2.12 Technology 2 LITERATURE REVIEW

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    2.13 Research objectives 2 LITERATU

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    3.1 Theoretical approach 3 EFTECS p

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    3.1 Theoretical approach 3 EFTECS A

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    3.2 EFTECS at EM-Layer 3 EFTECS mat

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    3.3 EFTECS at TLS-Layer 3 EFTECS

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    3.3 EFTECS at TLS-Layer 3 EFTECS Fo

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    3.4 EFTECS at EHP-Layer 3 EFTECS 3.

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    3.4 EFTECS at EHP-Layer 3 EFTECS 3.

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    3.6 Common meta-information 3 EFTEC

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    3.8 The complete EFTECS 3 EFTECS 3.

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    3.9 The eXtensible Educational Mark

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    4.1 General approach 4 HEAT 4.1.1 T

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    4.1 General approach 4 HEAT the dif

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    4.2 EHP-Layer 4 HEAT 4.2.2 Technica

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    4.3 EHP-Information 4 HEAT 4.3 EHP-

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    4.4 TLS-Layer 4 HEAT 4.4 TLS-Layer

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    4.4 TLS-Layer 4 HEAT Element Type x

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    4.5 EM-Layer 4 HEAT The important f

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    4.6 Content space 4 HEAT It was def

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    4.7 Material delivery 4 HEAT concep

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    4.8 Detailed example 4 HEAT • Add

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    4.8 Detailed example 4 HEAT Figure

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    4.8 Detailed example 4 HEAT Figure

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    4.8 Detailed example 4 HEAT Figure

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    4.8 Detailed example 4 HEAT Figure

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    4.8 Detailed example 4 HEAT Figure

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    4.8 Detailed example 4 HEAT the aut

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    5 Evaluation methodology 5 EVALUATI

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    5.1 Analysis of alternative approac

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    5.2 Design of the interview evaluat

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    5.2 Design of the interview evaluat

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    5.2 Design of the interview evaluat

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    5.2 Design of the interview evaluat

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    5.2 Design of the interview evaluat

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    5.2 Design of the interview evaluat

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    5.3 Design of the practical evaluat

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    6 Interview evaluation 6 INTERVIEW

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    6.1 Analysis of the pre-test interv

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    6.1 Analysis of the pre-test interv

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    6.2 Analysis of the manual markup t

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    6.3 Analysis of the mid-test interv

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    6.3 Analysis of the mid-test interv

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    6.4 Analysis of the HEAT based mark

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    6.4 Analysis of the HEAT based mark

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    6.5 Analysis of the post-test inter

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    6.5 Analysis of the post-test inter

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    7 Practical evaluation 7 PRACTICAL

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    7.1 Design 7 PRACTICAL EVALUATION O

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    7.2 Existing material 7 PRACTICAL E

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    7.2 Existing material 7 PRACTICAL E

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    7.3 New material 7 PRACTICAL EVALUA

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    7.3 New material 7 PRACTICAL EVALUA

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    7.4 Summary 7 PRACTICAL EVALUATION

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    7.4 Summary 7 PRACTICAL EVALUATION

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    8 Discussion 8 DISCUSSION The insig

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    8.1 Review of the EFTECS 8 DISCUSSI

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    8.1 Review of the EFTECS 8 DISCUSSI

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    8.2 Review of the HEAT 8 DISCUSSION

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    8.2 Review of the HEAT 8 DISCUSSION

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    8.2 Review of the HEAT 8 DISCUSSION

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    8.3 Critique of the study 8 DISCUSS

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    9 Conclusions 9 CONCLUSIONS In this

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    9.1 Research objectives 9 CONCLUSIO

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    9.2 Future work 9 CONCLUSIONS 9.2 F

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    9.2 Future work 9 CONCLUSIONS Howev

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    9.2 Future work 9 CONCLUSIONS therm

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    9.3 Contribution to knowledge 9 CON

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    REFERENCES REFERENCES [10] Robert J

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    REFERENCES REFERENCES [30] Kendall

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    REFERENCES REFERENCES [49] Barbara

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    REFERENCES REFERENCES [68] A.W. Str

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    REFERENCES REFERENCES [88] Melanie

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    REFERENCES REFERENCES [110] The Dep

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    REFERENCES REFERENCES [131] David A

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    REFERENCES REFERENCES [151] Michael

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    REFERENCES REFERENCES [174] Allianc

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    A Appendices 225 A APPENDICES

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    A.1 Evaluation tasksheet A APPENDIC

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    A.1 Evaluation tasksheet A APPENDIC

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    A.1 Evaluation tasksheet A APPENDIC

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    A.1 Evaluation tasksheet A APPENDIC

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    A.1 Evaluation tasksheet A APPENDIC

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    A.1 Evaluation tasksheet A APPENDIC

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    A.1 Evaluation tasksheet A APPENDIC

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    A.1 Evaluation tasksheet A APPENDIC

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    A.2 Evaluation Worksheet A APPENDIC

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    A.3 Evaluation Interviews A APPENDI

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    A.4 Summary of interview results A

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    A.4 Summary of interview results A

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    A.4 Summary of interview results A

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    A.4 Summary of interview results A

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    A.4 Summary of interview results A

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    A.5 XSL-Documents A APPENDICES A.5

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    A.5 XSL-Documents A APPENDICES entr

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    A.5 XSL-Documents A APPENDICES docu

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    A.5 XSL-Documents A APPENDICES { i

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    A.5 XSL-Documents A APPENDICES } if

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    A.5 XSL-Documents A APPENDICES answ

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    A.5 XSL-Documents A APPENDICES A.5.

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    A.5 XSL-Documents A APPENDICES //no

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    A.5 XSL-Documents A APPENDICES

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    A.5 XSL-Documents A APPENDICES { al

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    A.5 XSL-Documents A APPENDICES { di

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    A.5 XSL-Documents A APPENDICES

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    A.5 XSL-Documents A APPENDICES d

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    A.5 XSL-Documents A APPENDICES

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    A.5 XSL-Documents A APPENDICES i

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    A.5 XSL-Documents A APPENDICES dr

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    A.5 XSL-Documents A APPENDICES A.5.

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    A.5 XSL-Documents A APPENDICES disp

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    A.5 XSL-Documents A APPENDICES } ]]

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    A.5 XSL-Documents A APPENDICES tls

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    A.6 XEML - eXtensible Educational M

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    A.7 Contents of CD A APPENDICES A.7

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