Bonus: Terrorism

Bonus: Terrorism


Terrorism Defined

Use of violence (terror) to achieve a

political or idealistic objective

Modern Terrorism

• Robespierre

• Marx & Engle

• Georges Sorel

• Russian Aarchists

• American Contemporary

• Johnny Most

• Russian Revolution

• Vladimir Ilyich Lenin

• Lev Davidovich Trotsky

Modern Terrorism

• Joseph Stalin

• Nikita Khrushchev

• Leonid Breshnev

• Adolph Hitler

• Mao Tse Tung

• Ernesto Che Guevara

• Carlos Marighella

• Irish Republican Army

• Japanese Red Army

• Palestinian Liberation Army

• Red Brigades

• Khmer Rouge

• Al Qada

Father of Terrorism

"...and never heads enough..."

Domestic carnage, now filled the whole year

With feast-days, old men from the chimney-nook,

The maiden from the busom of her love,

The mother from the cradle of her babe,

The warrior from the field - all perished, all-

Friends, enemies, of all parties, ages, ranks,

Head after head, and never heads enough

For those that bade them fall.

Marie Isidore de Maximillien Robespierre

William Wordsworth

Robespierre's Malevolent


Terror as "Justice"

"Terror is nought but prompt,

severe, inflexible justice; it is

therefore an emanation of

virtue; it is less a particular

principle than a consequence

of the general principle of

democracy applied to the

most pressing needs of the


Maximillien Marie Isidore de Robespierre

Address, National Convention, 1794

"Robespierre, with his cruel moral relativism,

embodied the cardinal sin of all revolution, the hearlessness of


Paul Johnson

"The Spectator"

"He [the revolutionary] is damned always to do that which is most

repugnant to him: to become a slaughterer, to sacrifice lambs so

that no more lambs may be slaughtered, to whip people with

knouts so that they may learn not to let themselves by whipped,

to strip himself of every scruple in the name of a higher

scrupulousness, and to challenge the hatred of mankind

because of his love for it _ an abstract and geometric love."

Arthur Koestler

"Darkness at Noon"

"The French Revolution had opened an era of intense

politicization. Perhaps the most significant characteristic of the

dawning modern world, and in this respect it was a true child of

Rousseau, was the tendency to relate everything to politics. In

Latin America, every would_be plunderer or ambitious bandit

now called himself a "a liberator"; murderers killed for freedom,

thieves stole for the people."

Paul Johnson

"Modern Times"

"What we learn from the study of the Great [French] Revolution is

that it was the source of all the present communist, anarchist

and socialist conceptions."

Prince Petr Kropotkin

Russian naturalist, author and soldier

writing in 1909 on the eve of the Bolshevik Revolution


•1 st organized use of terror

• 3 Key Factors

– Systemized violence (guillotine)

– Violence legitimized by use of the state’s


– Creation of intense fear throughout all the



• RED TERROR – revolution

• WHITE TERROR – used against

terrorists not upon the masses

Robespierre fell victim to white terror. Fell

from political power and was beheaded

Marx & Engle

• Free the masses

• Establish government by the people

• Human progress not from love & harmony but

through brutal struggle

• Improved on Robespierre – don’t overuse the


• Wanted to free the masses, but they were

scum an of no use in the revolution

Georges Sorel

• Accepted man’s impulse for violence

• Use it for the good of mankind

• Organized strikes – no hatred,

vengeance nor executions

Russian Anarchists

• Nechayev – impressed with attitudes of

ruthlessness – freely engaged in murder

• Pyotr Tkachev – wanted to overthrow

government via revolution. Felt

everyone over 25 would have to die

• Mikhail Bakunin – clashed with Marx;

saw great value in using the masses

Russian Anarchists

The anarchists of this era were successful to a

point in that they occasionally were able to

bomb their targets and were able to murder

on Tsar. But their biggest downfall was that

they were like a pack of dogs nipping at the

heels of the empire and lacked the

organization to rise up and strike the fatal

blow to the head. That blow being the

involvement of the masses of people which

were necessary to overthrow the Tsarist


American Contemporary

• Rule of mobs

– Mormon persecutions

– KuKluxKlan

– Cattlemen vs. Sheepmen

• Robin Hood Syndrome

• Labor Strikes

Johnny Most

• From school of Russian Anarchists

• Organized “International Working

People’s Association”

• Haymaker Riot

Russian Revolution

People revolted over Russian involvement

in war. The war had taken all of the

soldiers and only fresh recruits were left

who quickly joined with the mob as did

the Cossacks

Vladimir Ilyich Lenin

• Seized power quickly

during the

Russian Revolution

• First to use “meat

choppers” – Secret Police

• Capitalism was itself

violent, thus violence was

the only proper counterviolence

• Issued orders to followers

to exterminate groups and

individuals who refused to


Lev Davidovich Trotsky

• Lenin’s hatchet man

• Had own followers

• Felt Lenin betrayed the cause- freeing

the masses

• Lenin merely erected a new state of


Joseph Stalin

• Not Lenin’s choice as replacement, but too

powerful to stop

• In power in last third of Revolution

–1 st : Take-over and civil war

–2 nd : 1921-1928, executions and start of

concentration camps

–3 rd : 1929-1953, Stalin credited with millions of

deaths during this time

Joseph Stalin

• Took name after escape from exile in

Siberia and Joining Bolsheviks

• Means “man of steel”

• Upon joining Lenin’s inner circle began

to put his loyal people in key places

• Lenin could not stop is takeover of


Joseph Stalin

• “one death may be a tragedy, but

millions of deaths are only statistics”

• Used Secret Police “better”

– To remove actual or potential enemies

– To intimidate the remainder population

– Secure manpower for work projects

Nikita Khrushchev

• Came to power in 1953

• People at end of rope and

relaxed the previous


• Abolished the absolute

right of secret police to

execute persons without


• Abolished “troika” 3-man

tribunal that passed

judgment with or without

person present

Leonid Breshnev

• Brought back

stronger repression

Soviet Terror

• 1917-1953

– 40-50 million humans passed through Soviet jails

and slave camps

– 15-24 million were executed

• Source: Alexander Solzhenitsyn

• 1937-1938 8,500,000 people (5% of the

Soviet population) were arrested. Most went

to slave camps where mortality rate was 20%

Adolph Hitler

• Storm Troopers

• Gestapo / Secret


• Brown Terror

• Control of media

• KAPO’s

Mao Tse Tung

Three Modern Innovations

1 st : Destruction of family bonds

2 nd : Mass public trials and


3 rd : No attempt made to conceal the

numbers of persons butchered

by the regime

Chinese Terror

15,000,000-25,000,000 lives

• 1 st Civil War 1927-1936 250,000-500,000 lives

• Sino-Japanese War 50,000 lives

• 2 nd Civil War 1945-1949 1,250,000 lives

• Land reform prior to 1949 500,000-1,000,000 lives

• Political Liquidation 1949-1959 15,000,000-30,000,000 lives

• Korean War 500,000-1,234,000 lives

• Drive for Communes (the Great Leap Forward)

1,000,000-2,000,000 lives

• Campaigns against minority nationalities

500,000-1,000,000 lives

• Cultural Revolution 1965-1969 and aftermath

250,000-500,000 lives

• Death in forced labor camps and frontier developments

Chinese Terror


34,300,000 to 63,794,000 LIVES

Khmer Rouge

The Cambodian genocide of

1975-1979, in which

approximately 1.7 million

people lost their lives (21% of

the country's population), was one

of the worst human tragedies of the last

century. As in Nazi Germany, the Khmer

Rouge regime headed by Pol Pot combined

extremist ideology with ethnic animosity and

a diabolical disregard for human life to

produce repression, misery, and murder on

a massive scale.

Khmer Rouge

Photograph ©2000 Stuart Isett/Corbis Sygma

Duch, head of the Tuol Sleng prison complex, was a former schoolteacher named Kang Kech Eav.

Duch oversaw a precise department of death. His guards dutifully photographed the prisoners upon

arrival and photgraphed them at or near death, whether their throats were slit, their bodies

otherwise mutilated, or so thin from torture and near starvation that they were beyond

recognition. The photographs were part of the files to prove the enemies of the state had been

killed. Duch even set aside specific days for killing various types of prisoners: one day the wives

of "enemies"; another day the children; a different day, factory workers."

--Elizabeth Becker, When the War Was Over

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