ATLAS of reconstructed Late Palaeozoic climate

geo.tu.freiberg.de

ATLAS of reconstructed Late Palaeozoic climate

ATLAS

of

reconstructed Late Palaeozoic climate

This Atlas provides the graphics for the PhD thesis “Environmental reconstruction of the Late Palaeozoic; Numeric modelling and geological evidences“.

Marco Roscher


Table of content

Atlas Figure 1: Permo-Carboniferous palaeoclimate indicators and their temporal relation reproducing a ~8 Ma orbital cycle ................................................................................. 15

Atlas Figure 2: Definition of solar climate zones due to the Lauer & Frankenberg climate classification ................................................................................................................... 16

Atlas Figure 3: Distribution of modelled climates on a recent Earth, described by simplified Köppen & Geiger climate classification ..................................................................... 17

Atlas Figure 4: Palaeogeography of the Middle Mississippian and the conversion for the numeric model grid .......................................................................................................... 18

Atlas Figure 5: Palaeotopography of the Middle Mississippian ................................................................................................................................................................................... 19

Atlas Figure 6: Palaeogeography at the mid Carboniferous boundary and the conversion for the numeric model grid ............................................................................................... 20

Atlas Figure 7: Palaeotopography at the mid Carboniferous boundary ........................................................................................................................................................................ 21

Atlas Figure 8: Palaeogeography at the Carboniferous Permian boundary and the conversion for the numeric model grid ........................................................................................ 22

Atlas Figure 9: Palaeotopography at the Carboniferous Permian boundary ................................................................................................................................................................. 23

Atlas Figure 10: Palaeogeography of the Early Permian and the conversion for the numeric model grid ................................................................................................................... 24

Atlas Figure 11: Palaeotopography of the Early Permian ............................................................................................................................................................................................. 25

Atlas Figure 12: Palaeogeography of the Middle Permian and the conversion for the numeric model grid ................................................................................................................ 26

Atlas Figure 13: Palaeotopography of the Middle Permian .......................................................................................................................................................................................... 27

Atlas Figure 14: Palaeogeography of the Late Permian and the conversion for the numeric model grid ..................................................................................................................... 28

Atlas Figure 15: Palaeotopography of the Late Permian .............................................................................................................................................................................................. 29

Atlas Figure 16: Holdridge life zonation diagram ........................................................................................................................................................................................................ 30

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Atlas Figure 17: Simplified Köppen & Geiger climate classification of the Middle Mississippian and the annual mean wind speed (in m/s) and direction ..................................... 31

Atlas Figure 18: Simplified Lauer & Frankenberg climate classification of the Middle Mississippian and annual mean wind speed (in m/s) and direction ..................................... 32

Atlas Figure 19: Regional splitting for the Holdridge life zonation diagram investigations in the Middle Mississippian ........................................................................................... 33

Atlas Figure 20: Holdridge life zonation diagram of the Middle Mississippian ........................................................................................................................................................... 34

Atlas Figure 21: Swamp probability map (colour-coded percentages) and modelled forest cover > 0.75 (dashed line) in the Middle Mississippian ................................................. 35

Atlas Figure 22: Multi-year annual sum precipitation in mm and annual mean wind speed (in m/s) and direction in the Middle Mississippian ........................................................ 36

Atlas Figure 23: Multi-year seasonal sum precipitation in mm and seasonal mean wind speed (in m/s) and direction for northern winter (DJF) in the Middle Mississippian ........ 37

Atlas Figure 24: Multi-year seasonal sum precipitation in mm and seasonal mean wind speed (in m/s) and direction for northern spring (MAM) in the Middle Mississippian ..... 38

Atlas Figure 25: Multi-year seasonal sum precipitation in mm and seasonal mean wind speed (in m/s) and direction for northern summer (JJA) in the Middle Mississippian ...... 39

Atlas Figure 26: Multi-year seasonal sum precipitation in mm and seasonal mean wind speed (in m/s) and direction for northern autumn (SON) in the Middle Mississippian ..... 40

Atlas Figure 27: Multi-year annual mean temperature in °C in the Middle Mississippian ........................................................................................................................................... 41

Atlas Figure 28: Multi-year seasonal mean temperature in °C and seasonal mean wind speed (in m/s) and direction in the Middle Mississippian for the northern winter (DJF).... 42

Atlas Figure 29: Multi-year seasonal mean temperature in °C and seasonal mean wind speed (in m/s) and direction in the Middle Mississippian for the northern spring (MAM). 43

Atlas Figure 30: Multi-year seasonal mean temperature in °C and seasonal mean wind speed (in m/s) and direction in the Middle Mississippian for the northern summer (JJA).. 44

Atlas Figure 31: Multi-year seasonal mean temperature in °C and seasonal mean wind speed (in m/s) and direction in the Middle Mississippian for the northern autumn (SON). 45

Atlas Figure 32: Multi-year annual mean soiltemperature in °C at a depth of 9.3 m in the Middle Mississippian ...................................................................................................... 46

Atlas Figure 33: Multi-year average maximum difference between warmest and coldest month in the Middle Mississippian ................................................................................... 47

Atlas Figure 34: Multi-year annual maximum wind speed in m/s and its direction in the Middle Mississippian ........................................................................................................ 48

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Atlas Figure 35: Multi-year seasonal mean vegetation cover in the Middle Mississippian northern winter (DJF) (fract. 1= fully covered) and forest cover > 0.75 (dashed line) ... 49

Atlas Figure 36: Multi-year seasonal mean vegetation cover in the Middle Mississippian northern spring (MAM) (fract. 1= fully covered) and forest cover > 0.75 (dashed line) 50

Atlas Figure 37: Multi-year seasonal mean vegetation cover in the Middle Mississippian northern summer (JJA) (fract. 1= fully covered) and forest cover > 0.75 (dashed line) . 51

Atlas Figure 38: Multi-year seasonal mean vegetation cover in the Middle Mississippian northern autumn (SON) (fract. 1= fully covered) and forest cover > 0.75 (dashed line) 52

Atlas Figure 39: Multi-year seasonal mean snow height in m in the Middle Mississippian northern winter (DJF)..................................................................................................... 53

Atlas Figure 40: Multi-year seasonal mean snow height in m in the Middle Mississippian northern spring (MAM).................................................................................................. 54

Atlas Figure 41: Multi-year seasonal mean snow height in m in the Middle Mississippian northern summer (JJA)................................................................................................... 55

Atlas Figure 42: Multi-year seasonal mean snow height in m in the Middle Mississippian northern autumn (SON).................................................................................................. 56

Atlas Figure 43: Multi-year seasonal mean sea-ice thickness in m in the Middle Mississippian northern winter (DJF) ............................................................................................. 57

Atlas Figure 44: Multi-year seasonal mean sea-ice thickness in m in the Middle Mississippian northern spring (MAM) .......................................................................................... 58

Atlas Figure 45: Multi-year seasonal mean sea-ice thickness in m in the Middle Mississippian northern summer (JJA) ........................................................................................... 59

Atlas Figure 46: Multi-year seasonal mean sea-ice thickness in m in the Middle Mississippian northern autumn (SON) .......................................................................................... 60

Atlas Figure 47: Simplified Köppen & Geiger climate classification at the mid Carboniferous boundary and the annual mean wind speed (in m/s) and direction .......................... 61

Atlas Figure 48: Simplified Lauer & Frankenberg climate classification at the mid Carboniferous boundary and annual mean wind speed (in m/s) and direction .......................... 62

Atlas Figure 49: Regional splitting for the Holdridge life zonation diagram investigations at the mid Carboniferous boundary ................................................................................ 63

Atlas Figure 50: Holdridge life zonation diagram at the mid Carboniferous boundary ................................................................................................................................................ 64

Atlas Figure 51: Swamp probability map (colour-coded percentages) and modelled forest cover > 0.75 (dashed line) at the mid Carboniferous boundary ..................................... 65

Atlas Figure 52: Multi-year annual sum precipitation in mm and annual mean wind speed (in m/s) and direction at the mid Carboniferous boundary ............................................ 66

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Atlas Figure 53: Multi-year seasonal sum precipitation in mm and seasonal mean wind speed (in m/s) and direction for northern winter (DJF) at the mid Carboniferous boundary

...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 67

Atlas Figure 54: Multi-year seasonal sum precipitation in mm and seasonal mean wind speed (in m/s) and direction for northern spring (MAM) at the mid Carboniferous

boundary ....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 68

Atlas Figure 55: Multi-year seasonal sum precipitation in mm and seasonal mean wind speed (in m/s) and direction for northern summer (JJA) at the mid Carboniferous boundary

...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 69

Atlas Figure 56: Multi-year seasonal sum precipitation in mm and seasonal mean wind speed (in m/s) and direction for northern autumn (SON) at the mid Carboniferous

boundary ....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 70

Atlas Figure 57: Multi-year annual mean temperature in °C at the mid Carboniferous boundary ............................................................................................................................... 71

Atlas Figure 58: Multi-year seasonal mean temperature in °C and seasonal mean wind speed (in m/s) and direction at the mid Carboniferous boundary for the northern winter

(DJF)............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 72

Atlas Figure 59: Multi-year seasonal mean temperature in °C and seasonal mean wind speed (in m/s) and direction at the mid Carboniferous boundary for the northern spring

(MAM) ......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 73

Atlas Figure 60: Multi-year seasonal mean temperature in °C and seasonal mean wind speed (in m/s) and direction at the mid Carboniferous boundary for the northern summer

(JJA) ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 74

Atlas Figure 61: Multi-year seasonal mean temperature in °C and seasonal mean wind speed (in m/s) and direction at the mid Carboniferous boundary for the northern autumn

(SON) ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 75

Atlas Figure 62: Multi-year annual mean soiltemperature in °C at a depth of 9.3 m at the mid Carboniferous boundary ........................................................................................... 76

Atlas Figure 63: Multi-year average maximum difference between warmest and coldest month at the mid Carboniferous boundary ........................................................................ 77

Atlas Figure 64: Multi-year annual maximum wind speed in m/s and its direction at the mid Carboniferous boundary ............................................................................................. 78

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Atlas Figure 65: Multi-year seasonal mean vegetation cover at the mid Carboniferous boundary northern winter (DJF) (fract. 1= fully covered) and forest cover > 0.75 (dashed

line) ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 79

Atlas Figure 66: Multi-year seasonal mean vegetation cover at the mid Carboniferous boundary northern spring (MAM) (fract. 1= fully covered) and forest cover > 0.75 (dashed

line) ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 80

Atlas Figure 67: Multi-year seasonal mean vegetation cover at the mid Carboniferous boundary northern summer (JJA) (fract. 1= fully covered) and forest cover > 0.75 (dashed

line) ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 81

Atlas Figure 68: Multi-year seasonal mean vegetation cover at the mid Carboniferous boundary northern autumn (SON) (fract. 1= fully covered) and forest cover > 0.75 (dashed

line) ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 82

Atlas Figure 69: Multi-year seasonal mean snow height in m at the mid Carboniferous boundary northern winter (DJF) ......................................................................................... 83

Atlas Figure 70: Multi-year seasonal mean snow height in m at the mid Carboniferous boundary northern spring (MAM) ...................................................................................... 84

Atlas Figure 71: Multi-year seasonal mean snow height in m at the mid Carboniferous boundary northern summer (JJA) ....................................................................................... 85

Atlas Figure 72: Multi-year seasonal mean snow height in m at the mid Carboniferous boundary northern autumn (SON) ...................................................................................... 86

Atlas Figure 73: Multi-year seasonal mean sea-ice thickness in m at the mid Carboniferous boundary northern winter (DJF) .................................................................................. 87

Atlas Figure 74: Multi-year seasonal mean sea-ice thickness in m at the mid Carboniferous boundary northern spring (MAM)............................................................................... 88

Atlas Figure 75: Multi-year seasonal mean sea-ice thickness in m at the mid Carboniferous boundary northern summer (JJA) ................................................................................ 89

Atlas Figure 76: Multi-year seasonal mean sea-ice thickness in m at the mid Carboniferous boundary northern autumn (SON)............................................................................... 90

Atlas Figure 77: Simplified Köppen & Geiger climate classification at the Carboniferous Permian boundary and the annual mean wind speed (in m/s) and direction ................... 91

Atlas Figure 78: Simplified Lauer & Frankenberg climate classification at the Carboniferous Permian boundary and annual mean wind speed (in m/s) and direction ................... 92

Atlas Figure 79: Regional splitting for the Holdridge life zonation diagram investigations at the Carboniferous Permian boundary ......................................................................... 93

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Atlas Figure 80: Holdridge life zonation diagram at the Carboniferous Permian boundary ......................................................................................................................................... 94

Atlas Figure 81: Swamp probability map (colour-coded percentages) and modelled forest cover > 0.75 (dashed line) at the Carboniferous Permian boundary .............................. 95

Atlas Figure 82: Multi-year annual sum precipitation in mm and annual mean wind speed (in m/s) and direction at the Carboniferous Permian boundary ..................................... 96

Atlas Figure 83: Multi-year seasonal sum precipitation in mm and seasonal mean wind speed (in m/s) and direction for northern winter (DJF) at the Carboniferous Permian

boundary ....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 97

Atlas Figure 84: Multi-year seasonal sum precipitation in mm and seasonal mean wind speed (in m/s) and direction for northern spring (MAM) at the Carboniferous Permian

boundary ....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 98

Atlas Figure 85: Multi-year seasonal sum precipitation in mm and seasonal mean wind speed (in m/s) and direction for northern summer (JJA) at the Carboniferous Permian

boundary ....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 99

Atlas Figure 86: Multi-year seasonal sum precipitation in mm and seasonal mean wind speed (in m/s) and direction for northern autumn (SON) at the Carboniferous Permian

boundary ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 100

Atlas Figure 87: Multi-year annual mean temperature in °C at the Carboniferous Permian boundary ...................................................................................................................... 101

Atlas Figure 88: Multi-year seasonal mean temperature in °C and seasonal mean wind speed (in m/s) and direction at the Carboniferous Permian boundary for the northern winter

(DJF)........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 102

Atlas Figure 89: Multi-year seasonal mean temperature in °C and seasonal mean wind speed (in m/s) and direction at the Carboniferous Permian boundary for the northern spring

(MAM) ....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 103

Atlas Figure 90: Multi-year seasonal mean temperature in °C and seasonal mean wind speed (in m/s) and direction at the Carboniferous Permian boundary for the northern

summer (JJA).............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 104

Atlas Figure 91: Multi-year seasonal mean temperature in °C and seasonal mean wind speed (in m/s) and direction at the Carboniferous Permian boundary for the northern

autumn (SON)............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 105

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Atlas Figure 92: Multi-year annual mean soiltemperature in °C at a depth of 9.3 m at the Carboniferous Permian boundary .................................................................................. 106

Atlas Figure 93: Multi-year average maximum difference between warmest and coldest month at the Carboniferous Permian boundary .............................................................. 107

Atlas Figure 94: Multi-year annual maximum wind speed in m/s and its direction at the Carboniferous Permian boundary .................................................................................... 108

Atlas Figure 95: Multi-year seasonal mean vegetation cover at the Carboniferous Permian boundary northern winter (DJF) (fract. 1= fully covered) and forest cover > 0.75

(dashed line) ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 109

Atlas Figure 96: Multi-year seasonal mean vegetation cover at the Carboniferous Permian boundary northern spring (MAM) (fract. 1= fully covered) and forest cover > 0.75

(dashed line) ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 110

Atlas Figure 97: Multi-year seasonal mean vegetation cover at the Carboniferous Permian boundary northern summer (JJA) (fract. 1= fully covered) and forest cover > 0.75

(dashed line) ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 111

Atlas Figure 98: Multi-year seasonal mean vegetation cover at the Carboniferous Permian boundary northern autumn (SON) (fract. 1= fully covered) and forest cover > 0.75

(dashed line) ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 112

Atlas Figure 99: Multi-year seasonal mean snow height in m at the Carboniferous Permian boundary northern winter (DJF) ................................................................................ 113

Atlas Figure 100: Multi-year seasonal mean snow height in m at the Carboniferous Permian boundary northern spring (MAM) ........................................................................... 114

Atlas Figure 101: Multi-year seasonal mean snow height in m at the Carboniferous Permian boundary northern summer (JJA) ............................................................................ 115

Atlas Figure 102: Multi-year seasonal mean snow height in m at the Carboniferous Permian boundary northern autumn (SON) ........................................................................... 116

Atlas Figure 103: Multi-year seasonal mean sea-ice thickness in m at the Carboniferous Permian boundary northern winter (DJF)....................................................................... 117

Atlas Figure 104: Multi-year seasonal mean sea-ice thickness in m at the Carboniferous Permian boundary northern spring (MAM).................................................................... 118

Atlas Figure 105: Multi-year seasonal mean sea-ice thickness in m at the Carboniferous Permian boundary northern summer (JJA)..................................................................... 119

Atlas Figure 106: Multi-year seasonal mean sea-ice thickness in m at the Carboniferous Permian boundary northern autumn (SON).................................................................... 120

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Atlas Figure 107: Simplified Köppen & Geiger climate classification of the Early Permian and the annual mean wind speed (in m/s) and direction ............................................. 121

Atlas Figure 108: Simplified Lauer & Frankenberg climate classification of the Early Permian and annual mean wind speed (in m/s) and direction............................................. 122

Atlas Figure 109: Regional splitting for the Holdridge life zonation diagram investigations in the Early Permian ................................................................................................... 123

Atlas Figure 110: Holdridge life zonation diagram of the Early Permian .................................................................................................................................................................. 124

Atlas Figure 111: Swamp probability map (colour-coded percentages) and modelled forest cover > 0.75 (dashed line) in the Early Permian ........................................................ 125

Atlas Figure 112: Multi-year annual sum precipitation in mm and annual mean wind speed (in m/s) and direction in the Early Permian ............................................................... 126

Atlas Figure 113: Multi-year seasonal sum precipitation in mm and seasonal mean wind speed (in m/s) and direction for northern winter (DJF) in the Early Permian ................ 127

Atlas Figure 114: Multi-year seasonal sum precipitation in mm and seasonal mean wind speed (in m/s) and direction for northern spring (MAM) in the Early Permian ............. 128

Atlas Figure 115: Multi-year seasonal sum precipitation in mm and seasonal mean wind speed (in m/s) and direction for northern summer (JJA) in the Early Permian .............. 129

Atlas Figure 116: Multi-year seasonal sum precipitation in mm and seasonal mean wind speed (in m/s) and direction for northern autumn (SON) in the Early Permian ............. 130

Atlas Figure 117: Multi-year annual mean temperature in °C in the Early Permian .................................................................................................................................................. 131

Atlas Figure 118: Multi-year seasonal mean temperature in °C and seasonal mean wind speed (in m/s) and direction in the Early Permian for the northern winter (DJF) ........... 132

Atlas Figure 119: Multi-year seasonal mean temperature in °C and seasonal mean wind speed (in m/s) and direction in the Early Permian for the northern spring (MAM)........ 133

Atlas Figure 120: Multi-year seasonal mean temperature in °C and seasonal mean wind speed (in m/s) and direction in the Early Permian for the northern summer (JJA) ......... 134

Atlas Figure 121: Multi-year seasonal mean temperature in °C and seasonal mean wind speed (in m/s) and direction in the Early Permian for the northern autumn (SON)........ 135

Atlas Figure 122: Multi-year annual mean soiltemperature in °C at a depth of 9.3 m in the Early Permian .............................................................................................................. 136

Atlas Figure 123: Multi-year average maximum difference between warmest and coldest month in the Early Permian .......................................................................................... 137

Atlas Figure 124: Multi-year annual maximum wind speed in m/s and its direction in the Early Permian ................................................................................................................ 138

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Atlas Figure 125: Multi-year seasonal mean vegetation cover in the Early Permian northern winter (DJF) (fract. 1= fully covered) and forest cover > 0.75 (dashed line) ........... 139

Atlas Figure 126: Multi-year seasonal mean vegetation cover in the Early Permian northern spring (MAM) (fract. 1= fully covered) and forest cover > 0.75 (dashed line) ........ 140

Atlas Figure 127: Multi-year seasonal mean vegetation cover in the Early Permian northern summer (JJA) (fract. 1= fully covered) and forest cover > 0.75 (dashed line) ......... 141

Atlas Figure 128: Multi-year seasonal mean vegetation cover in the Early Permian northern autumn (SON) (fract. 1= fully covered) and forest cover > 0.75 (dashed line) ........ 142

Atlas Figure 129: Multi-year seasonal mean snow height in m in the Early Permian northern winter (DJF) ............................................................................................................ 143

Atlas Figure 130: Multi-year seasonal mean snow height in m in the Early Permian northern spring (MAM) ......................................................................................................... 144

Atlas Figure 131: Multi-year seasonal mean snow height in m in the Early Permian northern summer (JJA) .......................................................................................................... 145

Atlas Figure 132: Multi-year seasonal mean snow height in m in the Early Permian northern autumn (SON) ......................................................................................................... 146

Atlas Figure 133: Multi-year seasonal mean sea-ice thickness in m in the Early Permian northern winter (DJF)..................................................................................................... 147

Atlas Figure 134: Multi-year seasonal mean sea-ice thickness in m in the Early Permian northern spring (MAM).................................................................................................. 148

Atlas Figure 135: Multi-year seasonal mean sea-ice thickness in m in the Early Permian northern summer (JJA)................................................................................................... 149

Atlas Figure 136: Multi-year seasonal mean sea-ice thickness in m in the Early Permian northern autumn (SON).................................................................................................. 150

Atlas Figure 137: Simplified Köppen & Geiger climate classification of the Middle Permian and the annual mean wind speed (in m/s) and direction .......................................... 151

Atlas Figure 138: Simplified Lauer & Frankenberg climate classification of the Middle Permian and annual mean wind speed (in m/s) and direction .......................................... 152

Atlas Figure 139: Regional splitting for the Holdridge life zonation diagram investigations in the Middle Permian ................................................................................................ 153

Atlas Figure 140: Holdridge life zonation diagram of the Middle Permian ............................................................................................................................................................... 154

Atlas Figure 141: Swamp probability map (colour-coded percentages) and modelled forest cover > 0.75 (dashed line) in the Middle Permian ..................................................... 155

Atlas Figure 142: Multi-year annual sum precipitation in mm and annual mean wind speed (in m/s) and direction in the Middle Permian ............................................................ 156

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Atlas Figure 143: Multi-year seasonal sum precipitation in mm and seasonal mean wind speed (in m/s) and direction for northern winter (DJF) in the Middle Permian ............. 157

Atlas Figure 144: Multi-year seasonal sum precipitation in mm and seasonal mean wind speed (in m/s) and direction for northern spring (MAM) in the Middle Permian .......... 158

Atlas Figure 145: Multi-year seasonal sum precipitation in mm and seasonal mean wind speed (in m/s) and direction for northern summer (JJA) in the Middle Permian ........... 159

Atlas Figure 146: Multi-year seasonal sum precipitation in mm and seasonal mean wind speed (in m/s) and direction for northern autumn (SON) in the Middle Permian .......... 160

Atlas Figure 147: Multi-year annual mean temperature in °C in the Middle Permian ............................................................................................................................................... 161

Atlas Figure 148: Multi-year seasonal mean temperature in °C and seasonal mean wind speed (in m/s) and direction in the Middle Permian for the northern winter (DJF) ........ 162

Atlas Figure 149: Multi-year seasonal mean temperature in °C and seasonal mean wind speed (in m/s) and direction in the Middle Permian for the northern spring (MAM) ..... 163

Atlas Figure 150: Multi-year seasonal mean temperature in °C and seasonal mean wind speed (in m/s) and direction in the Middle Permian for the northern summer (JJA) ...... 164

Atlas Figure 151: Multi-year seasonal mean temperature in °C and seasonal mean wind speed (in m/s) and direction in the Middle Permian for the northern autumn (SON) ..... 165

Atlas Figure 152: Multi-year annual mean soiltemperature in °C at a depth of 9.3 m in the Middle Permian ........................................................................................................... 166

Atlas Figure 153: Multi-year average maximum difference between warmest and coldest month in the Middle Permian........................................................................................ 167

Atlas Figure 154: Multi-year annual maximum wind speed in m/s and its direction in the Middle Permian ............................................................................................................. 168

Atlas Figure 155: Multi-year seasonal mean vegetation cover in the Middle Permian northern winter (DJF) (fract. 1= fully covered) and forest cover > 0.75 (dashed line) ........ 169

Atlas Figure 156: Multi-year seasonal mean vegetation cover in the Middle Permian northern spring (MAM) (fract. 1= fully covered) and forest cover > 0.75 (dashed line) ..... 170

Atlas Figure 157: Multi-year seasonal mean vegetation cover in the Middle Permian northern summer (JJA) (fract. 1= fully covered) and forest cover > 0.75 (dashed line) ...... 171

Atlas Figure 158: Multi-year seasonal mean vegetation cover in the Middle Permian northern autumn (SON) (fract. 1= fully covered) and forest cover > 0.75 (dashed line) ..... 172

Atlas Figure 159: Multi-year seasonal mean snow height in m in the Middle Permian northern winter (DJF) ......................................................................................................... 173

Atlas Figure 160: Multi-year seasonal mean snow height in m in the Middle Permian northern spring (MAM) ...................................................................................................... 174

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Atlas Figure 161: Multi-year seasonal mean snow height in m in the Middle Permian northern summer (JJA) ....................................................................................................... 175

Atlas Figure 162: Multi-year seasonal mean snow height in m in the Middle Permian northern autumn (SON) ...................................................................................................... 176

Atlas Figure 163: Multi-year seasonal mean sea-ice thickness in m in the Middle Permian northern winter (DJF).................................................................................................. 177

Atlas Figure 164: Multi-year seasonal mean sea-ice thickness in m in the Middle Permian northern spring (MAM)............................................................................................... 178

Atlas Figure 165: Multi-year seasonal mean sea-ice thickness in m in the Middle Permian northern summer (JJA)................................................................................................ 179

Atlas Figure 166: Multi-year seasonal mean sea-ice thickness in m in the Middle Permian northern autumn (SON)............................................................................................... 180

Atlas Figure 167: Simplified Köppen & Geiger climate classification of the Late Permian and the annual mean wind speed (in m/s) and direction .............................................. 181

Atlas Figure 168: Simplified Lauer & Frankenberg climate classification of the Late Permian and annual mean wind speed (in m/s) and direction .............................................. 182

Atlas Figure 169: Regional splitting for the Holdridge life zonation diagram investigations in the Late Permian .................................................................................................... 183

Atlas Figure 170: Holdridge life zonation diagram of the Late Permian .................................................................................................................................................................... 184

Atlas Figure 171: Swamp probability map (colour-coded percentages) and modelled forest cover > 0.75 (dashed line) in the Late Permian .......................................................... 185

Atlas Figure 172: Multi-year annual sum precipitation in mm and annual mean wind speed (in m/s) and direction in the Late Permian ................................................................. 186

Atlas Figure 173: Multi-year seasonal sum precipitation in mm and seasonal mean wind speed (in m/s) and direction for northern winter (DJF) in the Late Permian ................. 187

Atlas Figure 174: Multi-year seasonal sum precipitation in mm and seasonal mean wind speed (in m/s) and direction for northern spring (MAM) in the Late Permian .............. 188

Atlas Figure 175: Multi-year seasonal sum precipitation in mm and seasonal mean wind speed (in m/s) and direction for northern summer (JJA) in the Late Permian ............... 189

Atlas Figure 176: Multi-year seasonal sum precipitation in mm and seasonal mean wind speed (in m/s) and direction for northern autumn (SON) in the Late Permian .............. 190

Atlas Figure 177: Multi-year annual mean temperature in °C in the Late Permian .................................................................................................................................................... 191

Atlas Figure 178: Multi-year seasonal mean temperature in °C and seasonal mean wind speed (in m/s) and direction in the Late Permian for the northern winter (DJF)............. 192

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Atlas Figure 179: Multi-year seasonal mean temperature in °C and seasonal mean wind speed (in m/s) and direction in the Late Permian for the northern spring (MAM).......... 193

Atlas Figure 180: Multi-year seasonal mean temperature in °C and seasonal mean wind speed (in m/s) and direction in the Late Permian for the northern summer (JJA)........... 194

Atlas Figure 181: Multi-year seasonal mean temperature in °C and seasonal mean wind speed (in m/s) and direction in the Late Permian for the northern autumn (SON).......... 195

Atlas Figure 182: Multi-year annual mean soiltemperature in °C at a depth of 9.3 m in the Late Permian ............................................................................................................... 196

Atlas Figure 183: Multi-year average maximum difference between warmest and coldest month in the Late Permian ............................................................................................ 197

Atlas Figure 184: Multi-year annual maximum wind speed in m/s and its direction in the Late Permian ................................................................................................................. 198

Atlas Figure 185: Multi-year seasonal mean vegetation cover in the Late Permian northern winter (DJF) (fract. 1= fully covered) and forest cover > 0.75 (dashed line) ............. 199

Atlas Figure 186: Multi-year seasonal mean vegetation cover in the Late Permian northern spring (MAM) (fract. 1= fully covered) and forest cover > 0.75 (dashed line) ......... 200

Atlas Figure 187: Multi-year seasonal mean vegetation cover in the Late Permian northern summer (JJA) (fract. 1= fully covered) and forest cover > 0.75 (dashed line) ........... 201

Atlas Figure 188: Multi-year seasonal mean vegetation cover in the Late Permian northern autumn (SON) (fract. 1= fully covered) and forest cover > 0.75 (dashed line) ......... 202

Atlas Figure 189: Multi-year seasonal mean snow height in m in the Late Permian northern winter (DJF).............................................................................................................. 203

Atlas Figure 190: Multi-year seasonal mean snow height in m in the Late Permian northern spring (MAM)........................................................................................................... 204

Atlas Figure 191: Multi-year seasonal mean snow height in m in the Late Permian northern summer (JJA)............................................................................................................ 205

Atlas Figure 192: Multi-year seasonal mean snow height in m in the Late Permian northern autumn (SON)........................................................................................................... 206

Atlas Figure 193: Multi-year seasonal mean sea-ice thickness in m in the Late Permian northern winter (DJF) ...................................................................................................... 207

Atlas Figure 194: Multi-year seasonal mean sea-ice thickness in m in the Late Permian northern spring (MAM) ................................................................................................... 208

Atlas Figure 195: Multi-year seasonal mean sea-ice thickness in m in the Late Permian northern summer (JJA) .................................................................................................... 209

Atlas Figure 196: Multi-year seasonal mean sea-ice thickness in m in the Late Permian northern autumn (SON) ................................................................................................... 210

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Atlas Figure 197: Holdridge life zonation diagrams of the Late Palaeozoic, for colour codes see Atlas Figure 170, 340 Ma: Middle Mississippian, 320 Ma: mid Carboniferous

boundary, 300 Ma: Carboniferous Permian boundary, 290 Ma: Early Permian, 270 Ma: Middle Permian, 250 Ma: Late Permian ......................................................................... 211

Atlas Figure 198: Holdridge life zonation diagrams of the Late Palaeozoic in northern North America, 340 Ma: Middle Mississippian, 320 Ma: mid Carboniferous boundary, 300

Ma: Carboniferous Permian boundary, 290 Ma: Early Permian, 270 Ma: Middle Permian, 250 Ma: Late Permian ................................................................................................. 212

Atlas Figure 199: Holdridge life zonation diagrams of the Late Palaeozoic in southern North America, 340 Ma: Middle Mississippian, 320 Ma: mid Carboniferous boundary, 300

Ma: Carboniferous Permian boundary, 290 Ma: Early Permian, 270 Ma: Middle Permian, 250 Ma: Late Permian ................................................................................................. 213

Atlas Figure 200: Holdridge life zonation diagrams of the Late Palaeozoic in Europe, 340 Ma: Middle Mississippian, 320 Ma: mid Carboniferous boundary, 300 Ma:

Carboniferous Permian boundary, 290 Ma: Early Permian, 270 Ma: Middle Permian, 250 Ma: Late Permian ........................................................................................................ 214

Atlas Figure 201: Holdridge life zonation diagrams of the Late Palaeozoic in Siberia, 340 Ma: Middle Mississippian, 320 Ma: mid Carboniferous boundary, 300 Ma:

Carboniferous Permian boundary, 290 Ma: Early Permian, 270 Ma: Middle Permian, 250 Ma: Late Permian ........................................................................................................ 215

Atlas Figure 202: Holdridge life zonation diagrams of the Late Palaeozoic in North China and Tarim block, 340 Ma: Middle Mississippian, 320 Ma: mid Carboniferous

boundary, 300 Ma: Carboniferous Permian boundary, 290 Ma: Early Permian, 270 Ma: Middle Permian, 250 Ma: Late Permian ......................................................................... 216

Atlas Figure 203: Holdridge life zonation diagrams of the Late Palaeozoic in South China, 340 Ma: Middle Mississippian, 320 Ma: mid Carboniferous boundary, 300 Ma:

Carboniferous Permian boundary, 290 Ma: Early Permian, 270 Ma: Middle Permian, 250 Ma: Late Permian ........................................................................................................ 217

Atlas Figure 204: Holdridge life zonation diagrams of the Late Palaeozoic in the Cimmerian continents, 340 Ma: Middle Mississippian, 320 Ma: mid Carboniferous boundary,

300 Ma: Carboniferous Permian boundary, 290 Ma: Early Permian, 270 Ma: Middle Permian, 250 Ma: Late Permian .......................................................................................... 218

Atlas Figure 205: Holdridge life zonation diagrams of the Late Palaeozoic in India, 340 Ma: Middle Mississippian, 320 Ma: mid Carboniferous boundary, 300 Ma: Carboniferous

Permian boundary, 290 Ma: Early Permian, 270 Ma: Middle Permian, 250 Ma: Late Permian ................................................................................................................................ 219

Atlas Figure 206: Holdridge life zonation diagrams of the Late Palaeozoic in Arabia, 340 Ma: Middle Mississippian, 320 Ma: mid Carboniferous boundary, 300 Ma:

Carboniferous Permian boundary, 290 Ma: Early Permian, 270 Ma: Middle Permian, 250 Ma: Late Permian ........................................................................................................ 220

13


Atlas Figure 207: Holdridge life zonation diagrams of the Late Palaeozoic in Australia, 340 Ma: Middle Mississippian, 320 Ma: mid Carboniferous boundary, 300 Ma:

Carboniferous Permian boundary, 290 Ma: Early Permian, 270 Ma: Middle Permian, 250 Ma: Late Permian ........................................................................................................ 221

Atlas Figure 208: Holdridge life zonation diagrams of the Late Palaeozoic in Antarctica, 340 Ma: Middle Mississippian, 320 Ma: mid Carboniferous boundary, 300 Ma:

Carboniferous Permian boundary, 290 Ma: Early Permian, 270 Ma: Middle Permian, 250 Ma: Late Permian ........................................................................................................ 222

Atlas Figure 209: Holdridge life zonation diagrams of the Late Palaeozoic in southern Africa, 340 Ma: Middle Mississippian, 320 Ma: mid Carboniferous boundary, 300 Ma:

Carboniferous Permian boundary, 290 Ma: Early Permian, 270 Ma: Middle Permian, 250 Ma: Late Permian ........................................................................................................ 223

Atlas Figure 210: Holdridge life zonation diagrams of the Late Palaeozoic in northern Africa, 340 Ma: Middle Mississippian, 320 Ma: mid Carboniferous boundary, 300 Ma:

Carboniferous Permian boundary, 290 Ma: Early Permian, 270 Ma: Middle Permian, 250 Ma: Late Permian ........................................................................................................ 224

Atlas Figure 211: Holdridge life zonation diagrams of the Late Palaeozoic in southern South America, 340 Ma: Middle Mississippian, 320 Ma: mid Carboniferous boundary, 300

Ma: Carboniferous Permian boundary, 290 Ma: Early Permian, 270 Ma: Middle Permian, 250 Ma: Late Permian ................................................................................................. 225

Atlas Figure 212: Holdridge life zonation diagrams of the Late Palaeozoic in northern South America, 340 Ma: Middle Mississippian, 320 Ma: mid Carboniferous boundary, 300

Ma: Carboniferous Permian boundary, 290 Ma: Early Permian, 270 Ma: Middle Permian, 250 Ma: Late Permian ................................................................................................. 226

14


Atlas Figure 1: Permo-Carboniferous palaeoclimate indicators and their temporal relation reproducing a ~8 Ma orbital cycle

15


Atlas Figure 2: Definition of solar climate zones due to the Lauer & Frankenberg climate classification

16


Atlas Figure 3: Distribution of modelled climates on a recent Earth, described by simplified Köppen & Geiger climate classification

17


Atlas Figure 4: Palaeogeography of the Middle Mississippian and the conversion for the numeric model grid

18


Atlas Figure 5: Palaeotopography of the Middle Mississippian

19


Atlas Figure 6: Palaeogeography at the mid Carboniferous boundary and the conversion for the numeric model grid

20


Atlas Figure 7: Palaeotopography at the mid Carboniferous boundary

21


Atlas Figure 8: Palaeogeography at the Carboniferous Permian boundary and the conversion for the numeric model grid

22


Atlas Figure 9: Palaeotopography at the Carboniferous Permian boundary

23


Atlas Figure 10: Palaeogeography of the Early Permian and the conversion for the numeric model grid

24


Atlas Figure 11: Palaeotopography of the Early Permian

25


Atlas Figure 12: Palaeogeography of the Middle Permian and the conversion for the numeric model grid

26


Atlas Figure 13: Palaeotopography of the Middle Permian

27


Atlas Figure 14: Palaeogeography of the Late Permian and the conversion for the numeric model grid

28


Atlas Figure 15: Palaeotopography of the Late Permian

29


Atlas Figure 16: Holdridge life zonation diagram

30


Atlas Figure 17: Simplified Köppen & Geiger climate classification of the Middle Mississippian and the annual mean wind speed (in m/s) and direction

31


Atlas Figure 18: Simplified Lauer & Frankenberg climate classification of the Middle Mississippian and annual mean wind speed (in m/s) and direction

32


Atlas Figure 19: Regional splitting for the Holdridge life zonation diagram investigations in the Middle Mississippian

33


Atlas Figure 20: Holdridge life zonation diagram of the Middle Mississippian

34


Atlas Figure 21: Swamp probability map (colour-coded percentages) and modelled forest cover > 0.75 (dashed line) in the Middle Mississippian

35


Atlas Figure 22: Multi-year annual sum precipitation in mm and annual mean wind speed (in m/s) and direction in the Middle Mississippian

36


Atlas Figure 23: Multi-year seasonal sum precipitation in mm and seasonal mean wind speed (in m/s) and direction for northern winter (DJF) in the Middle Mississippian

37


Atlas Figure 24: Multi-year seasonal sum precipitation in mm and seasonal mean wind speed (in m/s) and direction for northern spring (MAM) in the Middle Mississippian

38


Atlas Figure 25: Multi-year seasonal sum precipitation in mm and seasonal mean wind speed (in m/s) and direction for northern summer (JJA) in the Middle Mississippian

39


Atlas Figure 26: Multi-year seasonal sum precipitation in mm and seasonal mean wind speed (in m/s) and direction for northern autumn (SON) in the Middle Mississippian

40


Atlas Figure 27: Multi-year annual mean temperature in °C in the Middle Mississippian

41


Atlas Figure 28: Multi-year seasonal mean temperature in °C and seasonal mean wind speed (in m/s) and direction in the Middle Mississippian for the northern winter (DJF)

42


Atlas Figure 29: Multi-year seasonal mean temperature in °C and seasonal mean wind speed (in m/s) and direction in the Middle Mississippian for the northern spring (MAM)

43


Atlas Figure 30: Multi-year seasonal mean temperature in °C and seasonal mean wind speed (in m/s) and direction in the Middle Mississippian for the northern summer (JJA)

44


Atlas Figure 31: Multi-year seasonal mean temperature in °C and seasonal mean wind speed (in m/s) and direction in the Middle Mississippian for the northern autumn (SON)

45


Atlas Figure 32: Multi-year annual mean soiltemperature in °C at a depth of 9.3 m in the Middle Mississippian

46


Atlas Figure 33: Multi-year average maximum difference between warmest and coldest month in the Middle Mississippian

47


Atlas Figure 34: Multi-year annual maximum wind speed in m/s and its direction in the Middle Mississippian

48


Atlas Figure 35: Multi-year seasonal mean vegetation cover in the Middle Mississippian northern winter (DJF) (fract. 1= fully covered) and forest cover > 0.75 (dashed line)

49


Atlas Figure 36: Multi-year seasonal mean vegetation cover in the Middle Mississippian northern spring (MAM) (fract. 1= fully covered) and forest cover > 0.75 (dashed line)

50


Atlas Figure 37: Multi-year seasonal mean vegetation cover in the Middle Mississippian northern summer (JJA) (fract. 1= fully covered) and forest cover > 0.75 (dashed line)

51


Atlas Figure 38: Multi-year seasonal mean vegetation cover in the Middle Mississippian northern autumn (SON) (fract. 1= fully covered) and forest cover > 0.75 (dashed line)

52


Atlas Figure 39: Multi-year seasonal mean snow height in m in the Middle Mississippian northern winter (DJF)

53


Atlas Figure 40: Multi-year seasonal mean snow height in m in the Middle Mississippian northern spring (MAM)

54


Atlas Figure 41: Multi-year seasonal mean snow height in m in the Middle Mississippian northern summer (JJA)

55


Atlas Figure 42: Multi-year seasonal mean snow height in m in the Middle Mississippian northern autumn (SON)

56


Atlas Figure 43: Multi-year seasonal mean sea-ice thickness in m in the Middle Mississippian northern winter (DJF)

57


Atlas Figure 44: Multi-year seasonal mean sea-ice thickness in m in the Middle Mississippian northern spring (MAM)

58


Atlas Figure 45: Multi-year seasonal mean sea-ice thickness in m in the Middle Mississippian northern summer (JJA)

59


Atlas Figure 46: Multi-year seasonal mean sea-ice thickness in m in the Middle Mississippian northern autumn (SON)

60


Atlas Figure 47: Simplified Köppen & Geiger climate classification at the mid Carboniferous boundary and the annual mean wind speed (in m/s) and direction

61


Atlas Figure 48: Simplified Lauer & Frankenberg climate classification at the mid Carboniferous boundary and annual mean wind speed (in m/s) and direction

62


Atlas Figure 49: Regional splitting for the Holdridge life zonation diagram investigations at the mid Carboniferous boundary

63


Atlas Figure 50: Holdridge life zonation diagram at the mid Carboniferous boundary

64


Atlas Figure 51: Swamp probability map (colour-coded percentages) and modelled forest cover > 0.75 (dashed line) at the mid Carboniferous boundary

65


Atlas Figure 52: Multi-year annual sum precipitation in mm and annual mean wind speed (in m/s) and direction at the mid Carboniferous boundary

66


Atlas Figure 53: Multi-year seasonal sum precipitation in mm and seasonal mean wind speed (in m/s) and direction for northern winter (DJF) at the mid Carboniferous boundary

67


Atlas Figure 54: Multi-year seasonal sum precipitation in mm and seasonal mean wind speed (in m/s) and direction for northern spring (MAM) at the mid Carboniferous boundary

68


Atlas Figure 55: Multi-year seasonal sum precipitation in mm and seasonal mean wind speed (in m/s) and direction for northern summer (JJA) at the mid Carboniferous boundary

69


Atlas Figure 56: Multi-year seasonal sum precipitation in mm and seasonal mean wind speed (in m/s) and direction for northern autumn (SON) at the mid Carboniferous boundary

70


Atlas Figure 57: Multi-year annual mean temperature in °C at the mid Carboniferous boundary

71


Atlas Figure 58: Multi-year seasonal mean temperature in °C and seasonal mean wind speed (in m/s) and direction at the mid Carboniferous boundary for the northern winter (DJF)

72


Atlas Figure 59: Multi-year seasonal mean temperature in °C and seasonal mean wind speed (in m/s) and direction at the mid Carboniferous boundary for the northern spring (MAM)

73


Atlas Figure 60: Multi-year seasonal mean temperature in °C and seasonal mean wind speed (in m/s) and direction at the mid Carboniferous boundary for the northern summer (JJA)

74


Atlas Figure 61: Multi-year seasonal mean temperature in °C and seasonal mean wind speed (in m/s) and direction at the mid Carboniferous boundary for the northern autumn (SON)

75


Atlas Figure 62: Multi-year annual mean soiltemperature in °C at a depth of 9.3 m at the mid Carboniferous boundary

76


Atlas Figure 63: Multi-year average maximum difference between warmest and coldest month at the mid Carboniferous boundary

77


Atlas Figure 64: Multi-year annual maximum wind speed in m/s and its direction at the mid Carboniferous boundary

78


Atlas Figure 65: Multi-year seasonal mean vegetation cover at the mid Carboniferous boundary northern winter (DJF) (fract. 1= fully covered) and forest cover > 0.75 (dashed line)

79


Atlas Figure 66: Multi-year seasonal mean vegetation cover at the mid Carboniferous boundary northern spring (MAM) (fract. 1= fully covered) and forest cover > 0.75 (dashed line)

80


Atlas Figure 67: Multi-year seasonal mean vegetation cover at the mid Carboniferous boundary northern summer (JJA) (fract. 1= fully covered) and forest cover > 0.75 (dashed line)

81


Atlas Figure 68: Multi-year seasonal mean vegetation cover at the mid Carboniferous boundary northern autumn (SON) (fract. 1= fully covered) and forest cover > 0.75 (dashed line)

82


Atlas Figure 69: Multi-year seasonal mean snow height in m at the mid Carboniferous boundary northern winter (DJF)

83


Atlas Figure 70: Multi-year seasonal mean snow height in m at the mid Carboniferous boundary northern spring (MAM)

84


Atlas Figure 71: Multi-year seasonal mean snow height in m at the mid Carboniferous boundary northern summer (JJA)

85


Atlas Figure 72: Multi-year seasonal mean snow height in m at the mid Carboniferous boundary northern autumn (SON)

86


Atlas Figure 73: Multi-year seasonal mean sea-ice thickness in m at the mid Carboniferous boundary northern winter (DJF)

87


Atlas Figure 74: Multi-year seasonal mean sea-ice thickness in m at the mid Carboniferous boundary northern spring (MAM)

88


Atlas Figure 75: Multi-year seasonal mean sea-ice thickness in m at the mid Carboniferous boundary northern summer (JJA)

89


Atlas Figure 76: Multi-year seasonal mean sea-ice thickness in m at the mid Carboniferous boundary northern autumn (SON)

90


Atlas Figure 77: Simplified Köppen & Geiger climate classification at the Carboniferous Permian boundary and the annual mean wind speed (in m/s) and direction

91


Atlas Figure 78: Simplified Lauer & Frankenberg climate classification at the Carboniferous Permian boundary and annual mean wind speed (in m/s) and direction

92


Atlas Figure 79: Regional splitting for the Holdridge life zonation diagram investigations at the Carboniferous Permian boundary

93


Atlas Figure 80: Holdridge life zonation diagram at the Carboniferous Permian boundary

94


Atlas Figure 81: Swamp probability map (colour-coded percentages) and modelled forest cover > 0.75 (dashed line) at the Carboniferous Permian boundary

95


Atlas Figure 82: Multi-year annual sum precipitation in mm and annual mean wind speed (in m/s) and direction at the Carboniferous Permian boundary

96


Atlas Figure 83: Multi-year seasonal sum precipitation in mm and seasonal mean wind speed (in m/s) and direction for northern winter (DJF) at the Carboniferous Permian boundary

97


Atlas Figure 84: Multi-year seasonal sum precipitation in mm and seasonal mean wind speed (in m/s) and direction for northern spring (MAM) at the Carboniferous Permian boundary

98


Atlas Figure 85: Multi-year seasonal sum precipitation in mm and seasonal mean wind speed (in m/s) and direction for northern summer (JJA) at the Carboniferous Permian boundary

99


Atlas Figure 86: Multi-year seasonal sum precipitation in mm and seasonal mean wind speed (in m/s) and direction for northern autumn (SON) at the Carboniferous Permian boundary

100


Atlas Figure 87: Multi-year annual mean temperature in °C at the Carboniferous Permian boundary

101


Atlas Figure 88: Multi-year seasonal mean temperature in °C and seasonal mean wind speed (in m/s) and direction at the Carboniferous Permian boundary for the northern winter (DJF)

102


Atlas Figure 89: Multi-year seasonal mean temperature in °C and seasonal mean wind speed (in m/s) and direction at the Carboniferous Permian boundary for the northern spring (MAM)

103


Atlas Figure 90: Multi-year seasonal mean temperature in °C and seasonal mean wind speed (in m/s) and direction at the Carboniferous Permian boundary for the northern summer (JJA)

104


Atlas Figure 91: Multi-year seasonal mean temperature in °C and seasonal mean wind speed (in m/s) and direction at the Carboniferous Permian boundary for the northern autumn (SON)

105


Atlas Figure 92: Multi-year annual mean soiltemperature in °C at a depth of 9.3 m at the Carboniferous Permian boundary

106


Atlas Figure 93: Multi-year average maximum difference between warmest and coldest month at the Carboniferous Permian boundary

107


Atlas Figure 94: Multi-year annual maximum wind speed in m/s and its direction at the Carboniferous Permian boundary

108


Atlas Figure 95: Multi-year seasonal mean vegetation cover at the Carboniferous Permian boundary northern winter (DJF) (fract. 1= fully covered) and forest cover > 0.75 (dashed line)

109


Atlas Figure 96: Multi-year seasonal mean vegetation cover at the Carboniferous Permian boundary northern spring (MAM) (fract. 1= fully covered) and forest cover > 0.75 (dashed line)

110


Atlas Figure 97: Multi-year seasonal mean vegetation cover at the Carboniferous Permian boundary northern summer (JJA) (fract. 1= fully covered) and forest cover > 0.75 (dashed line)

111


Atlas Figure 98: Multi-year seasonal mean vegetation cover at the Carboniferous Permian boundary northern autumn (SON) (fract. 1= fully covered) and forest cover > 0.75 (dashed line)

112


Atlas Figure 99: Multi-year seasonal mean snow height in m at the Carboniferous Permian boundary northern winter (DJF)

113


Atlas Figure 100: Multi-year seasonal mean snow height in m at the Carboniferous Permian boundary northern spring (MAM)

114


Atlas Figure 101: Multi-year seasonal mean snow height in m at the Carboniferous Permian boundary northern summer (JJA)

115


Atlas Figure 102: Multi-year seasonal mean snow height in m at the Carboniferous Permian boundary northern autumn (SON)

116


Atlas Figure 103: Multi-year seasonal mean sea-ice thickness in m at the Carboniferous Permian boundary northern winter (DJF)

117


Atlas Figure 104: Multi-year seasonal mean sea-ice thickness in m at the Carboniferous Permian boundary northern spring (MAM)

118


Atlas Figure 105: Multi-year seasonal mean sea-ice thickness in m at the Carboniferous Permian boundary northern summer (JJA)

119


Atlas Figure 106: Multi-year seasonal mean sea-ice thickness in m at the Carboniferous Permian boundary northern autumn (SON)

120


Atlas Figure 107: Simplified Köppen & Geiger climate classification of the Early Permian and the annual mean wind speed (in m/s) and direction

121


Atlas Figure 108: Simplified Lauer & Frankenberg climate classification of the Early Permian and annual mean wind speed (in m/s) and direction

122


Atlas Figure 109: Regional splitting for the Holdridge life zonation diagram investigations in the Early Permian

123


Atlas Figure 110: Holdridge life zonation diagram of the Early Permian

124


Atlas Figure 111: Swamp probability map (colour-coded percentages) and modelled forest cover > 0.75 (dashed line) in the Early Permian

125


Atlas Figure 112: Multi-year annual sum precipitation in mm and annual mean wind speed (in m/s) and direction in the Early Permian

126


Atlas Figure 113: Multi-year seasonal sum precipitation in mm and seasonal mean wind speed (in m/s) and direction for northern winter (DJF) in the Early Permian

127


Atlas Figure 114: Multi-year seasonal sum precipitation in mm and seasonal mean wind speed (in m/s) and direction for northern spring (MAM) in the Early Permian

128


Atlas Figure 115: Multi-year seasonal sum precipitation in mm and seasonal mean wind speed (in m/s) and direction for northern summer (JJA) in the Early Permian

129


Atlas Figure 116: Multi-year seasonal sum precipitation in mm and seasonal mean wind speed (in m/s) and direction for northern autumn (SON) in the Early Permian

130


Atlas Figure 117: Multi-year annual mean temperature in °C in the Early Permian

131


Atlas Figure 118: Multi-year seasonal mean temperature in °C and seasonal mean wind speed (in m/s) and direction in the Early Permian for the northern winter (DJF)

132


Atlas Figure 119: Multi-year seasonal mean temperature in °C and seasonal mean wind speed (in m/s) and direction in the Early Permian for the northern spring (MAM)

133


Atlas Figure 120: Multi-year seasonal mean temperature in °C and seasonal mean wind speed (in m/s) and direction in the Early Permian for the northern summer (JJA)

134


Atlas Figure 121: Multi-year seasonal mean temperature in °C and seasonal mean wind speed (in m/s) and direction in the Early Permian for the northern autumn (SON)

135


Atlas Figure 122: Multi-year annual mean soiltemperature in °C at a depth of 9.3 m in the Early Permian

136


Atlas Figure 123: Multi-year average maximum difference between warmest and coldest month in the Early Permian

137


Atlas Figure 124: Multi-year annual maximum wind speed in m/s and its direction in the Early Permian

138


Atlas Figure 125: Multi-year seasonal mean vegetation cover in the Early Permian northern winter (DJF) (fract. 1= fully covered) and forest cover > 0.75 (dashed line)

139


Atlas Figure 126: Multi-year seasonal mean vegetation cover in the Early Permian northern spring (MAM) (fract. 1= fully covered) and forest cover > 0.75 (dashed line)

140


Atlas Figure 127: Multi-year seasonal mean vegetation cover in the Early Permian northern summer (JJA) (fract. 1= fully covered) and forest cover > 0.75 (dashed line)

141


Atlas Figure 128: Multi-year seasonal mean vegetation cover in the Early Permian northern autumn (SON) (fract. 1= fully covered) and forest cover > 0.75 (dashed line)

142


Atlas Figure 129: Multi-year seasonal mean snow height in m in the Early Permian northern winter (DJF)

143


Atlas Figure 130: Multi-year seasonal mean snow height in m in the Early Permian northern spring (MAM)

144


Atlas Figure 131: Multi-year seasonal mean snow height in m in the Early Permian northern summer (JJA)

145


Atlas Figure 132: Multi-year seasonal mean snow height in m in the Early Permian northern autumn (SON)

146


Atlas Figure 133: Multi-year seasonal mean sea-ice thickness in m in the Early Permian northern winter (DJF)

147


Atlas Figure 134: Multi-year seasonal mean sea-ice thickness in m in the Early Permian northern spring (MAM)

148


Atlas Figure 135: Multi-year seasonal mean sea-ice thickness in m in the Early Permian northern summer (JJA)

149


Atlas Figure 136: Multi-year seasonal mean sea-ice thickness in m in the Early Permian northern autumn (SON)

150


Atlas Figure 137: Simplified Köppen & Geiger climate classification of the Middle Permian and the annual mean wind speed (in m/s) and direction

151


Atlas Figure 138: Simplified Lauer & Frankenberg climate classification of the Middle Permian and annual mean wind speed (in m/s) and direction

152


Atlas Figure 139: Regional splitting for the Holdridge life zonation diagram investigations in the Middle Permian

153


Atlas Figure 140: Holdridge life zonation diagram of the Middle Permian

154


Atlas Figure 141: Swamp probability map (colour-coded percentages) and modelled forest cover > 0.75 (dashed line) in the Middle Permian

155


Atlas Figure 142: Multi-year annual sum precipitation in mm and annual mean wind speed (in m/s) and direction in the Middle Permian

156


Atlas Figure 143: Multi-year seasonal sum precipitation in mm and seasonal mean wind speed (in m/s) and direction for northern winter (DJF) in the Middle Permian

157


Atlas Figure 144: Multi-year seasonal sum precipitation in mm and seasonal mean wind speed (in m/s) and direction for northern spring (MAM) in the Middle Permian

158


Atlas Figure 145: Multi-year seasonal sum precipitation in mm and seasonal mean wind speed (in m/s) and direction for northern summer (JJA) in the Middle Permian

159


Atlas Figure 146: Multi-year seasonal sum precipitation in mm and seasonal mean wind speed (in m/s) and direction for northern autumn (SON) in the Middle Permian

160


Atlas Figure 147: Multi-year annual mean temperature in °C in the Middle Permian

161


Atlas Figure 148: Multi-year seasonal mean temperature in °C and seasonal mean wind speed (in m/s) and direction in the Middle Permian for the northern winter (DJF)

162


Atlas Figure 149: Multi-year seasonal mean temperature in °C and seasonal mean wind speed (in m/s) and direction in the Middle Permian for the northern spring (MAM)

163


Atlas Figure 150: Multi-year seasonal mean temperature in °C and seasonal mean wind speed (in m/s) and direction in the Middle Permian for the northern summer (JJA)

164


Atlas Figure 151: Multi-year seasonal mean temperature in °C and seasonal mean wind speed (in m/s) and direction in the Middle Permian for the northern autumn (SON)

165


Atlas Figure 152: Multi-year annual mean soiltemperature in °C at a depth of 9.3 m in the Middle Permian

166


Atlas Figure 153: Multi-year average maximum difference between warmest and coldest month in the Middle Permian

167


Atlas Figure 154: Multi-year annual maximum wind speed in m/s and its direction in the Middle Permian

168


Atlas Figure 155: Multi-year seasonal mean vegetation cover in the Middle Permian northern winter (DJF) (fract. 1= fully covered) and forest cover > 0.75 (dashed line)

169


Atlas Figure 156: Multi-year seasonal mean vegetation cover in the Middle Permian northern spring (MAM) (fract. 1= fully covered) and forest cover > 0.75 (dashed line)

170


Atlas Figure 157: Multi-year seasonal mean vegetation cover in the Middle Permian northern summer (JJA) (fract. 1= fully covered) and forest cover > 0.75 (dashed line)

171


Atlas Figure 158: Multi-year seasonal mean vegetation cover in the Middle Permian northern autumn (SON) (fract. 1= fully covered) and forest cover > 0.75 (dashed line)

172


Atlas Figure 159: Multi-year seasonal mean snow height in m in the Middle Permian northern winter (DJF)

173


Atlas Figure 160: Multi-year seasonal mean snow height in m in the Middle Permian northern spring (MAM)

174


Atlas Figure 161: Multi-year seasonal mean snow height in m in the Middle Permian northern summer (JJA)

175


Atlas Figure 162: Multi-year seasonal mean snow height in m in the Middle Permian northern autumn (SON)

176


Atlas Figure 163: Multi-year seasonal mean sea-ice thickness in m in the Middle Permian northern winter (DJF)

177


Atlas Figure 164: Multi-year seasonal mean sea-ice thickness in m in the Middle Permian northern spring (MAM)

178


Atlas Figure 165: Multi-year seasonal mean sea-ice thickness in m in the Middle Permian northern summer (JJA)

179


Atlas Figure 166: Multi-year seasonal mean sea-ice thickness in m in the Middle Permian northern autumn (SON)

180


Atlas Figure 167: Simplified Köppen & Geiger climate classification of the Late Permian and the annual mean wind speed (in m/s) and direction

181


Atlas Figure 168: Simplified Lauer & Frankenberg climate classification of the Late Permian and annual mean wind speed (in m/s) and direction

182


Atlas Figure 169: Regional splitting for the Holdridge life zonation diagram investigations in the Late Permian

183


Atlas Figure 170: Holdridge life zonation diagram of the Late Permian

184


Atlas Figure 171: Swamp probability map (colour-coded percentages) and modelled forest cover > 0.75 (dashed line) in the Late Permian

185


Atlas Figure 172: Multi-year annual sum precipitation in mm and annual mean wind speed (in m/s) and direction in the Late Permian

186


Atlas Figure 173: Multi-year seasonal sum precipitation in mm and seasonal mean wind speed (in m/s) and direction for northern winter (DJF) in the Late Permian

187


Atlas Figure 174: Multi-year seasonal sum precipitation in mm and seasonal mean wind speed (in m/s) and direction for northern spring (MAM) in the Late Permian

188


Atlas Figure 175: Multi-year seasonal sum precipitation in mm and seasonal mean wind speed (in m/s) and direction for northern summer (JJA) in the Late Permian

189


Atlas Figure 176: Multi-year seasonal sum precipitation in mm and seasonal mean wind speed (in m/s) and direction for northern autumn (SON) in the Late Permian

190


Atlas Figure 177: Multi-year annual mean temperature in °C in the Late Permian

191


Atlas Figure 178: Multi-year seasonal mean temperature in °C and seasonal mean wind speed (in m/s) and direction in the Late Permian for the northern winter (DJF)

192


Atlas Figure 179: Multi-year seasonal mean temperature in °C and seasonal mean wind speed (in m/s) and direction in the Late Permian for the northern spring (MAM)

193


Atlas Figure 180: Multi-year seasonal mean temperature in °C and seasonal mean wind speed (in m/s) and direction in the Late Permian for the northern summer (JJA)

194


Atlas Figure 181: Multi-year seasonal mean temperature in °C and seasonal mean wind speed (in m/s) and direction in the Late Permian for the northern autumn (SON)

195


Atlas Figure 182: Multi-year annual mean soiltemperature in °C at a depth of 9.3 m in the Late Permian

196


Atlas Figure 183: Multi-year average maximum difference between warmest and coldest month in the Late Permian

197


Atlas Figure 184: Multi-year annual maximum wind speed in m/s and its direction in the Late Permian

198


Atlas Figure 185: Multi-year seasonal mean vegetation cover in the Late Permian northern winter (DJF) (fract. 1= fully covered) and forest cover > 0.75 (dashed line)

199


Atlas Figure 186: Multi-year seasonal mean vegetation cover in the Late Permian northern spring (MAM) (fract. 1= fully covered) and forest cover > 0.75 (dashed line)

200


Atlas Figure 187: Multi-year seasonal mean vegetation cover in the Late Permian northern summer (JJA) (fract. 1= fully covered) and forest cover > 0.75 (dashed line)

201


Atlas Figure 188: Multi-year seasonal mean vegetation cover in the Late Permian northern autumn (SON) (fract. 1= fully covered) and forest cover > 0.75 (dashed line)

202


Atlas Figure 189: Multi-year seasonal mean snow height in m in the Late Permian northern winter (DJF)

203


Atlas Figure 190: Multi-year seasonal mean snow height in m in the Late Permian northern spring (MAM)

204


Atlas Figure 191: Multi-year seasonal mean snow height in m in the Late Permian northern summer (JJA)

205


Atlas Figure 192: Multi-year seasonal mean snow height in m in the Late Permian northern autumn (SON)

206


Atlas Figure 193: Multi-year seasonal mean sea-ice thickness in m in the Late Permian northern winter (DJF)

207


Atlas Figure 194: Multi-year seasonal mean sea-ice thickness in m in the Late Permian northern spring (MAM)

208


Atlas Figure 195: Multi-year seasonal mean sea-ice thickness in m in the Late Permian northern summer (JJA)

209


Atlas Figure 196: Multi-year seasonal mean sea-ice thickness in m in the Late Permian northern autumn (SON)

210


Atlas Figure 197: Holdridge life zonation diagrams of the Late Palaeozoic, for colour codes see Atlas Figure 170, 340 Ma: Middle Mississippian, 320 Ma: mid Carboniferous boundary, 300 Ma: Carboniferous Permian

boundary, 290 Ma: Early Permian, 270 Ma: Middle Permian, 250 Ma: Late Permian

211


Atlas Figure 198: Holdridge life zonation diagrams of the Late Palaeozoic in northern North America, 340 Ma: Middle Mississippian, 320 Ma: mid Carboniferous boundary, 300 Ma: Carboniferous Permian boundary, 290

Ma: Early Permian, 270 Ma: Middle Permian, 250 Ma: Late Permian

212


Atlas Figure 199: Holdridge life zonation diagrams of the Late Palaeozoic in southern North America, 340 Ma: Middle Mississippian, 320 Ma: mid Carboniferous boundary, 300 Ma: Carboniferous Permian boundary, 290

Ma: Early Permian, 270 Ma: Middle Permian, 250 Ma: Late Permian

213


Atlas Figure 200: Holdridge life zonation diagrams of the Late Palaeozoic in Europe, 340 Ma: Middle Mississippian, 320 Ma: mid Carboniferous boundary, 300 Ma: Carboniferous Permian boundary, 290 Ma: Early Permian,

270 Ma: Middle Permian, 250 Ma: Late Permian

214


Atlas Figure 201: Holdridge life zonation diagrams of the Late Palaeozoic in Siberia, 340 Ma: Middle Mississippian, 320 Ma: mid Carboniferous boundary, 300 Ma: Carboniferous Permian boundary, 290 Ma: Early Permian,

270 Ma: Middle Permian, 250 Ma: Late Permian

215


Atlas Figure 202: Holdridge life zonation diagrams of the Late Palaeozoic in North China and Tarim block, 340 Ma: Middle Mississippian, 320 Ma: mid Carboniferous boundary, 300 Ma: Carboniferous Permian boundary,

290 Ma: Early Permian, 270 Ma: Middle Permian, 250 Ma: Late Permian

216


Atlas Figure 203: Holdridge life zonation diagrams of the Late Palaeozoic in South China, 340 Ma: Middle Mississippian, 320 Ma: mid Carboniferous boundary, 300 Ma: Carboniferous Permian boundary, 290 Ma: Early

Permian, 270 Ma: Middle Permian, 250 Ma: Late Permian

217


Atlas Figure 204: Holdridge life zonation diagrams of the Late Palaeozoic in the Cimmerian continents, 340 Ma: Middle Mississippian, 320 Ma: mid Carboniferous boundary, 300 Ma: Carboniferous Permian boundary, 290

Ma: Early Permian, 270 Ma: Middle Permian, 250 Ma: Late Permian

218


Atlas Figure 205: Holdridge life zonation diagrams of the Late Palaeozoic in India, 340 Ma: Middle Mississippian, 320 Ma: mid Carboniferous boundary, 300 Ma: Carboniferous Permian boundary, 290 Ma: Early Permian,

270 Ma: Middle Permian, 250 Ma: Late Permian

219


Atlas Figure 206: Holdridge life zonation diagrams of the Late Palaeozoic in Arabia, 340 Ma: Middle Mississippian, 320 Ma: mid Carboniferous boundary, 300 Ma: Carboniferous Permian boundary, 290 Ma: Early Permian,

270 Ma: Middle Permian, 250 Ma: Late Permian

220


Atlas Figure 207: Holdridge life zonation diagrams of the Late Palaeozoic in Australia, 340 Ma: Middle Mississippian, 320 Ma: mid Carboniferous boundary, 300 Ma: Carboniferous Permian boundary, 290 Ma: Early

Permian, 270 Ma: Middle Permian, 250 Ma: Late Permian

221


Atlas Figure 208: Holdridge life zonation diagrams of the Late Palaeozoic in Antarctica, 340 Ma: Middle Mississippian, 320 Ma: mid Carboniferous boundary, 300 Ma: Carboniferous Permian boundary, 290 Ma: Early

Permian, 270 Ma: Middle Permian, 250 Ma: Late Permian

222


Atlas Figure 209: Holdridge life zonation diagrams of the Late Palaeozoic in southern Africa, 340 Ma: Middle Mississippian, 320 Ma: mid Carboniferous boundary, 300 Ma: Carboniferous Permian boundary, 290 Ma:

Early Permian, 270 Ma: Middle Permian, 250 Ma: Late Permian

223


Atlas Figure 210: Holdridge life zonation diagrams of the Late Palaeozoic in northern Africa, 340 Ma: Middle Mississippian, 320 Ma: mid Carboniferous boundary, 300 Ma: Carboniferous Permian boundary, 290 Ma: Early

Permian, 270 Ma: Middle Permian, 250 Ma: Late Permian

224


Atlas Figure 211: Holdridge life zonation diagrams of the Late Palaeozoic in southern South America, 340 Ma: Middle Mississippian, 320 Ma: mid Carboniferous boundary, 300 Ma: Carboniferous Permian boundary, 290

Ma: Early Permian, 270 Ma: Middle Permian, 250 Ma: Late Permian

225


Atlas Figure 212: Holdridge life zonation diagrams of the Late Palaeozoic in northern South America, 340 Ma: Middle Mississippian, 320 Ma: mid Carboniferous boundary, 300 Ma: Carboniferous Permian boundary, 290

Ma: Early Permian, 270 Ma: Middle Permian, 250 Ma: Late Permian

226

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