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Deutsch-Afghanische Freundschaft Gesellschaft e.V.

Afghanistan 2004 – 2014 - 2024

Dr. Joachim Sproß

Rechtsanwalt, Oberstleutnant d.R.

30. August 2012


Deutsch-Afghanische Freundschaft Gesellschaft e.V.

1. EinsKtgt. Camp in Kunduz

Einsatz in Afghanistan

Bundeswehr Aufenthalt 02.02.-14.08.2004

Bundeswehr Aufenthalt 13.11.2009-13. März 2010

BMZ/GIZ Aufenthalt 13.04. – 30.06.2011

Bundeswehr Aufenthalt 06.03.-15.05.2012


Deutsch-Afghanische Freundschaft Gesellschaft e.V.

Camp Marmal (Mazar-e Sharif 2011)


Deutsch-Afghanische Freundschaft Gesellschaft e.V.

1. Einführung

2. Politische Situation

3. Wirtschaftliche Situation

- Infrastruktur

- Energiepolitik

- Bodenschätze

- Opium

4. Situation der Frauen

5. Governance (Rule of Law)

6. Ausblick


Deutsch-Afghanische Freundschaft Gesellschaft e.V.

Einführung


Deutsch-Afghanische Freundschaft Gesellschaft e.V.


Feldzug Alexander des Großen 300 v. Chr.

Deutsch-Afghanische Freundschaft Gesellschaft e.V.


Deutsch-Afghanische Freundschaft Gesellschaft e.V.


Deutsch-Afghanische Freundschaft Gesellschaft e.V.

Kennzahlen 2011

Islamische Republik Afghanistan

Bevölkerung in 1000 25.-32.000

Fläche in km² 652.225

Hauptstadt

Kabul

Einwohner in 1000 4.900

Provinzen 35

Alphabetisierung 15-35%

BIP

415 €/Einw.

BIP 15,4 Mrd €

Anteil Landwirtschaft 85%

Fläche:

3 Mio ha

Währung: Afghani

MEZ + 3 ½ Std.

Bundesrepublik Deutschland

Bevölkerung in 1000 82.537

Fläche in km² 357.027

Hauptstadt

Berlin

Einwohner in 1000 3.392

Bundesländer 16

Alphabetisierung 97%

BIP

31.436 €/Einw.

BIP 2.563 Mrd €

Anteil Landwirtschaft 2,8%

Fläche

11,5 Mio ha

Währung: Euro


Deutsch-Afghanische Freundschaft Gesellschaft e.V.

Pufferstaat zwischen dem

Russischen Reich und dem

Britischen Reich Indien

Pamir-Grenze 1895

Paschtunen-Gebiet

sog. Durand-Linie

engl. Außenminister 1893


Bevoelkerungsstruktur

Deutsch-Afghanische Freundschaft Gesellschaft e.V.

= 74%

Quelle: European Union, National risk and Vulnerability

Assessment 2007/08, Report 2009

NSS/NRVA


Deutsch-Afghanische Freundschaft Gesellschaft e.V.

1979 Einmarsch der UDSSR

1979-2001/05 Bürgerkrieg

26 Jahre Unruhe, Terror und Anschläge

1992 Sturz kommunistisches Regime

1992-1996 Bürgerkrieg der Mujaheddin

1996-2001 Herrschaft der Taliban

11.09.2001 Terroranschlag USA

07.10.2001 Beginn Enduring Freedom

05.12.2001 Petersberg-Konferenz 1

20.12.2001 UN-Mandat ISAF

02.12.2002 Petersberg-Konferenz 2

24.10.2003 Beschluß Bundestag KUNDUZ

31.03.2004 Afghanistan-Konferenz Berlin

09.10.2004 Präsidentenwahlen

Spätherbst 2005 Parlamentswahlen

2005-2008 Destabilisierung

2009 Wahlen Präsident

2014 Wahlen Präsident

Straße der Deutsch-Afghanischen Freundschaft


Deutsch-Afghanische Freundschaft Gesellschaft e.V.

Der Feind

meines

Feindes

ist mein

Freund

Mein

Feind ist

sein

bester

Freund

Meines Feindes

Freund hat

einen Freund,

der meines

Freundes

Feind ist

Meines Freundes Feind

ist der Feind vom

befreundeten Feind meines

Freundes

Der Freund vom

Freund meines

Freundes ist der

Feind vom

früheren Freund

seines befreundeten

Feindes

Sprichwort in Afghanistan: „Hinter jedem Berg sitzt ein König“


Deutsch-Afghanische Freundschaft Gesellschaft e.V.

Mitteleuropa im 14. Jahrhundert


Deutsch-Afghanische Freundschaft Gesellschaft e.V.

RETURNEES HOST COUNTRIES AND WHERE DO THEY GO TO

Areas and No. of returnees 2008

- 20.001- 33.000

- 10.001- 20.000

- 351- 10.000

Living On The Edge

> 5 million Afghans have returned to•

their homeland since the fall of the

Taliban regime in 2001.

Refugees returned in high hopes, now•

find themselves on the economic edge.

Harsh realities of struggles for landsclaims•

and waterrights

So what: Growing insecurity threatens the gains

the country has made since then.


Deutsch-Afghanische Freundschaft Gesellschaft e.V.

Infrastruktur (Verkehr) als

Voraussetzung für Handel


Deutsch-Afghanische Freundschaft Gesellschaft e.V.

Bundesstraße


Deutsch-Afghanische Freundschaft Gesellschaft e.V.

Politische Situation


Deutsch-Afghanische Freundschaft Gesellschaft e.V.


Inoffizielles Endergebnis; Stand: 27.10.04

Deutsch-Afghanische Freundschaft Gesellschaft e.V.

KARZAI

55,5 %

KANUNI

16,2 %

MOHAQQEQ

DOSTUM

11,7 % 10,1 %

JALAL

1,1 %


Wahlsieger in den Provinzen

Deutsch-Afghanische Freundschaft Gesellschaft e.V.

DOSTUM

KANUNI

MOHAQQEQ

KARZAI


Deutsch-Afghanische Freundschaft Gesellschaft e.V.

19.12.2005

Afghanistan hat wieder ein

Parlament


Deutsch-Afghanische Freundschaft Gesellschaft e.V.

Ex-König

unterstützt

Präsident

im Ausland geschätzt,

im Inland schwache Machtbasis

Zahir Schah

Hamid Karzai

Ex-Präsident

unterstützt

sog. „Panschiris“

dominierten die

Interimsregierung

Rabbani

Fahim

QANOONI

Abdullah


Deutsch-Afghanische Freundschaft Gesellschaft e.V.

Kampfeinsatz

Ergebnis 9/11

Kampf gegen den internationalen Terrorismus

International Security Army Forces

Kein Kampfeinsatz

Auftrag:

Sicherheit und ruhiges Umfeld

Für die zivilen Aufbauorganisationen schaffen


International Security Assistance

Force

Deutsch-Afghanische Freundschaft Gesellschaft e.V.


International Security Assistance Force

Deutsch-Afghanische Freundschaft Gesellschaft e.V.

TKM

Termez

UZB

Kunduz

Fayzabad

Mazar-e Sharif

Herat

Kabul

IRN

Kandahar

PAK


Deutsch-Afghanische Freundschaft Gesellschaft e.V.


Zivilisierung der Gewalt im militärischen Einsatz

Deutsch-Afghanische Freundschaft Gesellschaft e.V.

Politische

Metapher

Ethisches Prinzip

Rechtsstatus und

Rechtsquelle

Operationstyp Ausstattung /

Habitus

Gewaltintensität

„Krieg“

Bewaffneter

Konflikt

Konflikt

Widerstand

Sozialer

Widerspruch

„Frieden“

Kombattantenprivileg

a) der Bekämpfung legitimer

militärischer Ziele,

b) der Abwägung zwischen

legitimen militärischen Zielen und

dem Schutz von Zivilpersonen. Als

Kriegsverbrechen gilt der exzessive

Kollateralschaden!

Ungeteilter Menschenrechtsschutz

(IHRL)

a) kein Kampfführungsrecht,

b) keine Abwägung von

menschlichem Leben gegen

menschliches Leben

Internationaler

oder nicht

internationaler

bewaffneter

Konflikt

IHL/LOAC + Genfer Abk.

Interner

bewaffneter

Konflikt

Nationales Strafrecht,

Notstandsrecht,

Menschenrechtspakte

SOFA etc.

Instabilität

unterhalb der Schwelle

eines bewaffneten

Konflikts

rechtlicher Rahmen jeweils

einzigartig, häufig aus

Mandat Kapitel VII

Stabile

Staatlichkeit,

Nationales Strafrecht

Distanzschläge

(Luftherrschaft)

2010

Bodenoperation

(Errichtung

territorialer

Herrschaft)

Dynamischer u.

komplexer

Einsatzraum

Full Spectrum

Operations

(Stabilisierung

territorialer

Herrschaft COIN)

Gendarmerie /

Polizei (Ausübung

staatlicher Gewalt)

Habituelle

Eskalation

(Kombattantenstatus)

Bewaffneter Konflikt = KRIEG

2001-2009

Habituelle

Deeskalation

Verhältnismäßigkeit

STABILISIERUNGSEINSATZ


Konferenzen zu Afghanistan (Auszug)

Deutsch-Afghanische Freundschaft Gesellschaft e.V.

Bonn•

• Bonn 27.11.-05.12.2001

•Tokio: 21.-22.01.2002

•Bonn: 02.12.2002

•Berlin: 31.03.-01.04.2004

•London: 31.01.-01.02.2006

•Rom: 02.-03.07.2007

•Paris: 12.06.2008

•Den Haag: 31.03.2009

•London: 28.01.2010

•Kabul: 20.07.2010

•Berlin: 12.12.2011

•Chicago: 09.-10.05. 2012

• Tokio: 07.-08. Juli 2012


Afghan National Development Strategie 2007-2009

Afghan National Development Plan ANDP 2010 – 2011

Deutsch-Afghanische Freundschaft Gesellschaft e.V.

Security

Governance

Rule of Law

&

Human Rights

Economic & Social Development


GIRoA Cluster Structure

Deutsch-Afghanische Freundschaft Gesellschaft e.V.

Ministry of Finance

Agriculture and Rural

Development Cluster

Coordinator

Ministry

Agriculture,

Irrigation and

Livestock

Human Resource

Development Cluster

Ministry of

Rehabilitation

and Rural

Development

Ministry of

Higher

Education

Ministry of

Energy and

Water

Coordinator

Ministry of

Education

Ministry of

Labor, Social

Affairs,

Martyrs and

Disabled

Ministry of

Counter-

Narcotics

Ministry of

Women’s

Affairs

Ministry of Finance

Infrastructure and

Economic Development

Cluster

Ministry of

Transportation

and Civil

Aviation

Ministry of

Public Works

Coordinator

Ministry of

Mines

Ministry of

Energy and

Water

Ministry of

Commerce and

Industry


Assessment of Transition

Readiness

Deutsch-Afghanische Freundschaft Gesellschaft e.V.

Security

Ashraf Ghani Ahmadzai

Jowzjan

Balkh

Kunduz

Born 1949

Faryab

Takhar

Badakhshan

Sar-e Pul

Samangan

Baghlan

Transition Readiness Status

Governance

Faryab

Jowzjan

Sar-e Pul

Balkh

Samangan

Kunduz

Baghlan

Takhar

Badakhshan

Command Guidance

and

Analysis of Objective

and Subjective Factors

Development

Faryab

Jowzjan

Balkh

Kunduz

Joint Afghan-NATO Inteqal Board (JANIB)

Takhar

Badakhshan

Sar-e Pul

Samangan

Baghlan

Colors are examples and do not

reflect the current situation

PoA


TRANSITION PROCESS

Deutsch-Afghanische Freundschaft Gesellschaft e.V.

SHAPE OPLAN Phase 3:

Stabilization

Provincial Afghan Security Lead

SHAPE OPLAN Phase 4:

Transition

SHAPE OPLAN

Phase 5:

Redeployment

Assessment Process

Implementation Process

Greater than

24 months

24-18

months

18-12

months

12-6

months

6-0

months

Stage 1

Support

Stage 2

Mentor

Stage 3

Enable

Stage 4

Sustain

Conditions to initiate transition process:

1) ANSF are capable of shouldering additional

security tasks with less assistance from ISAF.

2) Security is at a level that allows the population

to pursue routine daily activities.

3) Local governance is sufficiently developed so

that security will not be undermined as ISAF

assistance is reduced.

4) ISAF is postured properly to “thin out” as ANSF

capabilities increase and threat levels remain

constant or diminish.

MO MOI

change D of lead

responsibility

Conditions to complete transition process:

1) Sustainable ANSF are responsible for population

security and law enforcement, and they are

accountable to and serving the people.

2) Provincial Governance is sufficiently inclusive,

accountable, and acceptable to the Afghan people

3) Population has access to basic social services and

adequate rule of law; establishing the foundation for

sustainable licit economic growth.

4) ISAF is postured to provide strategic overwatch and

assistance needed for Afghan forces to achieve

sustainable security.


STABILITY

Deutsch-Afghanische Freundschaft Gesellschaft e.V.

Transition

Transformation

Tranche Announcement (TA) TA TA TA

~ 6 Months ~ 6 Months ~ 6 Months ~ 6 Months

I

N

T

H

E

A

T

R

E

IO

ISAF

GIROA

ANSF

D&G

S

D&G

S

D&G

S

D&G

S

D&G

S

D&G

S

D&G

S

D&G

S

D&G

S

D&G

S

SUPPORT MENTOR ENABLE SUSTAIN

FOLLOW ON FORCES

STAGE 1 STAGE 2 STAGE 3 STAGE 4

= ISAF contribution

D=Development G=Governance S=Security


Deutsch-Afghanische Freundschaft Gesellschaft e.V.


Deutsch-Afghanische Freundschaft Gesellschaft e.V.

Wirtschaftliche Situation


Deutsch-Afghanische Freundschaft Gesellschaft e.V.

Gold

Coal

Cement

Gravel

Construction Material

Gravel and Sand

Gypsum

Marble

Salt

Granite


Dahlberg analysis

Deutsch-Afghanische Freundschaft Gesellschaft e.V.


value agriculture chain

Deutsch-Afghanische Freundschaft Gesellschaft e.V.


value agriculture chain

Deutsch-Afghanische Freundschaft Gesellschaft e.V.

Dahlberg analysis


The Deutsch-Afghanische “Value Freundschaft Added” Gesellschaft Model e.V.

GAPS & Challenges

analysis

of agricultural local culture

after 25 years of civil war

know how&irrigation system/

water after 25 years of civil war

infrastructure, (cold) storage house,

processing capabilities

know how and equipment

after 25 years of civil war

infrastructure, roads and bridges/

culverts (connect to next market

after 25 years of civil war

professional distribution

contact to fairs, products

confirm to int. rules & regulations

(green trade fair Berlin)

120507 LTC Dr. Spross


value agriculture chain

Deutsch-Afghanische Freundschaft Gesellschaft e.V.

Date: 12/05/07


Deutsch-Afghanische Freundschaft Gesellschaft e.V.


Natural Resources AFG

Deutsch-Afghanische Freundschaft Gesellschaft e.V.

Commodity

Copper

Iron ore

Gold

Barite

Bauxite

Rare-earth

elements

Oil and

natural gas

liquids

Natural gas

Resources

57.8 mt

2,438 mt

2,698 kg

151.5 mt

4.5 mt

4.88 mt

1,596

mmbbls

15.7 Tof


Deutsch-Afghanische Freundschaft Gesellschaft e.V.

Deposits complete or partially in Northern Afghanistan


Oil and Gas

Deutsch-Afghanische Freundschaft Gesellschaft e.V.

Oil and Gas

Basins

Oil

Gas

Amu Darya Basin

Afghan-Tajik Basin


Oil Tender Amu Darya Basin

Deutsch-Afghanische Freundschaft Gesellschaft e.V.

• China National Petroleum

Company (CNPC)

Oil

Gas

Amu Darya Basin

• WATAN Group (Popal)

• Contract for 3 oil blocks

• 15% royalty

• Start in 2012

• > 80 mil barrels crude oil

• Improvements in roads

and infrastructure


Tender Areas

Deutsch-Afghanische Freundschaft Gesellschaft e.V.

MASAR-E

SHARIF

Block

SANDUQLI Block

AHMADABAD Block

BALKH Block


Deutsch-Afghanische Freundschaft Gesellschaft e.V.


Infrastructure

Deutsch-Afghanische Freundschaft Gesellschaft e.V.

AQUINEH, HAIRATAN & SHIR KHAN BANDAR BCP

Railway link UZBEKISTAN – MES

MES Intern. Airport

NEPS (North East Power System)

Existing & Planned - - -

HIGHWAY No. 1

Natural RESOURCES


HIGHWAY No.1 – Section 6 QAISAR -

GHORMACH

Deutsch-Afghanische Freundschaft Gesellschaft e.V.

HIGHWAY No. 1

Background Information:

• “The Ring-Road” of AFG,

• National and transnational vital lifeline for economy

and trade,

• missing link from West to North approx. 235 km

(approx. 40 km AOO RC N; Section 5+6),

• budget $477 Mio USD donated by ADB

(road construction& community development),

• Contract for project EMJV/ MoPW signed on Dec 31, 2011,

• due to contract: security has to be provided by GIRoA

(MOPW/ MOI)

1

3

2

4

5

6

Qaysar

Armalek

Date: 12/04/15


R&D Air Traffic & Transportation

Deutsch-Afghanische Freundschaft Gesellschaft e.V.

International Airport Mazar-e Sharif – Greater National Airport Feyzabad

MeS Civil Airport today

New runway at MeS

InternationalAirport

Soviet relicts at

MeS Airfield

MeS Mil Airport

Feyzabad Airfileld today


Deutsch-Afghanische Freundschaft Gesellschaft e.V.


Deutsch-Afghanische Freundschaft Gesellschaft e.V.


Railway link –

UZBEKISTAN - MAZAR-E SHARIF

Deutsch-Afghanische Freundschaft Gesellschaft e.V.

Length 73.47 km

Start Friendship Bridge, Hairaton

(east of Termez, Uzbekistan)

End Gur-e-Mar (18 km east of

Mazar-eSharif)

Gauge 1520 mm

Cost US$175m

HWY 5

Trans-loading

station south

NAIBABAD

HWY 1

in use

not used

US LogBase

DEHADI II

Camp Marmal

Date: 12/04/18


Mazar-e Sharif – International Airport

Deutsch-Afghanische Freundschaft Gesellschaft e.V.

MES Intern. Airport

Background Information:

• Rehabilitation of the Airport

• Trilateral Cooperation between AFG, DEU,

• Financing by DEU (48 Mil Euro)

• Impact on MES Railway system

• Impact on BXP HAIRATAN, improving midscale

industry and commerce

Date: 12/04/18


Roads in Mazar-E Sharif

Deutsch-Afghanische Freundschaft Gesellschaft e.V.


Basic Health Care and Water

Deutsch-Afghanische Freundschaft Gesellschaft e.V.

HEALTH SNAPSHOT

7.4 million people have improved access to basic health services

539 health clinics constructed and 128 under completion

328 health facilities strengthened

7,575 health workers including doctors, midwives and nurses trained

13,150 people receive health care services daily through clinics and direct

outreach workers

4 million children vaccinated against polio (WHO)

Infant mortality rate has dropped by 22 percent.

Over 85 percent of the population now has access to some form of health care

Source: USAID


R&D Education

Deutsch-Afghanische Freundschaft Gesellschaft e.V.

School & Education-

System

Geschlossene Aqtasch High School:

"Wenn wir nun Schulmädchen töten,

dürft ihr euch nicht wundern", drohen

die Taliban.

Leerer Klassenraum in der Aqtasch

High School: Eltern trauen sich nicht

mehr, ihre Mädchen in die Schule zu

schicken.

Schulbeauftragter Halimi: "Was soll

ich als Zivilist gegen die Taliban

machen?"

Bedrohliche "Night

Letters": Nächtliche

Botschaften des

"Islamischen

Emirats von

Afghanistan"

schüchtern die

Bevölkerung ein.

$ 83Mio investment program

North Afghanistan above

average

Boy and Girlschool above

average

School security above

average

Tendency since 2008

Growing influence of

Mullahs in Pashtun Regions

10 Girlschools closed in

Kunduz province in 2009

due too detoriorating

security situation

Source: Spiegel Online


Increase of energy consume and import

Deutsch-Afghanische Freundschaft Gesellschaft e.V.

01.05.12


Increase of energy consume and import

Deutsch-Afghanische Freundschaft Gesellschaft e.V.

250

Kabul Peak Power Output (MW)

April 6th (2006-2011))

200

MW

150

100

2010

2009

2008

2007

2006

2011

50

0

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24

Hour


NEPS (North East Power System)

Deutsch-Afghanische Freundschaft Gesellschaft e.V.

Shortfalls:

• Lack of cross-border communication

Future 500 kV or 765 kV

• Denial of Afghan personnel is in contradiction to capacity building

Tajik to Pakistan

• NEPS pylons partly to close to the railway. Railway will be blocked Transmission if pylons System are

demolished

(under study)

• UTY’s call for additional security installations supplementary to the approved security plan

hold up the start of the mobilization phase

Actions to be taken:

• Cargo trans-loading has to be contracted and funded.

• MoI has to provide the demanded installations and to harmonise this with the approved

Tashkil.

Date: 12/04/18


NEPS – Total Objective

Deutsch-Afghanische Freundschaft Gesellschaft e.V.


Deutsch-Afghanische Freundschaft Gesellschaft e.V.

NEPS = North East Power System

Afghanistan

Power Sector Needs

Uzbekistan Imports

100MW to 470MW

$20M ($.06/KwH)

SEPS = South East Power System

Uzbekistan

Turkmenistan

Sheberghan

Qal'a-i Mamay

445

Tajikistan Imports

300MW

April- October

ADB - Construction Underway

($0.035 KwH)

200

48

400

54

Kelegai

Iran

Shiberghan Gas Field

Thermal Power Plants Power and

Gas Lines

200MW + 48MW

$440M ($.06/KwH)

24 Months

Sheberghan Gas

Field

NEPS 2

NEPS 2 Expansion

600MW 600MW Capacity

$400-600M Capacity

48 Months $400M

48 Months

Fertilizer Plant

Aynak Coal

Tarakhil

Pul-e-Khumri Substation

105

250

66

100

400

Baghdara

Naghlu

Northern Run-of-River

Hydropower Untapped

600- 1,200MW

$2.5 to $3B

48 Months

Gamberi

Shal

800

36

Proposed 500kV Line

Existing 220kV 2 Circuit

Proposed 22okV 2 Circuit

Existing 110kV Line

Proposed 110kV Line

Kajaki Power and

Irrigation Expansion

60-100MW

$400 to $500M

60-84 Months

NEPS

Hajigak Iron

22

Aynak Copper

Sarubi

180

Sarubi 2

11

Darunta

Existing 20kV Import Line

Proposed 500/220kV Substation

Existing/Proposed 220kV Substation

Existing/Proposed 110kV Substation

Existing Natural Gas Pipeline

27

SEPS

52

34

Kajaki

Transmission and Distribution to

Eastern Populations 400MW Capacity

$280M

24-30 Months

Proposed Natural Gas Pipeline

TPP

Thermal Power Plant

Hydropower Plant (proposed)

Natural Gas Field

SEPS Expansion

Kajaki Unit 2

from 34 to 52MW

Kandahar Upgrades

Plus Transmission and

Distribution

$442M

32-38 Months

Dala

NEPS-Kandahar Tactical

Tie-in

30MW-150MW

$480M

36 Months

Pakistan


Near- Medium Term Power Sector Needs

Deutsch-Afghanische Freundschaft Gesellschaft e.V.

Energy Project Projected Cost Timeframe

Near Term (0-5 years)

Component Total

• DABS Commercialization: Kabul, Kandahar $59,000,000 2009-2012

• Kandahar-Helmand Power Initiative $512,000,000 2010-2013

• Kandahar SIP/Silo + Fuel $410,000,000 2010-2013

• NEPS to SEPS Engineering Design $70,000,000 2009-2011

• NEPS to SEPS Transmission Backbone $380,000,000 2010-2013

• NE Transmission and Distribution (Kabul to Khost) $376,800,000 2011-2013

• Kabul Distribution Connections $60,000,000 2011

• Sheberghan Gas and Thermal Power $499,000,000 2011-2012

• NEPS Expansion (Hairatan, Salang by pass, Turkmen) $905,000,000 2011-2014

• Transmission Improvement/Efficency (NLCC/SCADA) $102,000,000 2009-2012

• Hydropower Studies/Design (Surobi, Baghdara, Kajaki 2) $80,000,000 2011

• Darunta (11MW) Cascade Hydropower Rehabilitation $11,000,000 2009-2011

• Surobi (180MW) Cascade Hydropower Plant $445,000,000 2012-2015

• 100 MW Expansion at Kajaki HPP $500,000,000 2012-2016/8

• Baghdara (200+100+100 MW) Cascade Hydropower System $900,000,000 2014-2019

• Power and Gas Sector Capacity Building $163,000,000 2011-2015

• Clean Energy Initiatives $83,000,000 2010-2014

• Multi-purpose Dams $322,000,000 2011-2012

• Construction Oversight and Engineering $250,000,000 2011-2015

• Nationwide Distribution Connections $500,000,000 2014-2019

• Near and Medium Term Costs $6,627,800,000 2009 - 2019

68


Projects/Programs

Deutsch-Afghanische Freundschaft Gesellschaft e.V.

• RCDF (Regional Capacity Development Fund) GIZ

– Up to 56 Mio. € until 2013

– Allocation to provinces according to number of

population and number of districts

– Projects from 0 – 500.000 €, average 100.000 €

• RIDF (Regional Infrastructure Development Fund) KFW

– Up to 81 Mio. until 2013

– Allocation to provinces according to number of

population

– Projects from 500.000 – 1.5 Mio €

Date: 12/04/24


Projects/Programs RCDF/RIDF

Deutsch-Afghanische Freundschaft Gesellschaft e.V.

Received Project Proposals

Prioritized Project Proposals

Infrastructure

Agriculture &

Rural

Development

Education Others Sectors

Date: 12/04/25


Deutsch-Afghanische Freundschaft Gesellschaft e.V.


Deutsch-Afghanische Freundschaft Gesellschaft e.V.


Deutsch-Afghanische Freundschaft Gesellschaft e.V.

Opium


Opium

Deutsch-Afghanische Freundschaft Gesellschaft e.V.


Opium

Deutsch-Afghanische Freundschaft Gesellschaft e.V.


Deutsch-Afghanische Freundschaft Gesellschaft e.V.

Situation der Frauen


Afghan Women 1880 - 1929

Deutsch-Afghanische Freundschaft Gesellschaft e.V.

• King Abdur Rahman Khan (1880 - 1901)

– Forbade practices that bound widows to remarry next of kin

– Girls promised in marriage before puberty were given the right to refuse

– Laws permitted women to sue for alimony and request divorce

• Amir Amanullah and Queen Soraya (1919 - 1929)

– 1923 Constitution

• Education compulsory for all Afghans

• Women granted the right to vote

• Allowed women to enter politics

– First women’s hospital established;

– First girl’s school was opened by 1928, 800 girls enrolled

– Women were not required, by law, to wear the veil

HTAT Fact: In the early 1920’s King Amanullah's sister, Kobra, created Anjuman-

E-Himayat-E-Niswan (Organization for Women's Protection)


Afghan Women 1929 - 1973

Deutsch-Afghanische Freundschaft Gesellschaft e.V.

• King Mohammad Zahir Shah (1933-1973)

• 1958 - Afghanistan sends first female delegate to U.N.

• 1959 - Kabul University becomes coeducational

• 1964 - Constitution confirms women’s right to vote, allowance

of political activity, and equal rights

• 1965 - Women participate in elections

- Formation of Democratic Organization of Afghan Women

(DOAW)

• Voluntary observation of purdah (seclusion) introduced

HTAT Fact: Kubra Nurzai, appointed as Minister of Health in 1965, was the first

female minister to serve in Afghanistan. She was reappointed in 1967.


Deutsch-Afghanische Freundschaft Gesellschaft e.V.

Afghan Women - Communist Era

• 1977 - Meena Keshwar Kamal founds RAWA (Revolutionary Association of

Women of Afghanistan

• Decree No 7 of 17 October 1978 - supports equal rights in civil law

• 1978 - 1979 - Decrees issued:

– Compulsory education for girls

– Bride price abolished

– Minimum marriage age for girls set at 16

– Women encouraged to remove their veils

• 1979 - 1989 Soviet Invasion

– Numerous women and children killed by Soviet troops

• 1980 - Nahid Sahid killed by Russians during a demonstration

• 1987 - Meena Keshwar Kamal is assassinated

HTAT Fact: In 1984, Khatol Mohammadzai became Afghanistan's first woman

paratrooper; she currently serves as a General in the Afghan National Army


Afghan Women 1992 - 2001

Deutsch-Afghanische Freundschaft Gesellschaft e.V.

• The Civil War – April 1992, end of communist rule, return of

Mujahideen

– Women become targets of sexual violence linked to factional fighting

– 1995 Afghanistan has highest infant mortality rate

– Female life expectancy is 43

– 3% of girls receive primary education

• Taliban – 1996, Kabul falls, implementation of Shari‘a Law

– Women isolated from the rest of the society

• Women banned from schools, hospitals and offices

• Women must wear burqah and be escorted by husband or muharam

– 40,000 widows survive on aid in Kabul

• Many women become beggars and prostitutes to feed their families


Afghan Women 2001 - Present

Deutsch-Afghanische Freundschaft Gesellschaft e.V.

• Established:

– Ministry of Women’s Affairs (MOWA)

• First Afghan Women’s National Council held in 2008

– Women’s Affairs Parliamentary Commission

– Commission for the Elimination of Violence Against

Women

• Approved:

– National Action Plan For Women In Afghanistan

– Elimination of Violence Against Women Law

– Convention Elimination of all Discrimination Against

Women

• Way Ahead:

– Support Afghan women with small projects/micro loans

– Help Afghan women connect with GIRoA

Currently, women

comprise:

21% of Government employees

37% Enrollment in school (girls)

28% of Teachers –

18% of University students –

5% of the Police force –

24% of Health staff –

10% of Judicial staff –



Participation by women:

12% in Emergency Loya Jirga

20% in Constitutional Loya Jirga

40% in both the Presidential and

National Assembly elections




* Information provided by the

Ministry of Women’s Affairs


Deutsch-Afghanische Freundschaft Gesellschaft e.V.

Governance (RoL)


Deutsch-Afghanische Freundschaft Gesellschaft e.V.

Challenge of a solution to formal and informal legal system

„State and Non-state justice Systems in Afghanistan“, Ali Wardak 17.10.2011

Overall situation (afgh. brocken Justice):

1. Existence of state institutions prior to former USSR invasion

2. Extensive destruction of Afghanistan’s state justice institutions after

invasion in 1979

3. death and migration of qualified judges, prosecutors etc.

Taliban justice system

4. Authorization of formation of the Afghanistan Judical Commission

(Bonn Agreement 12/2001)

5. lack of vision and competence last 10 years

6. rebuilding justice system slow and patchy (2001-2010)

7. post Taliban state justice system is far from delivering justice to Afghan

citizen

8. heavily overshadowed with endemic corruption, high levels of

professional incompetence, inadequacy of physical infrastructure

(2011)

9. Justice institutions theoret. closely interconnected, in reality only little

organic chain-like interaction (hardly operate system)


TRAINING FOR JUDGES -- Subjects and Sponsors

SUBJECTS

Implementers

USAID RLS-

Adam

GENERAL JUDICIAL TRAINING NIJAT Formal JSSP EUPOL GIZ ILF-A Smith Max Planck IDLO Canada UNDP Netherlands

"Stage" Deutsch-Afghanische x Freundschaft Gesellschaft x e.V.

Continuing Legal Education /In-

Service Education x x

Constitutional Law x x x

Judicial Code of Ethics x x x

CRIMINAL LAW

Criminal Procedure Code x x x x x

Gender Rights/ Eliminating Violence

Against Women x x x

Juvenile Justice

x

Counter-Narcotics

x

Criminal Defense x x x

Corruption x x

Investigative Methods and Evidence x x x

CIVIL LAW

Commerical Law x x x x

Land Law x x

Personal Status Law x x

Family Law x x x

Inheritance Law

x

Human Rights x x

PRACTICAL APPLICATION

Mock Trials x x

Critical Thinking x

Court Organization x x

Study Abroad

Judicial Mentoring -

Provincial/Districts x x x

Conferences & Seminars x x x

Fair Trial Standards

x

Train-the-trainer x x x

Court Administration

Case Management

x

Human Resources x x

Administration x x x

Working Conditions

Budgeting


Deutsch-Afghanische Freundschaft Gesellschaft e.V.

Focus areas:

(GIZ) GERMAN INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION IN AFGHANISTAN

Rule of Law Project 2007-2013

Samangan, Balkh, Baghlan, Kunduz, Takhar, Badakhshan

1. Advise MoJ in budgeting

2. Legal Aid services, (private and public) national, provincial, district

level

3. capacity building of all legal actors in districts

4. Huquuq and elders, provincial and district level

5. Community Policing and GPPT support at district level

6. Police-Prosecutor-judges cooperation on district level

7. Legal and gender advise for ANP

8. Small construction works and equipment provincial and district

level

9. Legal Awareness (radio shows, billboards)

10. Universities support for women (study places),


International focus on Capacity

Building

2009 - 2013

Deutsch-Afghanische Freundschaft Gesellschaft e.V.

UNDP:

Capacity

building in

provinces,

districts,

municipalities

and provincial

councils

$180 Mio 2010-

2014

(AFG wide)

UNDP: Gender

empowerment

$10 Mio

(AFG wide)

SIDA NSP Support for

Community

Development Councils

$10 Mio 2010-2013

(earmarked RC N)

USAID/ACSS

$250 Mio Training

3,000 civil servants

(AFG wide)

CSSP (Correction

system support

program)

JSSP(Justice sector

support program)

gender program

JLTP (Young Lawyers

train program)

FLC (Family Law Clinic)

(AFG wide)

UNDP:

Capacity for

Afghan Public

Services-

Program

Since 2009

DEU Stability Fund

North-AFG

15 Mio Euro p.a.

(several provinces)

USAID/RAMP UP:

municipality services

program

$150 Mio 2011-2012/13

EC/IOM:

Provincial

Governance

Support-Program

Afghanistan

Stability Program:

Building GIRoAinfrastructure

AOO wide

UNDP:

Accountability and

Transparency-

Project

(AFG wide)

Poss. District

Delivery

Program

DEU Regional

Capacity-

Development Fund

North-AFG

24 Mio Euro 2010-

13

(several provinces)

Ongoing

Planned

Finished

SIDA Training for

Journalists, 2011-

2013

600.000 USD

IDLG Performance

Based Governor’s

Fund (USAID

funded)

(AFG wide)

DEU Educational

Programs (EQUIP and

basic teacher education)

10 Mio Euro

(several provinces)

Civil Service

Commission/PAR

(Public Administration

Reform)

USAID/EC/World Bank

etc.

AFG wide

DEU Regional

Infrastructure-

Development Fund

North-AFG

22 Mio Euro p.a.

(several provinces)


Rule of Law programs

2009 – 2013

Deutsch-Afghanische Freundschaft Gesellschaft e.V.

Law and Order Trust

Fund, salary payment

for ANP,

DEU 24 Mio p.a.

(AFG-wide)

Regionwide

vocational

training for

prisoners (first

project in Faryab)

ANP-Mentoring:

NTM-A 1/10

Mountain

(region wide)

German Police

Training Center,

Training PIC,

ANPA/PTC, IA MeS

Airport K-9

53 Mio Euro p.a.

DEU-program

Ongoing

“Promotion of Rule of

Law”

Planned

25 Mio Euro 2009-2013

(six provinces: FAY,

Finished

KDZ, THAKAR,

BAGHLAN, BALKH,

SAMAGAN)

NDL-program

“Promotion of Rule of

Law”

6,2 Mio Euro 2011-2014

(only Kunduz)

Fair trial Program

Training of judges

and prosecutors

(DEU-MPI)

Justice Sector

and Corrections

System programs

(US DoS)

Regionwide

shaping justice

attitudes radio

programs (Balkh

pilot project)

SIDA/Int. Legal

Foundation Training

of Lawyers 400.000

USD 2011/12

Region-wide

criminal law

practitioner

training project

(Kunduz pilot)

GPPT Police

Training and

Mentoring (GER)

Human right

EUPOL Police

Training and

Mentoring (DEU,

SWE and others)

FDD

(GPPT-MP)

2008-2011


Deutsch-Afghanische Freundschaft Gesellschaft e.V.

U.S. Civilian Funding and overview bribes (A. Wardak 2011):

Funding

450

400

350

300

250

200

150

100

50

0

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

year

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

U.S. Civilian Funding 2002-2011

Series2

sources: Wyler&Katzman, Cong. Research Serv., R41484 Afghanistan: US Rule of Law and Justice 2010


Challenge of a solution to formal and informal legal

system

„State and Non-state justice Systems in

Afghanistan“, Ali Wardak 17.10.2011

Deutsch-Afghanische Freundschaft Gesellschaft e.V.

60

50

40

30

20

10

0

bribes (A. Wardak 2011):

Prosecutors

Judges

Customs officer

Police officer

Cadraste officer

Municipal

Members Government

Tax/Rewenues officer

NGO's

Member Parliament

Doctors

Nurses

Teachers

ANA

Urban areas

Series1

sources: United Nations Office on Drug and Crime, Corruption in Afghanistan 2010


Deutsch-Afghanische Freundschaft Gesellschaft e.V.

bribes (A. Wardak 2011):

70

60

50

40

30

20

10

0

rural areas

Series1

Prosecutors

Customs officer

Cadrastre Officer

Tax Officer

Member Parliament

Nurses

ANA

sources: United Nations Office on Drug and Crime, Corruption in Afghanistan 2010


Deutsch-Afghanische Freundschaft Gesellschaft e.V.

Gehälter BT-DRS 17/5665 (2011)


Deutsch-Afghanische Freundschaft Gesellschaft e.V.

Challenge: linkage of formal and informal justice

LOO 2.3.4: Re-emerge of traditional dispute resolution mechanism supported and linkage

between the traditional and formal justice established and sustained

UNAMA Report April 10th, 2011:

“Analysis:

The linkages between formal and informal justice systems in Afghanistan are

overwhelmingly influenced by Muslim clerics in NER (North East Region). In most of

districts there is too much religious influence on the application of the formal legal

system. In particular in Kunduz, Takharestan Islamic seminary is among the most

influential seminaries of the region and many judicial and non judicial actors are

graduated form here. Elders and clerics intervene in civil cases which are often dealt

with along traditional and conservative understandings of Sharia. In criminal cases,

the situation is better but the Sharia criminal law, especially in form of mediation,

payment of blood money and reconciliation out of court still has its impact on

criminal justice.”

So what:

Implementation of formal and informal legal system in one system:

Legalize informal decision into formal legal system in Huquuq = Title of execution !!


Challenge of a solution to formal and informal legal system

„State and Deutsch-Afghanische Non-state justice Systems Freundschaft in Afghanistan“, Gesellschaft Ali Wardak 17.10.2011 e.V.

perceptions State-Non State Justice (A. Wardak 2011)

Strongly agree State Courts Jirgas/Shuras

% %

Are accessible to me 73 86

Are fair and trusted 53 73

Follow the local norms/values 51 70

Are feective at delivering justice 54 69

Resolve cases timely and promptly 42 66

sources: ASIA Foundation, 2010


Challenge of a solution to formal and informal legal system

„State and Deutsch-Afghanische Non-state justice Systems Freundschaft in Afghanistan“, Gesellschaft Ali Wardak 17.10.2011 e.V.

Shura/Jirga (A. Wardak 2011):

Frequency of community groups ar village- or

neighbourhood-based Jirga or Shura

Always sometimes rarely never

Don't

know

refused

Elders 65 25 7 3 1

Mullahs 36 43 15 6 1

Local leaders

(Khan or Malik) 31 36 22 9 2

Commanders 12 25 34 26 3 1

Women 2 6 21 67 3 1

Other 2 3 5 9 81 1

values in percentages; sample of 2.339 individuals in 32 provinces)


Deutsch-Afghanische Freundschaft Gesellschaft e.V.

Ausblick


Deutsch-Afghanische Freundschaft Gesellschaft e.V.

Ausblick 2014 - 2024

Berliner Tagesspiegel v. 15.08.2012 Syrische Rebellen


Deutsch-Afghanische Freundschaft Gesellschaft e.V.


Deutsch-Afghanische Freundschaft Gesellschaft e.V.


Tokio 7/2012

Deutsch-Afghanische Freundschaft Gesellschaft e.V.

Die Teilnehmer der Afghanistan-Konferenz haben

Hilfszusagen in Höhe von rund 15 Milliarden Dollar (12,1

Milliarden Euro) zugesagt. Nach Angaben aus

Delegationskreisen werden internationale Zusagen für einen

Zeitraum von vier bis fünf Jahren ab 2013 erwartet. Die Hilfe

werde aber an Bedingungen geknüpft sein.

So werden Afghanistan und die Geberländer den Angaben

zufolge in einer neuen Rahmenvereinbarung gegenseitige

Verpflichtungen eingehen. Während Afghanistan auch

während der Transformationsphase bis 2024 Unterstützung

zugesichert werde, verpflichte sich das Land im Gegenzug

zu Reformen, hieß es. Die Geldgeber verlangen vor allem

eine bessere Verwaltung öffentlicher Gelder, eine Stärkung

der Steuereintreibung, Garantien auf dem Gebiet der

Menschen- und vor allem der Frauenrechte, Justizreformen

sowie "glaubhafte" Wahlen im Jahr 2014.


Deutsch-Afghanische Freundschaft Gesellschaft e.V.

Situation 2012:

• Deckungslücke ANSF noch 30% nach aktuellen Zusagen

Geberländer (Abbau ca. 125.000 ausgebildete

Sicherheitskräfte)

• Bodenschätze: Bis heute keine belastbare zufriedenstellende

Exploration/Bergbau benötigt langfristige Perspektive

Ziel 2025:

• Infrastruktur, Stromversorgung, Straßenbau u.

Schienenverkehr für Wirtschaftsentwicklung ungenügend

Afghanistan wird ein normales Entwicklungsland

• Bildung und Ausbildung unbefriedigend

• Korruption auf hohem Niveau

• Sicherheitslage landesweit unbefriedigend

• Arbeitslosigkeit weiterhin auf hohem Niveau

• Reformwille der Regierung weitgehend “Fehlanzeige”

• Governance, institution building/Verwaltung unzureichend


Deutsch-Afghanische Freundschaft Gesellschaft e.V.

سوالات ؟

F R A G E N ?


Deutsch-Afghanische Freundschaft Gesellschaft e.V.

Deutsch-Afghanische Freundschaft

Gesellschaft e.V.

Anekdoten aus Afghanistan

Buchautor Dr. Joachim Sproß

Markstraße 35 - 37, 13409 Berlin

Präsident Dr. Joachim Sproß

Eingetragen im Vereinsregister Berlin

VR 95 VR 27703

FA f. Körperschaften I, Berlin

St.-Nr.: 27/663/60371

Spendenkonto

Anderkonto Rechtsanwalt Dr. Sproß

(Hamburger Sparkasse) HASPA

Konto: 1241467248

BLZ 200 505 50

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