Citation 一橋大学研究年報. 経済学研究, 46: 283-287 Issue Date 2004 ...

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Citation 一橋大学研究年報. 経済学研究, 46: 283-287 Issue Date 2004 ...

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Citation 一 橋 大 学 研 究 年 報 . 経 済 学 研 究 , 46: 283-287

Issue 2004-09-30

Date

Type Departmental Bulletin Paper

Text Version

publisher

URL

http://hdl.handle.net/10086/9221

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Hitotsubashi University Repository


Hitotsubashi University Research Series, Economics .0

Besitzwechsel in der oldenburgischen Agrargesellschaft

im +2 . und +3.

Jahrhundert

Koichiro Fujita

Resümee

In der deutschen Agrargeschite wird die Erbpraxis immer als der

wichtigste Faktor des bäuerlichen Besitzwechsels seit dem

Mittelalter hervorgehoben. Allerdings darf auch die Rolle des

Grundstücksmarkts nicht übersehen werden, wenngleich nur wenig

Materialien zur historischen Rekonstruktion des Bodenmarkts

vorliegen. Ich konnte dankenswerterweise die sogenannten

Erdebücher im Staatsarchiv Oldenburg benutzen, um die

Bodenmobilität in den vier ländlichen Kirspielen Hammelwarden,

Rodenkirchen, Waddens und Edewecht im +2 . und +3. Jahrhundert

zu erforschen. Das Kirchspiel Edewecht liegt in der Oldenburger

Geest, die drei anderen Kirchspiele liegen in der Marsch. Man

erkennt große Unterschiede zwischen den beiden Gebieten. In der

Geest vollzog sich der Besiztwechsel zumeist durch Vererbung und

der Bodenmarkt ist dort nicht stark entwickelt. Dagegen spielt in

der Marsch der Bodenmarkt neben der Vererbung eine große Rolle

im bäuerlichen Besitzwechsel. O#

ensichtlich trug die

marktorientierte Landwirtschaft, speziell die Viehwirtschaft, in der

Marsch zur Entwicklung des Bodenmarkts bei.

,2-


Hitotsubashi University Research Series, Economics .0

Regional Structure of Bengal Agrarian Societies

under Colonial Rule III+


Shinkichi Taniguchi

Abstract

The following contains the first five chapters of the third article

of my ongoing research. The present paper analyses the agrarian

structure of the Dhaka district in eastern Bengal. The basic

questions asked remain the same as those dealt with in the previous

two articles.

In this district, four sub-regions are identified and correlations between

these sub-regions and various socio-economic variables such

as population density, cropping pattern, and caste composition are

rigorously examined.

The major findings are : + Jute cultivation began to extend in

the early +21* ’ s and, largely because of this, great changes took

place in the cropping pattern and population distribution in the dis

trict ; , Epidemic diseases such as malaria caused by polluted

water in the swamps deprived one sub-region of its population,

while the other three sub-regions rapidly extended cultivation and

population ; and - Rural urbanization rurban

tookplace in one

sub-region in the second half of the +3th century. The heavy concentration

of upper caste Hindus bhadralokin this sub-region seems

to explain this phenomenon.

The remaining two chapters, which deal with the land system and

economic life of the residents, will be published in the next issue of

this journal.

,2.


Hitotsubashi University Research Series, Economics .0

Historism and Logicism : Critical Comments

Yoshiro Kamitake

Abstract

In ordinary thinking processes, there are two methods for

compiling factual knowledge and experiences. Historism is the most

popular pattern of thought which can be characterized as a way of

explaining concrete images or ideas by means of a concrete

sequence of facts. On the contrary, logicism in a wide sense is the

most elementary pattern of scientific thought from which various

theoretical developments of social and natural sciences can be

derived. Its most characteristic process of reasoning consists of the

operation of abstract notions and concepts to construct a logically

refined constellation of real objects.

Historism tends to keep from theoretically abstract thinking, and

therefore to remain outside the sphere of scientific investigation. In

this sense, historism cannot be linked to any sciences. On the other

hand, logicism tends to be separated from the realities of human

life, and to lose its historical background or the space-time coordinates

of history Geschichte . For genuine scientific thinking, logicism

should be modified according to the dynamism of the real

world, but historism must be excluded from any scientific research

works.

,2/


Hitotsubashi University Research Series, Economics .0

A Study of the Relation between Trust and

Economic E$

ciency

Kazuhiro Arai

Abstract

This paper critically reexamines general equilibrium theory using

the concept of trust among economic units. In particular, it argues

that there is a serious defect in the first proposition of welfare

economics. The reexamination first focuses on the problems of

contract incompleteness and information asymmetry inherent in

many transactions, and shows that trust is necessary for economic

e$

ciency when those problems exist. It then demonstrates that

some assumptions made regarding production functions and utility

functions in general equilibrium theory generate an improper

definition of economic e$

ciency. It is shown that trust is

indispensable for e$

ciency not only in organizations but also in

markets and societies in general. This paper proposes that trust

needs to be maintained through group pressures as well as

individual e#

orts. One of the implications of this paper is that

people should modify their view of freedom because it is influenced

by general equilibrium theory, which has serious defects as shown

in this paper.

,20


Hitotsubashi University Research Series, Economics .0

Inflation-Targeting Theory and Monetary Production

Economy : A Critical Examination of P. Krugman’s

Analysis of the Liquidity Trap

Masao Ishikura

Abstract

Since the late +33* s, there has been increasing concern over the

credibility and e#

ectiveness of inflation-targeting policy to pull the

Japanese economy out of its prolonged stagnation. Krugman

advocated the inflation-targeting policy in Japan using his analysis

of the liquidity trap. This paper examines his analytical framework

to illustrate how the conceptual confusion inherent in Fisherian

concepts of the real rate of interest obscures the characteristics of

monetary production economy and leads to misleading policy

advice, from the perspective of recent Post-Keynesian monetary

analysis. Section , shows that Krugman’s analysis of the liquidity

trap is based on the assumption of a negative equilibrium real rate

of interest. Section - illustrates how the conceptual confusion

between Fisherian concepts of the rate of real interest and Keynes’s

notion of marginal e$

ciency of capital may invalidate Krugman’s

policy advice in the context of monetary production economy, from

the Post-Keynesian perspective of monetary equilibrium.

,21

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