Notes:

web.as.uky.edu

Notes:

Notes:

• Chapter numbers for the text in the original

schedule were incorrect. The website

contains updated references.

• Developmental Model Organisms section

was derived from a different text which is

available in my office.


Developmental Toolbox

• Observational Tools

• Fate mapping, lineage analysis

• Experimental Tools

– Physical manipulation

• Ablation, isolation, transplantation

– Genetic manipulation

• Mutations, gene interference, mosaics, chimerics


Embryo Fate Mapping

Techniques

• Direct visualization of transparent embryos

• Vital dye staining

• Injection of fluorescent dye or radiolabel

• Genetic marking


Vital Dye Fate Mapping


Tunicate Embryo Fate Map


Experimental Manipulations

Physical:

Ablation

Isolation

Transplantation

Genetic


Ablation Experiment

(aka. Defect or Removal)


Isolation Experiment


Transplantation Experiment (Recombination

if host and donor are same organism)


Genetic Analysis of Development-

Morphological Analysis of Bmp7 Knockout Mice


Gene Interference: RNAi


• Cell division

Fundamental Processes in

Development

• Formation of pattern

• Change in form (morphogenesis)

• Cell differentiation

• Organismal growth


Cell Division


Pattern Formation


Gastrulation

Morphogenesis


Differentiation


Growth


• Cell division

Fundamental Processes in

Development

• Formation of pattern

• Change in form (morphogenesis)

• Cell differentiation

• Organismal growth


Differentiation


Three Steps of Differentiation

}

1. Specification- “reversible”

Commitment

2. Determination- “irreversible”

3. Differentiation- morphological change


Differentiation of Transplanted

Tissues


Developmental Modes of

Specification

• Autonomous Specification Mosaic

Development

• Conditional Specification Regulative

Development

• Syncytial Specification


Weismann’s Theory of Inheritance


Roux’s Attempt to Demonstrate

Mosaic Development


Autonomous Specification (Mosaic

Development) in Patella


Specification in Tunicates


Autonomous Specification in the Early

Tunicate Embryo


Acetylcholinesterase in the Progeny of the

Muscle Lineage Blastomeres


Developmental Modes of

Specification

• Autonomous Specification Mosaic

Development

• Conditional Specification Regulative

Development

• Syncytial Specification


Driesch’s Demonstration of

Regulative Development


Driesch’s Demonstration of

Regulative Development


Conditional Specification (Regulative

Development)


Differentiation of Transplanted

Tissues


Developmental Modes of

Specification

• Autonomous Specification Mosaic

Development

• Conditional Specification Regulative

Development

• Syncytial Specification


Syncytial Specification in Drosophila


Weismann’s Theory of Inheritance


Nuclear Transplant into Activated

Enucleated Eggs


Clone of Xenopus laevis


Mammals Cloned

From Adult Somatic

Cell Nuclei


Kitten Clone Produced Using Somatic

Nuclear Transfer


Success of Nuclear Transplants as a Function

of Donor Nucleus Developmental Age


Yolk Gene Expression in Polytene

Chromosomes


Differential Gene Activities


Sequence of the b-globin Gene

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