Animal identification and giraffes' behaviour - Haller

haller.org.uk

Animal identification and giraffes' behaviour - Haller

LEGRAND Amélie

Le bourg

24220 LE COUX

e-mail: a.legrand@enesad.fr

Animal identification and giraffes’ behaviour

June to August 2005


Introduction

My work at Nguuni was very diversified: I’ve began to do the map of the sanctuary with

Cécile Mahé, especially checking the draw of the Bird trail. Then I’ve done the animal

identification, beginning with the giraffes. When I’ve knew how to identify each giraffes, I’ve

started my daily observation of them (I’ve also done two night observations). The main part of

my study was the oryx and elands identification, for which I was helped a lot by Richard Sigilai.

For each animal identified, I’ve made a card with the physical characteristics on a draw and the

origin of the animal.


Antelopes’ treatment against ticks

The antelopes are treated in the antelopes’ boma, where there is a special place for it: the

antelopes are taken to a corridor, and they have to go under a small house where somebody is

hidden. When an animal go under it, this person sprays it with a syringe full of Baytical.


Giraffes’ behaviour

Position in the herd, individuals characteristics and relationship in the herd.

Sirwilly : often with females, sexual behaviour: lip-curling when they urinate, urinetesting

(checking their reproductive status) (cf picture n°1), following them. Two

groups can sometimes be seen: Sirwilly with Kumi and Kuminamoja and Tisa and

Nane with the other females.

He’s the dominant male, and the only reproductive one. He’s also the oldest of the

male (which is the major dominance’s criterion).

Sirwilly

Kuminamoja

Picture n°1

Tisa and Nane : really often together, sometimes fighting. One of them fights

sometimes with Sirwilly, but most of the time they fight together. They sometimes

behave with females like Sirwilly (lip-curling and urine-testing).When the females

are pregnant or not in reproduction time, there’s no problem, but when the females

are in the “good time”, Sirwilly can fights with them.


Tisa&

Nane

Tisa&

Nane

Picture 2 Picture 3

Fighting : Fighting can be confused at the beginning with amical demonstration, because it’s

really nonchalant and slow. They can stand parallel, neck to neck, aiming blows at neck or head

(cf picture 1). They often also stand in reverse parallel, aiming blows to rump, flanks or neck,

turning like a dance (cf picture 2). They strike with the parietal horns, and do their best to avoid

being hit by moving their neck away at the last moment, meanwhile getting ready to return the

blow. They fight one after the other, and so it really seems rhythmical. They often do long pauses

during this fighting.

Pansy : often aloof, looking around, often in the opposite direction of the others. She

seems to be the “guard”, but she maybe just likes being alone… She’s the oldest one,

which could be a reason… (cf picture 4)

Pansy

Picture n°4


Amani and her “mothers” : Saba is Amani’s mother, but this relationship isn’t obvious

when it’s not known: the calf can often be found alone, away from the others. Her mother

often eat far away from her, and the calf can stay for hours at the same place where her

mother had left her, just standing, very obedient, sometimes eating a bit. At night, she

seems to be more careful of her daughter, and can be seen more with her than during the

day. The calf can be found at night in open area, while the others are eating on the closest

bushes.

In fact, Saba is not at all a careless mother, a reason of this impression she gives is that

she shares her mother’s responsibilities with the youngest females, Kumi and

Kuminamoja. This ones are often seen near Amani, and there is a potential danger, it’s

one of this third “mothers” who take care of the young (cf picture 5 to 10) (for example

when Amani was limping, Saba was more careful of her, and stay closer to her than

usual). Sirwilly seems to be also sometimes implicated in this nursery…!

The share of the calve’s responsibilities isn’t characteristic of a giraffes herd, but is

obvious in the Nguuni’s herd, which is really interesting.

It’s also said that after giving birth, “a mother remains one week or more in

isolation, avoiding or warding off approaches by other giraffes”. Saba didn’t behave like

that after the birth of Amani, which is one more characteristic of this herd…

Saba seems to be the one who often takes the decision to move, especially at the

sunset. This is certainly linked to her mother’s status.

Saba

Picture n°5 Picture n°6 Picture n°7 Picture n°8

I was frightening Amani: She went quickly to her mother (n°5&6). Saba started to

walk(n°5), looked back, wait for her calf (6&7) and showed her the way (n°8).

Kuminamoja

Kumi

Picture n°9 Picture n°10


Amani is still sucking, but quite rarely, maybe more during the night ( I’ve just

seen her sucking two times at day). She must suck about two times a day. Most of the

giraffes calves become independent at 12-16 months, and Amani is already 11 months,

she browses like the others, that’s the reason why she must not suck a lot now. She also

ruminates, but less than the others.

All the females must be pregnant, the meeting dates are:

- Pansy : 11th September 2004

- Saba : December 2004

- Kumi : April 2005

- Kuminamoja : 24th June 2005

All the meetings were with Sirwilly.

The gestation time is 14-141/2 months.

The giraffes are most of the time altogether, and often group closely, especially at rest.

Even when they are scattered, it’s never on a big distance (maximum 500m). They seem

to be closer at night.

This seems to be another characteristic of this herd, because it’s usually said that “the

giraffes rarely group closely, and even at rest they stay over 20m apart”.

It’s also said that “there is a minimum of coordination in their movements”, which is not

what I’ve noticed. In fact, for the important movements, like at the sunset or at the

sunrise, they are moving altogether, often one behind one (picture n°11). They have also

mainly the same activities at the same time.

Picturen°11


Movements and Activities’observation.

Every day, when it was possible, I have written where the giraffes were and what they were doing

(cf A1). During my two months observation, the giraffes were always in the same area of the

sanctuary during day time (cf map A3), mainly around the barbecue.

At night, they are going in a larger area (cf map A4 and A5). During my two night observations,

they were quite in the same area, but it’s not always the case. For example, the day after my

second observation, they were, as Richard said me, near the entrance, along the quarry. My

second night observation was quite wrong cause of the presence of some tourists: the giraffes

began to go behind the ostrich boma at the sunset, but they were called to the barbecue, so they

have change their way.

Concerning the rest of the year, they usually stay around the barbecue at day time, and go

everywhere in the sanctuary at night. They can walk on a really long distance at night, but at day

they usually stay on the same smaller area.

I’ve also done a whole day observation, to know the distribution of each activity (eating,

ruminating, lying, standing, fighting…), from 11am to 09am of the next day (cf chart A2). But

this only one observation isn’t enough to draw any conclusion.

The day time observation was individual and very precise. I have calculated the time spent to

each activity for each giraffe.

The night observation was global and less precise because it’s too difficult to identify the giraffes

at night and we can not see precisely if they are ruminating, etc…

The methods were also totally different during day and night: during day, I was staying with the

giraffes without any interruption. But during the night, it was impossible to stay with the giraffes

because it was disturbing them too much. So we had to find them (thanks to Richard competences

to follow the footprints), and come back about every hour.

We can find some similarities between my two night observations : we can see “ an active

period”, from 7.30pm to 3am, when the giraffes are mostly eating and moving, and a “rest

period”, from 3am to 6am, when most of them are lying and stay at the same place. From 6.30am,

at the sunrise, they start to eat again.

Remark : I’ve just seen the giraffes drinking twice, at 10.30am and at 07am so they must drink

not daily, and mainly in the evening or at night. (They are supposed to drink at intervals of 3 days

or less). It seems that they are not drinking all at the same time.

The first time I’ve seen them drinking, they were at the watering-place near the ostrich boma (cf

picture n°12&13), and the second time it was at the pond n°5 (new map). But it seems that they

are going at every place where they can find water, they may not have a favourite place.


Picture n°12: Kuminamoja drinking

at the watering-place

Picture n°13: Amani lip-curling,

before drinking

About the notation in the annexes charts and maps:

- About the place, I use the square of the map, which is divided in 14 columns from A to N

and in lines from 1 to 11.

- About the activities, I use these notations:

E: eating

S: standing

R: ruminating

L: lying

F: fighting


If somebody will continue my work, I would be very interested about the results…


Thanks

I’d like to thank Mr Haller who gave me the

opportunity to work at the Nguuni’s sanctuary.

I also want to thank Sonal for her kindness.

Above all, I’d like to thank Richard Sigilai,

who was my main help to do this report. He

has given me a lot of his time, and it was a

real pleasure to work with him.

He helped me to identify the mammals, but

he also taught me a lot of things about the

behaviour of the animals.

I also want to thank Michael for his

friendship, like all the people who are

working at the sanctuary who were really

friendly.


Individual day observation of the 28/07/05

Sirwilly Pansy Saba Kumi Kuminamoja Tisa Nane Amani

11h E(A) E(A) L S L E(A) E(A) L

E(A) E(A) L S L E(A) E(A) L

S S S L LR SR S L

S S S L LR SR S L

12h LR S S L LR SR SR S

L SR S/S/SR L L SR/L/L SR/SR/S S

L LR SR L/SR/SR L L S S/S/L

L LR/LR/L SR SR L SR S L

13h L L/L/S SR/S/S SR/S/S L/S/M SR/M/S SR/M/S L

S/SR/SR S S SR E(A)/E(A)/S S S L/L/S

SR/S/M S S S/L/L E(A) M/S/F M/S/F S

E(A)/SR/SR S SR L E(A) F F S

14h E(A)/E(A)/M SR SR/E(DP)/E(DP) S E(A) F/E(A)/E(A) F/E(A)/E(A) S

E(A) M/E(A)/E(A) M/E(A)/E(A) M/E(A)/E(A) M/E(A)/E(A) M/E(A)/E(A) M/E(A)/E(A) E(DP)

E(A)/E(A)/M E(A)/M/M E(A)/M/M E(A)/M/M E(A)/M/M E(A)/E(A)/M E(A)/M/M S

M M S/M/M S/M/M E(A) S/M/M SR/M/M S

15h S/S/E(A) S S S/S/SR SR SR SR S

E(A)/E(A)/SR S/SR/SR S/SR/E(A) SR SR SR SR L

E(A) SR E(A)/M/M S/S/SR L/L/M SR/SR/M S/S/M L

E(A)/E(A)/M S/S/M M M M M M/S/M L

16h E(A)/E(A)/M E(A) E(A) E(A) E(A) E(A) E(A) L/L/M

E(A) E(A) S/S/E(A) E(A) E(A) E(A) E(A) E(A)

S/M/E(A) E(A) E(A) E(A) E(A) E(A) E(A) E(A)

S/M/E(A) S S S/S/M S/S/M S/M/E(A) S/S/M S

17h E(A) S/E(A)/E(A) S E(A) E(A) E(A) E(A) S

E(DC) E(DC) E(DC)/E(DC)/M E(DC)/E(DC)/E(A) E(DC)/E(DC)/E(A) E(DC)/E(A)/E(A) E(DC)/E(DC)/E(A) S/S/M

E(A) E(DC)/E(A)/E(A) S/E(A)/E(A) E(A) E(A) E(A) E(A) E(A)

E(DC) S/S/E(A) M E(A) E(A) M M S

M/S/S

18h E(DC)/M/E(DC) E(A)/S/E(DC) S/M/S E(A)/M/E(DC) E(A)/M/S F/F/S F/F/S

(su)

M M M M M F/F/M F/F/M M

E(A) S E(A) E(A) E(A) E(A) E(A) S

S : Standing

L : Lying

E : Eating E(A) : Eating (Acacia) E(DP) : Eating (Doom Palm) E(DC) : Eating (Dairy Cubes)

R : Ruminating

M : Moving

NB : Each square correspond to 15 minutes, and could be divided in 3x 5minutes (…/…/…)

F : Fighting

su : sucking


Individual time distribution for each activity

Sirwilly Pansy Saba Kumi Kuminamoja Tisa Nane Amani

Total S 90 min 230 min 240 min 165 min 55 min 145 min 185 min 215 min

Total L 75 min 40 min 30 min 90 min 135 min 25 min 0 min 160 min

Total E 190(A)+40(DC) 120(A)+25(DC) 85(A)+10(DP)+10(DC) 130(A)+15(DC) 200(A)+10(DC) 170(A)+5(DC) 155(A)+10(DC) 45(A)+15(DP)

Total

R 45 min 80 min 65min 70 min 75 min 110 min 65 min 0 min

Total

M 70 min 50 min 90 min 65 min 65 min 75 min 70 min 30 min

Other 0 0 0 0 0 F=45 min F=45 min 0

Total 465 min 465 min 465 min 465 min 465 min 465 min 465 min 465 min

% S 19.3 49.5 51.6 35.5 11.8 31.2 40 46.2

%L 16.1 8.6 6.4 19.3 29 5.4 0 34.4

%E 40.9(A)+8.6(DC) 25.8(A)+5.4(DC) 18.3(A)+2.1(DP)+2.1(DC) 28(A)+3.2(DC) 43(A)+2.1(DC) 36.6(A)+1.1(DC) 33.3(A)+2.1(DC) 9.7(A)+3.2(DP)

%R 9.7 17.2 14 15 16.1 23.7 14 0

%M 15 10.7 19.3 14 14 16.1 15 6.4

%other 0 0 0 0 0 9.7 9.7 0

NB : The rumination is always associated to an other activity : standing or lying, that’s why the addition of the percentages gives a result higher

than 100%.


Night activities of the 21/07/05 and 28/07/05

Heure

Activité

21/07/2005 28/07/2005

19h E S

E L

20h

E L S

21h

E

M E

22h

E

23h

00h S L E S L E

E

01h

02h

E

E

03h L S S

S L

04h L

L

L

05h L L

L

L

06h L S E

L S/E M/E S

07h M/E E

E

E

08h E E

NB1 : Each square correspond to 30 minutes and

could be divided in 2x 15 minutes.

NB2 : 21/07/05 : full moon

28/07/05 : half moon


A B C D E F G H I J K L M

1

Giraffes' area during day time

2

Birdwatch

BH

3

n°4

4

5

n°6

n°7

n°5

Barbecue

Camel

Ostrich

n°3

LTB

LTA

WETLAND

House

6

n°8

7

n°11

8

n°10

Antelope boma

9

n°9

n°1

10

n°12

Dany's ponds

n°2

11


area where giraffes were seen during day time

birdtrail

main road

bench

ponds

n°1: barbecue pond

n°2: kingfisher pond

n°3: saline's lungsfish n°4:

elan's waterhole n°5:

gamewater n°6:

storkwater

n°7:

catfish lake n°8:

palm spring n°9:

secret lake n°10:

boma pool n°11:

waterbuck retreat n°12:

baobab lake BH:

weaver lake LT:

lake turkana


A B C D E F G H I J K L M

1

Giraffes' traject in the night of the 28/07/05

2

Birdwatch

BH

3

2

14

n°4

4

5

n°6

13

n°7

n°5

1

3

Barbecue

Camel

Ostrich

n°3

LTB

LTA

WETLAND

6

n°8

12

11

House

7

8

n°11

8

9

10

7

n°10

Antelope boma

9

n°9

5

4

n°1

10

n°12

Dany's ponds

6

n°2

11


giraffes' traject of the 28th night

n°1: barbecue pond

n°2: kingfisher pond

n°3: saline's lungsfish n°4:

elan's waterhole n°5:

gamewater n°6:

storkwater

n°7:

catfish lake n°8:

palm spring n°9:

secret lake n°10:

boma pool n°11:

waterbuck retreat n°12:

baobab lake BH:

weaver lake LT:

lake turkana


A B C D E F G H I J K L M

1

Giraffes' traject in the night of the 21/07/05

2

Birdwatch

BH

3

8

n°4

4

5

n°6

n°7

n°5

1

2

Barbecue

Camel

Ostrich

n°3

LTB

LTA

WETLAND

6

n°8

7

6

House

3

7

n°11

4

8

5

n°10

Antelope boma

9

n°9

n°1

10

n°12

Dany's ponds

n°2

11


giraffes' traject on the 21th night

n°1: barbecue pond

n°2: kingfisher pond

n°3: saline's lungsfish n°4:

elan's waterhole n°5:

gamewater n°6:

storkwater

n°7:

catfish lake n°8:

palm spring n°9:

secret lake n°10:

boma pool n°11:

waterbuck retreat n°12:

baobab lake BH:

weaver lake LT:

lake turkana


IhrlitLfir,'s *i

horyrt', n.Lne

- 3dL*

rndo lr""ns

Forrt"

cJorrroF

Uur ha{

sf..ir[ ru*

.rnl{r. brdrr

)

c'r,torrr. of,

alF b9

lrul'g

Jtentifiidic,s crtteriorg.

*

PANst


€l^nls t\eFd.

tl*\et r 6

frrrulrt t 2o

C"l..rc r 1

Srrar OS

TerAL, tR

Hetes r 3

Fennln r \

Gatrrg l l,

Tbuur 8

6ir"Gs ['e.d

b/x

: cans

Sr,;

frlh"l€

Ei.[, ttto

Spc,a' fiybrrJ

3hn. AJlry n#,schJJ

$t? w$ &...i

eF,q.l.s: f{"dd *.

?t/st-l Chrnrhrtrhqr ..

. da*, coat

o ytrnrg drrt hpd

.

!1o.16, no af,nni${ , yd*li, lo.,t

. Ln +o{'

A /.s.U, oJork . \ene, h,519tdt, t13,. lw'rg


NU$ft

" S{\ltrf,


5e* r RraJ€

3i*1, rilorJ* l"\'*.t

Spae' hh,f

Axt , S"br

Sil-r ?J+

d*"U, tL f*fe,,*

?l,d-t cbrudrridrcr s

u. t"rL.."l

. &''.t h-l

: . Ah*nr ,:, studrrt (l^t *{Lc\t$)

*r:

Fe$*lt

t[[' it*trt h{Lll' s,t(

Srslcr hfrl

$' ' ?"hv

iln r fr^$

3*".rlo*l

?lryt;tl clan l*drr I

',

&rk cr.t

t"rL lrl

I Ldr, ac rtu$t .,rl d#.,trrL

A/ PrY . tith luJ, srlbhrru;,1{il.


d

W


So, ItJe

3'.ll', -{6/oolo i" l{"[rr ?erk

Snlic, hybel

0L*, P-'y.

Shc r TriatJ

Reffil$,

?q$J

Clt'*ctq'is\ica:

'. J.(k .oJ

. l-. h-l'

. tr \,ortrr, no fttal$t

A /f,t""" : {alltr, &1..' hcl.

&xr Hde

Sirlh; *c/N $ in {hhr?nrk

Spesiar ptn flJfrdd{

il-, S*t

Sirc r nialy

net"lre: &m'r,rt rD&

Phrs'd durt"htdtp r

n , lhr. Jsbl,c *t t:gt* * 'l

a O>L"rt e'cr'- ,,

, l,'*[ n*.,a h*t

. 3"frorr,s , orth hrac, d, ,t-#,"tbht, l'!qr*

t--


\

,ry/-

Hrtr tntun


&rt r&lc

Stdrr atqln in tldr ?"d"

Spc&r g".c fl.illr$ilJ

!c,n r $y

Slrg I T{^*J

R*rlst

&d.l clw!&.rLli.s 3

',tg,l

xr riXl* hP

. ltL bl

. tirll trntnhuJ

, x'ho.-, n Jrrfdil'

Att ^, sno(hr, h3'$rhaaJ, t"dtrtr

ir*: Fco,Js

3it{'hr Bit{'hr l{loilot

Sp.a,

'rony \bcil

lDor r

6irr, Tdnrty

tq {blls' Podr,

Rer*r*. t

Pl.lrrJ cfirurldbl&e:

I t;drt .."t

. ;rk on tL lt-.t

, 2loms, rttsl'*drt

. *nnn'tht

A k"'"L"firhe([r"d

*'I t,.5s *p.*b)

\


F

.o

I

'c

E fr

- a

-6,

tl

EI

tl

HI

ol


$r, Fem.l"

Sirlfr . \lotlo'l

ip.*' p^* **t"UU

$mr !"t

5lc,', Ti',"|V

(enarla:

in fbtt r 1a*'

Pl4dat ' ' dnna'&rillt'r r

u

, t+*n t thrt gra v rw,tJ $/sh h-f -t W

, ltlh[ c"'], u''J

. fi; , n[*1,^'yttht bt"*fl*tl"L*r)

A/*"**.4^,

rvlihr bob, esrd"tb l.uJJq=

,8 i;

g$

+ S

\s.. {,

4z

{

&

f

6

E


F Br+\S


Ser. : F

F+

Brdlt: ll. lo.og

}tr^ r 3F383

Eire,, 3F\32'

(c*"l*t,

: bfthrn *U short*d*'

r $*.r, intlu ihlr.r ttn

Cnhad

B.lilt'

3hnr. ,

Sre,

{b"..r."

tsF1\S

..fi, ott.03

s's36

3F\3€- Q)

'. . ilro f.*n. arn r'Hll3ro*ln6

" &;^ r.sr[ in th, t".i. o€tl,o

no.k- f noaolt $* "h"d.\

e"& , tirt$"r r,o Q /

Snx, F

3r+s6

Biil[:'ts.6.o3

D"*: BFWo

Sire, ?

k*aa.

ih* r""ccs arB :|ii\ qct,rr '

. f,cr*n in\h $b&c*hrf;nhal.

Sc*, H

BF+(6

Bi.t\, l\.1o. 03

Da-,

$rc. r

R**t

3F\6\

3F51o

s, |h* hr*: '''i ^ -.r'"' !'':"t: ^'

. bo.,rn kt l\rdt& tr+ls6n\ol


? BF6sl

? s6u f BF6t3


Sex: F

3F6e+

$rlh, oL -l1.o.l

&r'., BFSo

Srer IF\3$

Rg*o*s t

r hft \rn ; $' n ,,: ;,,'.- - I : ih,o ;r'..

-

3re

&x: F

3i.th, {0. os. oo

Oam, SFtes

sirc, Srqst

ftrrr.\s,

a

'''

Y-ft'lrri

. bco^sct i,a lhe, b\rd. tr +h

$rchoA.

o Shs.t \o.ts

BP 63c>

Sex, H

b"., BF\ro

Sire, BF($!

tr,tt

.'1 /., ..v"-

' l i

t t At'.

$":f

Bi*I", 2S ro. gg

&*, 8F363

S'ra:3fq3g

Re**Ls r nero

''{''

. bg*e or\c,

. sbifnt,sl

"/ ')

Bi*h: 23.69.04

Re*Ja,

. lef+ hrn wg rh.tqrd&nu

teal,hX f"lt

".I \*ns


? ar6eg ? t3F6oB

? BFs+t*


BF6T8

$*, F

Bc+lu t 2].o.{. oo

D^*: 3F\36

Sire., BFq32,

k*drs,

o "SK Vrsrnissinq

, trc.nttctf. rn +htlrkl.F

+\c'Gnrh"A

&x: F

Sreoe

8r*Lu' 26.oR.S

U^ r IF\c-o

S're, 8Ftr3t

(e"*lo,

. left ltstL .lr"'

r 6rq^rt mrt h |h. blntlr

of |ha GnhcA.

3F5e6

Sot, F

B*lu, O{. os. 93

EF\36

Sirc r 3n3st

Da.n,

RE t*\*t,

&x,F

3rs+\

Bi.l'tt r o{.{'f. !3

bam: BFAEI

Src.: SFXS{

fomorh,

o hgras ) -'' :


8r533

S 8r\6\

BFtlCo


So.: F

8F533

B*h, 30.03. ?g

b^, BF3\E

S,re-, 3F35{

?s.t lrs, vecg 6tiue

r hf+ hon l,,, a++\ecnJ

j-)i" I n , .

'-

BF \6r{

$*r F

&.h, 0s.ol.t6

$*, BFIBS

$n: AR{

ftn"cls,

. lor1, sttu^q* horrs

. C;un rnlt .$U.ltf |hGrchsi

l-.. ':,'F :

Srrllr

b*,

$re,

3F\{o

Se* t F

r ol.o{. gs

Sar

AR{

Re*.h,

. [on4,t]rti$t lgt"'s'

. +h: 'raru s'*^\\anA rF+\. rl'\t

, J

lurn -i

3r 36C.

SEx: F

Srlhr 30. 06.33

D''.' BFTBS

tire,: AR{

S*,Lt,

. [ooc hvns^ star.'^ht

. *rlh,*'t h d.trb*, dlhchord

...t

,,.1.: /1.t,:, i/ 1",-/t' i., "'

)t.r': ( ':.i','""

v'


dz-o.-+l

? BF3Gs S BFs+6

{ SFtrtt $,arr6o


3r

Br5

F

-'f 3..{1. t3

3F2+t

ARt

Rerr*lc,

. riglt \oen c'rrc,nd

? . F

D€X: F

3*t, 05"J4'rg

&.*, 3F383

Eirc.* BF3st

Re*&

r ..,


t \

J2-d t i

dc.act

gp?t3

I

I

I

no 6tr3


$*r F

BP+t{3

Brtt , 2.l.og.o3

U*,

BFS+I{

Sire r 3F\32

Rer*&s'

'

-*r

. -f'

"

r \ro.rrn \nlhc'dh*-tf +|q

fuaheoA.

8F383

&xt F

Sirl\: 3o.o391,

D.*, tF2)8

Sr'rt': lRt

qgmods,,

. 16l$ horn rh* gh"rler

. herng no rtnuqht o.t tln*r&,

eFJ"b +he rt$* qn.

o

'-r 'i.".

Bf6\3

Sa., H

3i.*., 3l/or/ca

&','6Fqg

8'e: BF{63

t$,ff$mq

rro pbrie\

Sa.t F

3F6s3

3\rl\r oS.{.cr>

b^'n, 8Ft{36

Bpr{ 3t-

?e*-hs,

: enA"tr$a t\t\wn'

' of"-'. . l;- u*tf,|A$

r tlut|ru i't tttc

r l

f ,rehrog'

o

,j(,:+


SFBBr

More magazines by this user
Similar magazines