1. INTRODUCTION - India Environment Portal

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1. INTRODUCTION - India Environment Portal

1. INTRODUCTION

POSCO intends to set up a coast-based integrated steel plant of capacity 12

million tons per year (MTPY) along with a captive minor port near Paradeep in the

State of Orissa. POSCO - India, a private limited company registered in

Bhubaneswar, Orissa, as a subsidiary of POSCO - Korea will implement the

project. The minor port requires waterfront facilities along the Jatadharmohan

Creek near Paradeep. POSCO - India requested National Institute of

Oceanography (NIO), Regional Centre, Visakhapatnam through M/s M.N.Dastur &

Company, Kolkata, the Environmental Consultant for POSCO steel project to

carry out the Marine Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) of the port project.

NIO has carried out the first phase observations during September-November

2005 and the Rapid EIA report is prepared based on the results of the data

collected during first phase. The following reports submitted by POSCO were

used in the study.

• Master plan for harbour facilities & site preparation of POSCO India steel plant

– Drawings, December 2005, POSCO-India.

• Master plan for harbour facilities & site preparation for the integrated steel

plant of POSCO in Orissa – Brief Summary, December 2005, POSCO-India.

• Preliminary report of numerical analysis - Master plan for harbour facilities and

site preparation for integrated steel plant of POSCO, Orissa, October 2005,

DHI (India) water & environment, New Delhi.

1.1 LOCATION OF THE STUDY AREA

Proposed port location is approximately at 20° 12’ N and 86° 33’ E and is about

12 km south of the Paradeep Port. Figure 1.1 shows the location of the proposed

port, which is at the mouth of the Jatadharmohan Creek (JMC). The study area

(Figure 1.2) is located near the northern part of the creek, near the villages

Noliasahi, Nuagaon and Govindapur. Jatadharmohan Creek is a linear tidal

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creek on the southern side of Paradeep, Orissa coast (20 0 0’ N to 20 0 10’ N; 86 0

25’ E to 86 0 35’ E). The length of this creek is nearly 10 km and the average

width is more than 500 m, reaching nearly 2 km at some places. The creek width

narrows down towards the north. The average depth of the creek is


FIGURE 1.1 LOCATION OF THE PORT

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FIGURE 1.2 STUDY AREA

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FIGURE 1.3 SATELLITE IMAGERY OF THE PROPOSED PORT AREA

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1.2 OBJECTIVES AND SCOPE OF WORK

The objective of the study is to carry out the Marine Environmental Impact

Assessment of the proposed port project.

The scope of work for the study are:

• To evolve baseline data on geological, geophysical, physical, chemical and

biological parameters based on data collection and from available literature

for the area near to the proposed port.

• To identify probable impacts due to proposed port.

• To suggest mitigation measures to minimize impacts, if any.

• To recommend adequate plan for management of the marine environment.

1.3 INVESTIGATIONS CONDUCTED

The following investigations were conducted during the period from September to

November 2005.

1.3.1. Geological parameters

1.3.1.1 Seabed sediment samples

Surface sediment samples from the seabed were obtained at 32 stations along 5

transects covering the water depth from 9 to 18.5 m in the study area

(Figure 1.4). The sampling is planned in such a way that the entire corridor is

covered. Nearly 500 m space interval was maintained between station to station

along each transect to cover the entire area. Nearly one kilometre line spacing

was maintained between each transect. Samples could not be recovered below

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the water depth of 9 m due to non-approachability of the vessel because of sharp

gradient and rising of high waves. Van Veen grab sampler was used to obtain the

sediment samples from the seabed. Position was obtained by Global Positioning

System at every station soon after the sampler touched the sea bottom. Textural

analysis was carried out for these samples after preliminary treatment following

standard sieve and pipette analysis.

1.3.1.2 Bathymetry and shallow seismic profiling

The offshore region has been studied in a rectangular grid of 5 x 4 Km (5 Km

stretch along the coast and 4 Km from near shore to offshore end).

Bathymetry data has been collected along 53 coast perpendicular lines (Figure

1.5). High-resolution shallow seismic data has been collected on alternate lines

(26 lines). Side Scan sonar data was collected along 15 lines covering the study

area by operating the system at 200 m range on either side.

The following marine geophysical equipments were used for the seabed

investigations.

Bathymetry:

Differential Global Positioning System (DGPS): For the Seabed surveys,

position data is acquired with CEEDUCER DGPS system. This system is a

versatile survey measuring instrument which is operated by utilizing the latest

technology available from the Satellite Communication and Radio Beacon Signal.

The NAVSTAR Global Positioning System commonly referred to as GPS and a

technique known as Differential GPS (DGPS) allows the user to obtain maximum

accuracy.

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FIGURE 1.4 STATION LOCATIONS OF GEOLOGICAL SAMPLING

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The present DGPS system operates with the Radio frequency range of 283.5 to

325.0 kHzs. This frequency is automatically received by the system which is

transmitted by the nearest Beacon station. By selecting the nearest signal, the

system provides an accuracy of 1 to 2 m. Position is updated by the system for

every 1 sec and it has a capability of receiving the satellite signals in 12 channels.

Position data displayed in Lat / long or grid co-ordinates with full seven

parameters datum shift facility. The displayed data is stored in the Integrated

DGPS receiving memory by the data logging processor and this data is further

processed for creating the Track map.

FIGURE 1.5 MAP SHOWING THE TRACKS SURVEYED

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Echosounder:

A dual-frequency echosounder (make: Odom–Echotrac - DF 3200 MK II) was

used to measure the water depths in the survey area. The lower frequency of 33

KHz provides relatively more penetration, while the higher frequency of 200 KHz

provides relatively better resolution. The transducer (model TXDCR Dual CMS

3116J14-P) was mounted on the starboard side of the survey vessel in such a

way that it is fully submerged even during the roll and pitch of the vessel.

Specifications of Ecosounder:

Resolution : 1cm/dot

Scale : 0-30 m

Display : Black and white Graphic LCD

Accuracy : ± 0.0425% of total depth.

Side Scan Sonar:

An EG&G (model 260) image correcting side scan sonar along with the tow fish

(model 272) was used to obtain the seabed image to locate the surficial features.

The ‘Fish’ was towed behind the vessel by using a light weight tow cable. Though

the system was capable of operating up to a maximum scanning range of 600 m,

only 100 m to 200 m range was selected in the study area to obtain better

resolution in order to identify the hazardous / anomalous zones on the seafloor.

Specifications:

Operating Frequency : 105 ±10 KHz.

Pulse length : 0.1 msec.

Peak output : 128 dB ref 1 µ bar at 1 meter.

Sub-bottom Profiler:

High-resolution shallow seismic system (Make: EG&G) was deployed to acquire

the sub-bottom information of the region. The system includes Power Supply

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(Model 232-A), Trigger capacitor bank (Model 265), 3-element Sparker Array

(Model 267), Hydrophone (Model 263D) and EPC graphic recorder (Model 4603).

The Sparker array, towed aft the vessel, was used to transmit the energy in the

range of 200 to 300 joules. The reflected signals from the seabed and the

subsurface layers were received by an 8-element hydrophone, which is also

towed aft the vessel. The signals were filtered by a band pass filter and recorded

on a graphic recorder in an analog form.

Basic principle of the system is to initiate a sound pulse at the source and to

receive the reflected signals at the receiver close to the source. The time taken by

the signal from its initiation till its receiving (after reflections from subsurface layers

such as water, sediments and rock formation etc.) was measured and recorded on

the chart. The depth to the different subsurface horizons were computed based on

these two-way travel times.

Specification of the hydrophone:

Sensitivity

Frequency bandwidth

Maximum tow speed

Gain (preamplifier)

Output impedance

: 133 db / volt / microbar

: 100 Hz – 10 KHz

: 6 NM

: 40db (including of 8 element in series)

: 2K ohms

1.3.1.2 Creek bathymetry

Bathymetry data were collected along 105 profiles across the JMC at a space

interval of about 100 m. Total length of the covered area in the creek is nearly 11

km starting from the mouth of the creek at the confluence point i.e. the

northeastern end of the creek to southwestern end. The trend of JMC is nearly

parallel to the coast. Echo sounding data were collected in both analogue and

digital forms using different systems. Analogue charts were used to have the real

physiographic section of the survey lines whereas the digital data obtained from

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the CEEDUCER system along with DGPS position were used for plotting of the

reduced levels of depth with reference to chart datum along the survey tracks.

1.3.2 Physical parameters

1.3.2.1 Waves

Datawell Directional Waverider Buoy was deployed for wave measurements at 16

m water depth (Location L1) at location 20° 9.904’ N 86° 34.884’ E (Figure 1.6).

The wave parameters were recorded for 20 minutes duration at every 3 hours

from 5.9.05 to 05.11.05. Waverider buoy consists of a spherical stainless steel

shell of 90 cm diameter, designed to float on the sea surface. Accelerometers

housed inside the buoy measure accelerations along three mutually perpendicular

axes. All these accelerations were then digitally integrated to obtain

displacements and filtered to a high frequency cut-off at 0.6 Hz. The Directional

Waverider Buoy transmits buoy’s motion time history, reduced data as spectral

density, wave direction, etc. in cyclic messages to WAREC receiving/recording

system installed on land with the help of 2 metre long antenna mounted on top of

the buoy. The Personal Computer interfaced with the WAREC communicates and

controls the WAREC system. Time series data on three translational motions of

the buoy were recorded in a Personal Computer in the digital form for 20 minutes

duration at every 3 hours interval in normal condition and at hourly interval

whenever the significant wave height exceeded the threshold level (present case

it was fixed at 5 m). Digital data is analyzed using spectral method for computing

various statistical parameters, viz., i) significant wave height (Hs), ii) mean wave

period (Tz), iii) wave period corresponding to the maximum wave spectral energy

(Tp), iv) maximum spectral energy (Emax) and v) spectral width parameter (ε).

The above statistical parameters were evaluated using the spectral moments as

given below.

___

Significant wave height, Hs = 4 √ m o (1)

_____

Mean wave period, Tz = √ m o /m 2 (2)

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_______________

Spectral width parameter, ε = √ 1- (m 2 2 / (m 0 m 4 )) (3)

where mn = Σ f n s(f) df, s(f) = the spectral density, f = frequency from 0.01 to

0.58 Hz with df = 0.005 Hz.

The deep water wave length, Lo was calculated from Lo = 1.56 Tz 2 and the wave

length, L is calculated from the dispersion relationship. The wave steepness was

calculated as Hs/L. Maximum wave height (Hmax), and the wave period

corresponding to the maximum wave height (T Hmax ) were extracted from each time

series data of 20 minutes duration.

1.3.2.2 Currents

The current measurements were carried out using the self recording current meter

RCM7 and RCM11 manufactured by Aanderaa Instruments, Norway. Current

meter records data internally on data storage unit. A built-in quartz clock triggers

the measuring cycle at regular intervals. Current meter mooring was deployed at

locations L1 and L2 (Figure 1.6).

At 16 m water depth (Location L1: 20° 9.904’ N 86° 34.884’ E) currents were

measured at near bottom (2 m above seabed) and near surface (14 m above

seabed). At 10 m water depth (Location L2) currents were measured at 8 m

above seabed. Currents were recorded at every 20 minutes interval from 5.9.05 to

8.10.05.

1.3.2.3 Temperature, salinity and density

Temperature and salinity profiles were collected at 9 stations (N1, N2, N3, C1, C2,

C3, S1, S2, S3 shown in Figure 1.6) in the study area using SBE19 plus Seacat

profiler (Seabird Electronics, USA).

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FIGURE 1.6 STATION LOCATIONS OF WAVES, CURRENTS,

WATER QUALITY AND BIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS

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1.3.3. Water quality Parameters

Three perpendicular transects, off JMC were selected for sampling purpose. Each

transect has three stations (as shown in Figure 1.6) within the depth range of 10 -

20 m and two stations in the creek (Figure 1.7) wherein water samples were

collected for chemical analysis. A Niskin Water sampler has been used for

collection of water samples from surface and near bottom depths. Water samples

were collected in pre cleaned glass/plastic bottles. The water samples were fixed

immediately for Dissolved Oxygen (DO) and for Biochemical Oxygen Demand

(BOD). Samples for nutrient analysis were collected in plastic bottles and kept

frozen until the samples reached shore laboratory. Analysis was carried out within

the stipulated period of time in the shore laboratory. Brief accounts of

methodology for estimation of chemical constituents are given below.

1.3.3.1 pH

Water pH was measured immediately using Lab-India pH Analyser (PHAN) after

standardizing it with standard pH buffers.

1.3.3.2 Dissolved Oxygen (DO)

Winkler’s method was adopted for the determination of DO by fixing a measured

volume of water sample immediately after collection with the reagents A

(manganous chloride) and B (alkaline potassium iodide). Standard iodiometric

titration with sodium thiosulphate was adopted for the analysis purpose. DO is

expressed in mg/l.

1.3.3.3 Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD)

Samples for the determination of Biochemical Oxygen Demand were collected in

triplicate. The dissolved oxygen concentration was immediately determined using

one of the triplicate samples according to Winkler Method. The remaining bottles

were then left for five days at 20ºC in the BOD incubator. Dissolved oxygen in

these samples was determined after fixing the samples on completion of five days

incubation. BOD5 was computed from the initial DO concentrations and expressed

in mg/l.

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FIGURE 1.7. STATION LOCATIONS INSIDE THE CREEK

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1.3.3.4 Salinity

The halogen compound in seawater may be precipitated as very slightly soluble

silver complexes. When all chlorides were precipitated by addition of silver

nitrate, free ions from the silver were detected with a potassium chromate

indicator, which changes the color. The calculations of salinity were made after

correction from Knudsen’s table. Salinity is expressed in psu.

1.3.3.5. Ammonia - Nitrogen (NH4 - N)

Ammonia - Nitrogen in seawater samples was determined with the indophenol

blue method using trione. Care has been taken for the analysis of ammonia with

ammonia free distilled water to avoid any contamination as ammonia is highly

soluble in water. The absorbance measurements were made at 630 nm. NH4 - N

is expressed in µg/l.

1.3.3.6. Nitrite - Nitrogen (NO 2 - N)

Nitrite was determined by the method of Bendschneider and Robinson whereby

the nitrite in water sample was diazotised with sulphanilamide and coupling with

N-1-Naphthyl ethylene diamine dihydrochloride. The absorbance of the resultant

azo dye was measured at 543 nm. NO 2 - N is expressed in µg/l.

1.3.3.7 Nitrate - Nitrogen (NO3 - N)

Nitrate in seawater sample was first reduced to nitrite by heterogeneous reduction

by passing the buffered samples through an amalgamated cadmium column and

the resultant nitrite was determined. The measured absorbance was due to initial

nitrite in the sample and nitrite obtained after reduction of nitrate. Necessary

correction was therefore made for any nitrite initially present in the sample. NO 3 -

N is expressed in µg/l.

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1.3.3.8 Phosphate - Phosphorus (PO4 -P)

Inorganic phosphate was measured by the method of Murphy and Riley in which

the samples were made to react with acidified molybdate reagent and then

reduced using ascorbic acid. The absorbance of the resultant phosphorous

molybdenum blue complex was measured at 880 nm. PO 4 - P is expressed in

µg/l.

1.3.3.9 Silicate - Silicon (SiO 4 - Si)

Silicate - silicon was estimated by reaction with acid - molybdate and ascorbic

acid in the presence of oxalic acid. The interference of phosphate was prevented

by addition of oxalic acid. The absorbance of the resultant silico - molybdenum

blue complex was measured at 810 nm. SiO 4 - Si is expressed in µg/l.

1.3.3.10 Total Nitrogen (TN)

Seawater sample was autoclaved with alkaline persulphate in order to oxidise all

organic forms of nitrogen compounds to inorganic nitrate. The solution was

neutralized and nitrate was estimated as per the procedure described in 1.3.3.7.

The total nitrogen is expressed in µg/l.

1.3.3.11 Total Phosphorus (TP)

The seawater sample was autoclaved with alkaline potassium persulphate in a

closed bottle. The solution was neutralized and then estimated for phosphate as

described in 1.3.3.8. The total phosphorus is expressed in µg/l.

1.3.3.12 Petroleum Hydrocarbons (PHC)

Dissolved or dispersed petroleum hydrocarbons were extracted from seawater

with n-hexane. The extracted materials were accumulated products of oil

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degradation with possible contribution from non-polar aromatic compounds

derived from other sources. Reference materials used for quantifying petroleum

hydrocarbons were Chrysene or standard Saudi-Arabian Crude Oil. PHC was

estimated by Ultraviolet spectrophotometric method and concentrations are

expressed in µg/l.

1.3.3.13 Trace metals in sediments

Trace metals were estimated from sediment samples after digesting with a

mixture of hydrofluoric acid and aqua regia and using AAS method. Metal

concentrations were expressed in µg/g.

1.3.4 Biological parameters

For the study of biological parameters three perpendicular transects covered for

the water quality were chosen. On each transect three stations (as shown in

Figure 1.5) within 10-20 m water depths were fixed for sampling. The station

positions were determined by GPS and sampling was carried out on 30.09.2005.

The specific tasks included collection of water samples for microbiology,

phytoplankton (net hauls and unit samples), zooplankton (300 micron net) and

benthos (dredge and grab) samples as per protocols detailed below.

1.3.4.1 Microbiological Studies

Water and sediment samples from 9 stations (N1, N2, N3, C1, C2, C3, S1, S2 and

S3) were analysed during each collection. Surface water samples were collected

with sterile glass stoppered bottle. Small portion of the sediment collected by van

Veen grab (0.04 m 2 ) were aseptically removed into polythene bag. All samples

were stored in ice immediately after collection and transferred to the field

laboratory for enumeration of different groups of bacteria. Standard

microbiological methods were followed for dilution, surface plating and incubation.

Retrievable number of pertinent indicator microorganisms were determined using

following media. The media used for the growth of various groups of

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microorganisms were procured from Hi-media (Pvt), Mumbai and their names are

given below:

1. Nutrient medium 1. Total viable counts (TVC)

2. Mac Conkey’s agar 2. Total Coliforms (TC)

3. Escherichia coli like organisms (ECLO)

All analyses were carried out within a few hours of collection. Water samples were

directly used as inocula and sediment samples were serially diluted to give

countable numbers expressed as number/ml of water or number/g of sediment.

Surface plating technique was used and counting of plates were carried it after 48

-72 hours of incubation at ambient temperature.

1.3.4.2 Phytoplankton

In the case of phytoplankton, samples were collected through net hauls (30µm

mesh size) and 1 litre unit volume obtained at the surface. All net hauls were fixed

in buffered 5% formaldehyde and stored until analysis in the laboratory. The unit

samples (1 litre volume) on the other hand were treated with lugols iodine (10%)

before storage. In the laboratory, these samples were allowed to stand for 36-48

hrs in tall one litre measuring jars until all phytoplankton settled. Quantitative

analysis was carried out on these samples and phytoplankton enumerated using a

Sedgewick Rafter counting chamber after concentration with gravity sedimentation

following a standard protocol (UNESCO, 1978). For taxonomic identification, a

research microscope (Olympus, Japan, 400x) was put to use and the identification

carried out according to Subrahmanyam (1946), DeBoyd and Smith (1977),

Santhanam et al. (1987) and Tomas (1997).

1.3.4.3 Zooplankton

Zooplankton samples were collected by surface hauls with a Heron-Tranter net

(mouth area 0.25m 2 , mesh size-300 µm) fitted with a calibrated flow meter. At

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each station the net was towed for 5 minutes. The samples collected were

preserved in 5% formalin and were analyzed for estimation of zooplankton

biomass and composition. The number was calculated for whole sample (no/100

m 3 ). Biomass of zooplankton was estimated by the displacement volume method.

An aliquot (1.56% of total sample) was examined for enumeration of organism.

1.3.4.4 Bottom communities

Sediment samples for benthic study were collected from 11 subtidal stations (9

offshore and 2 in the creek mouth) with a stainless steel van Veen grab having an

area of 0.024m 2 .

Meiobenthos: Sediment samples for meiobenthos were collected from 9 stations.

van Veen grab was deployed for collection of sediment samples. Sub-samples

were taken from the grab samples using a hand held acrylic core tube (4 cm

diameter) and preserved in 5% formalin rose-Bengal solution. In the laboratory,

meiobenthic samples were passed through a set of sieves (The top one of 500 µm

and a lower one of 63 µm mesh size). Sediment retained on the finer mesh was

used for analysis of meiobenthos. All organisms were sorted, identified and

counted under stereoscopic binocular microscope. Meiobenthic count was

expressed per 10 cm 2 area.

Macrobenthos: Replicate grab samples were taken from each sampling station

for macrobenthos and washed through a 500 µm mesh size stainless steel sieve.

The material retained on 500 µm was preserved in 10% seawater formalin

containing Rose- Bengal stain. In the laboratory, all the samples were again

washed through a 500 µm mesh sieve in running water to clear adhering

sediment. Later all the organisms were sorted counted and identified up to

species level. Biomass (wet weight) was taken after removing the hard parts and

expressed as g/m 2 .

Data processing: Macrobenthic data were analyzed following the standard

method using the PRIMER (Plymouth Routine in Multivariate Ecological

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Research) software package, after square root transformation. The univariate

measures such as Shanon – Wiener diversity index (H’), species richness

(Margalef d) and evenness (J’) were also calculated. The data was subjected to

multidimensional scaling (MDS) ordination and cluster analysis was performed

with similarity matrix.

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2. PROJECT DESCRIPTION

POSCO, Korea and the State Government of Orissa have signed a Memorandum

of Understanding (MOU) for setting up a steel plant of initial capacity of 4 Million

Tons Per Annum (MPTA) expandable to 12 MTPA in three phases. In order to

construct the integrated steel plant and its dedicated harbor facilities in the

optimum area, the site investigation and site selection feasibility study was

conducted by POSCO. Two potential sites for the plant, i.e., Duburi and

Paradeep, and two sites for the port, Paradeep and Dhamra, have been

investigated and evaluated by POSCO, particularly in terms of suitability for port

development, connectivity between the plant and the existing infrastructures as

well as natural conditions.

From the feasibility study of the site selection, Paradeep has been selected as the

most probable site for set up of port as well as plant. Before planning a dedicated

harbor facility at Paradeep near selected steel plant site, POSCO has explored

the possibility of utilization of existing Paradeep Port and expansion of existing

Paradeep Port. From the feasibility studies POSCO found that construction of

minor port adjacent to steel plant was the most optimum efficient solution.

Proposed port location is approximately 20° 12’ N and 86° 33’ E and is about 12

km south of the Paradeep Port. Figure 1.1 shows the location of the proposed

port, which is at the mouth of the Jatadharmohan creek. The proposed site is

located mainly in Dhinkia, Gobindpur, Nuagana and Trilochanpur villages in

Jagatsinghpur district of Orissa. Paradeep is a port city located in east coast of

India, at 147 km distance from Bhubaneshwar. Paradeep port is one of the major

harbors in India, which has been main ocean trading route in the east coast

covering Orissa, Andhra Pradesh, Chattisgarh, Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh,

Bihar and Jharkhand. Many industries such as Oswal Chemical & Fertilizer Ltd.,

and Paradeep Phosphate Ltd. (PPL) have already been established in this area.

Besides, Indian Oil Corporation Limited (IOCL), HPCL and BPCL are also setting

up their own plant/depot in this zone.

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The coastal area of Paradeep has wide spread sand deposit nearer to coast and

adjoining land is composed of alluvial deposit with topsoil of soft clay with traces

of decomposed vegetation upto a depth 3 to 4 m incapable of supporting the

foundation or base of superstructure over it. As the land is marshy, land filling of 4

to 5 m is considered necessary. This is overlying a soil layer of ‘medium dense

silty sand as well as poor to well graded sand’, thickness varying upto 20 to 25 m

depth followed by ‘very stiff clay’ or medium dense silty sand’ which may serve as

founding strata for pile foundation. Since no rock bearing strata was met even

after boring upto 60 m depth the end bearing piles are ruled out and hence the

piles will have to be friction type piles. The soil strata are heterogeneous in nature

and presence of compressible sandy clay and clayey sand with silt pockets may

cause greater settlement to the foundation due to high water table. The subsoil at

greater depth beyond 20 to 30 m is of stiff clay and medium to dense silt sand,

which will serve as pile supporting layer. The diameter and length of pile may be

varying with respect to type of structure and materials used for piles

(concrete/steel). However, minimum length of pile may not be less than 25 m.

2.1 PROPOSED HARBOUR FACILITIES

The steel plant will have a production capacity of 4 million tons per annum in

phase 1, and will be expand to 12 million tons per annum in three phases. Figure

2.1 shows the layout of the harbour facilities.

2.1.1 Berth alignment

The berthing line is parallel to the sand bar and is in the estuary of the JMC. This

layout has been planned to minimize the length of breakwater and dredging in

front of berth. Total number of berths and dimensions of the berth are given in

Table 2.1.

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FIGURE 2.1. LAYOUT OF THE HARBOUR FACILITIES

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Table 2.1 Number of berths and design parameters

Phase Type Design

vessel

(DWT)

1

2

3

Raw

material

berth

Product

berth

Raw

material

berth

Product

berth

Raw

material

berth

Product

berth

Diameter

of

turning

basin

(m)

Depth of

berthing

basin

(m)

Depth of

approach

channel

(m)

Length

of berth

(m)

Number

of

berths

1,00,000 540 17.0 17.5 310 1

20,000 410 11.0 - 630 3

1,70,000 630 20.0 21.0 610 2

20,000 410 11.0 - 1260 6

1,70,000 630 20.0 21.0 850 3

50,000 410 13.5 - 1770 8

The raw material berth is allocated at the northeast, nearest to the finex and the

product berth at the southwest, nearest to the production plants, in order to

shorten cargo flow. The allocation of the product berth at the southwest allows for

the berth line to easily extend to meet future expansion plan of the steel plant, if

any.

The planned bed levels at the berthing basin of the raw material berth and product

berth are 20 m and 12 m below the CD. The diameter of turning basins in front of

the raw material berth and product berth are 630 m and 410 m respectively.

These satisfy the conditions for navigation and turning around of the design

vessels (170,000 DWT and 20,000 DWT).

2.1.2. Breakwater

A breakwater is planned in the south side of the port to provide tranquil conditions

at the raw material berth against the SW wave. The proposed length of the

breakwater is 1600 m. Another breakwater is proposed in the north to provide

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tranquil condition inside the port area during the NE monsoon period and also to

absorb diffracted wave from the SW. Proposed length of the north breakwater is

1070 m. The overall port layout including length and orientation of the breakwater

was arrived by POSCO based on the numerical model study and ship

maneuvering simulation.

The hydraulic conditions, including water depth and wave height, and

geotechnical conditions at the breakwaters has been considered in the selection

of the type of breakwater. A rubble mound armored with accropode and two types

of composite structure was evaluated to solicit most cost effective and stable

breakwater. The planned crest elevation of the north breakwater is +10.5 m with

respect to CD and that of the south breakwater is +11.5 m with respect to CD.

2.1.3 Navigation channel

The direction of approach channel is almost same as that of the existing Paradeep

Port, and the route is planned not to create a sharp turn, which will deviate vessel

from the approach channel and avoid interference with the planned route of

submarine pipeline of IOCL. The water depth of approach channel is designed to

be 21 m below CD. The width is planned to be 250 m for one lane, which deems

to be sufficient at the phase 1 that does not cause excessive interaction between

vessels in the approach channel.

The approach channel is planned to be progressively widened to the entrance of

harbor which will be finally 500 m wide enough to counter complicated wave

actions such as breaking, warping and amplification of wave, which result in

troubles of ship maneuvering and psychological uneasiness of pilot.

2.1.4 Revetments and Containment Dike

Two types of revetments are proposed for the harbour. One type of revetment is

exposed to sea and the other adjoined with the Jatadarmohan creek. A sand

mound type revetment with in-situ sand upto + 7 m with respect to CD with an

27


outer slope of 1:3 protected with filter mat and armour stone for the scour

protection due to the river flow is planned inside the creek (Figure 2.2).

The containment dike will be used for confining dredge material and interfaced

with property line of the plant neighboring the existing village.

2.2 DREDGING DETAILS

Approach channel: An approach channel of 12.98 kilometres to the berth is

proposed with the minimum depth of 21 m below CD so as to accommodate

berthing of 170,000 DWT vessels. From the preliminary soil investigation, the

dredged materials at this area are supposed to be mainly silty clay due to the fine

sediment deposit. Therefore, it is planned that the whole dredged materials have

to be disposed in deep water having depth beyond 22 m below CD.

Raw material berth: The raw material berthing area between the wharf and the

side edge of the inner channel will be dredged to 20 m below CD to allow berthing

of 170,000 DWT vessels.

Product berth: The product and future berthing area will be dredged to 12 m below

CD to allow berthing of 30,000 DWT vessels whereas water depth for 50,000

DWT vessels should be 13.5 m. To the extent possible, the dredged material will

be used for reclaiming the marshy land required for the port and form a site for the

steel plant.

Dredging volume: Based on the available hydrographic data and considering the

following, the capital dredging volume is estimated and given in Table 2.2.

• Side slope of 1:3 for the approach channels, turning basin and berthing basins

• Vertical tolerance of 0.9 m and horizontal tolerance of 5.5 m in both directions

for channels and basins where 20 m water depth are required

• Vertical tolerance of 0.7 m and horizontal tolerance of 4.7 m in both directions

for channels and basins where 20 m water depth are required

28


FIGURE 2.2. SAND MOUND TYPE REVETMENT

29


Table 2.2 Estimated capital dredging volume and proposed disposal area

Phase

1

2

3

Dredging Area

Berthing Area &

Turing basin

Approach

Channel

Berthing Area &

Turing basin

Approach

Channel

Berthing Area &

Turing basin

Dredging

volume(1000? )

Distance of

disposal

(km)

15,813 3

Disposal Area

Reclamation for Site

preparation for the

Steel Plant

12,178 13 Offshore disposal

3,527 3

Reclamation for Site

preparation

12,245 13 Offshore disposal

1,891 3

Reclamation for Site

preparation

2.3 RECLAMATION DETAILS

Considering the tidal range, wave height, storm surge etc., the proposed level of

the ground is + 6.5 m with respect to CD.

Volume of reclamation: The quantity of sand for estimated sand fill from actual

ground level to 6.5 (+) CD has been calculated at 18,903,000 m 3 for Phase 1 and

10,075,000 m 3 for Phase 2 respectively.

Retaining (Containment) bunds: To protect the slope of dikes exposed to sea or

river, a shore protection with sand cement bag would be used since it is a very

cost efficient solution. For the construction of the containment dikes and access

berms to 7 m (+) CD, the soil at the existing ground will be utilized by dozer.

Before any sand is discharged ashore, the areas to be reclaimed will be

surrounded by primary retaining bunds. These bunds will have some dewatering

sluices to enable return water (with the finer particles of the dredged soil) to return

to the sea.

30


Containment Dikes: The containment dikes will be constructed to confine and

protect material placed in the reclamation fill from natural elements, including

flood, waves, and vessel wake impacts during construction and operation of the

steel plant. The containment dikes will be protected with armor enough to

withstand any storm events, including cyclones, which may occur during the

design life. The containment dike has been checked against slope failure and

bearing failure of the underlying sub grade.

Surface Drainage: The surface of the fill will be crowned and slope will be

provided for drainage. All surface water will be collected and routed down the fill

face in a manner that erosion of the reclamation fill be controlled and routed to

appropriate drainage disposal points.

Control of Fines: The fill material will have not more than 5 % by weight passing a

No. 200 sieve. Some measures such as rapid routing of drainage to the spillway

to control fine retention within the site will be undertaken. If any noticeable

pending and settling of fines are found, the fines will be removed prior to covering

with acceptable granular materials.

2.4 PROPOSED DREDGING, RECLAMATION AND DISPOSAL

PLAN

It is recommended that 3 dredgers with 12,000HP capacity would be mobilized for

12 months into the dredging work of mooring and turning basin, and then, 2 of

them would be transferred to the dredging work of the navigation channel for 18

months.

The dredged soil from the mooring and turning basin is planned to be reclaimed at

the site of phase 1 of the backyard of revetment, and used for the material of the

site preparation including the administrative area located at north of the steel

plant. The dredged soil of phase 2 and 3 is planned to be reclaimed at the facility

area located at steel plant’s site, and outflow soil will be discharged to the eastern

31


and western disposal area respectively. Three dredgers will be arranged in order

to reclaim the classified area shown in Figure 2.3.

FIGURE 2.3 AREA CLASSIFICATION WITH DREDGER ARRANGEMENT

The execution plans regarding the dredging and relevant reclamation are

established as follows. It is planed that the center earth bank, which crosses the

site of the steel plant, will be reclaimed using the discharged soil from the dredger

2 and Area 2 of the site will be reclaimed by dredger 2. Outflow soil from Area 2

will be disposed to the western disposal area. Dredger 3 will be arranged to

reclaim Area 1 located in the west of Earth Bank. Outflow soil will be led to the

western disposal area. Dredger 1 will be arranged to reclaim Area 5 with the band

of 50 m of width. And, Outflow soil will be led to the eastern disposal area. The

dredger 2 and 3 will be re-arranged to reclaim Area 3 and 4 respectively while the

dredger 1 is mobilized to the dredging of the navigation channel.

Basically, while the silty clay material from the approach channel will be disposed

in deep water at more than 22 m water depth, the dredged sand material from the

Berthing and Turning Basin will be used for reclamation purposes at the steel

plant area. Also, the excess dredged material will be disposed at discretion in

deep water having depth beyond 22 m, and/or upland disposal site, and/or site

casting. Location of the disposal sites and disposal technique will be selected to

minimize the environmental impact, cost of capital and long term maintenance

dredging.

32


3 BASELINE STUDIES

Baseline data on environmental parameters are prerequisite to assess the

environmental quality before, during and after any developmental activity.

3.1 GEOLOGICAL PARAMETERS

3.1.1 Geology of the area

Most of the coastal area is having a thick cover of recent alluvium. Sedimentary

sequences ranging in age from Cretaceous to recent resting on metamorphic

basement have been encountered in the sub-surface area. No hard rock

exposures related to basement lithology is encountered in this region. A

generalised stratigraphy of the region is given in Table 3.1.

Table 3.1 Generalised Stratigraphy of the Region

Age

Geology formation

Recent

Alluvium

Plio – Pleistocene

Laterites

Mio – Pleistocene

Clay and fossiliferous limestone

Lower Triassic to Cretaceous Medium to coarse sandstones and shales

Precambrians

Metasediments and volcanics Quartzites,

Khondalites, Charnockites and

Anorthosites.

3.1.2 Geomorphology of the Jatadharmohan creek (JMC) and the sand spit

JMC trending NE-SW between Mahanadi in the north and Devi River in the south

is a tidal creek with its mouth about 3.5 km southwest of Abhaychandrapur. The

course of this tidal channel runs almost parallel to the shoreline for about 10 km

from the mouth from where it branches into a number of small distributaries in

different directions in their typical winding fashion. The course of JMC is

33


separated from the sea by an elongated sandy barrier spit, which has a maximum

width of 660 m and average width of 400 m. The sand spit appears to be stable

and fresh water is observed on the spit in shallow wells of 1-1.5 m depth. There

are quite a number of linear to curvy linear sand ridges on both sides of the creek.

Based on their orientation, which is more or less parallel to the present shoreline,

these sand ridges are interpreted as the remnants of beach-dune ridges

representing the former shoreline position. Although these remnant beach ridges

appear to be discontinuous patches, they are in fact continuous narrow elongated

ridges probably separated by the erosion activity of the various branches of the

tidal creek.

The ridge complex is very prominent immediately landward of the mouth of JMC

with a width of about 2 to 2.5 km. This particular large patch of sand ridge

complex is surrounded by low-lying tidal flats, which are criss-crossed by smaller

tidal inlets. These tidal flats are built of silt and clayey sediments and are partially

emerged and as such put under cultivation by the local farmers utilising the canal

irrigation facilities. Based on the existence of the beach ridges even upto about 7

km inland, it is surmised that the shoreline was upto Trilochanpur during sometime

in the geological past from where the coast line prograded seaward by the

deposition of sediments. These tidal channels have breached the continuity of the

beach ridges at number of places. As such the barrier spit, i.e. to the southwest of

the creek, could be considered as a part of the beach ridge complex and not a spit

in the usual meaning of the word. However, it is noticeable from the satellite

image (Figure 1.3) that considerable deposition is going on both sides of the

mouth leading to the extension of this elongated sandy feature as a result of which

the creek mouth is clogged by sediment and shoaled up.

Further, based on the linear nature of the tidal flat zones in the area, it is believed

that the tidal flats have been subjected to emergence probably in the recent past

by sediment deposition and the creeks have been narrowed down from their initial

wider sizes. On the whole it may be concluded that geomorphologically, this part

of the coast is experiencing depositional activity. However a considerable

34


erosional activity has been observed in the landward part of the JMC near the

confluence and seasonal erosion along the coastline north of the confluence.

3.1.3 Seabed sediments

Textural analysis of the seabed samples in the study region indicates that the

entire region is comprised of mostly clayey sands followed by sandy clays and

silty sands. From the nature of the distribution of sediments on the seafloor in the

study region, it shows that the samples collected around the 10 m contour were

admixture of both clayey sands and silty sands. The percentage of sands in these

sediments was up to nearly 80%. The samples collected around 15 m water depth

were mostly sandy clays showing the clay percentage up to 60 to 68 % (Table

3.2). The sediment samples from 15 m to 18.5 m were mostly comprised of clayey

sands and sand-silt-clay. It was observed from the over all distribution of the

sediments on the sea floor of the study region that no particular trend such as

fining or coarsening seaward was noticed. Most of the samples contain medium

sized shell fragments in the sediment. No evidences of relict sands of coarser in

nature were observed through out the study area. However, clayey sands having

the percentage of sands around 60% were found near 17 m water depth.

3.1.4 Bathymetry

Bathymetry data in the area was reduced to Chart Datum (CD) by applying the

tidal data during the survey period. The data has been plotted along the traverses

and the contour map has been prepared at an interval of 1m (Figure 3.1). The

seabed topography in the study area ranges from 6meters in the near shore to

17meters in the offshore. The area is devoid of topographic highs and seafloor

depressions. In general, all the depth contours trend parallel to the coast. The

gradient between the depth contours 6 and 13 meters resembles steep gradient

where as sea floor gradient between the depth contours 13 and 16 meters

appears gentle. Some of the typical echograms along the traverses L-58, L-63, L-

15, L-40/1 and L-36 showing even topography are presented in Figure 3.2.

35


Table 3.2 Sediment Texture

Sample No. Sand (%) Silt (%) Clay (%)

1 64.2 10.1 25.7

2 62.1 16.5 21.3

3 66.6 18.5 15.0

4 27.0 44.4 28.6

5 58.3 1.4 40.2

6 33.6 13.3 53.1

7 30.2 1.4 68.4

8 77.9 13.0 8.8

10 80.5 5.4 14.0

11 27.2 10.5 62.3

12 66.8 3.8 29.4

13 71.2 10.2 18.6

14 42.0 29.9 28.1

15 52.6 1.2 46.1

16 71.1 14.9 14.0

17 82.9 3.1 14.1

18 67.0 9.7 23.3

19 65.6 16.4 18.0

21 68.7 20.1 11.2

22 63.0 10.4 26.6

23 20.0 18.5 61.4

24 19.9 18.6 61.5

25 57.9 11.6 30.5

26 63.6 11.7 24.7

27 76.9 10.2 12.9

28 59.9 18.2 21.9

29 44.0 30.1 25.8

30 29.6 30.1 40.3

31 67.7 21.7 10.6

32 84.4 8.0 7.6

3.1.5 High-resolution shallow seismic

High-resolution shallow seismic records were interpreted along all the tracks in the

study area. Some typical seismic sections are shown in Figures 3.3 a and b. In the

interpreted sections the seabed topography was taken from the echo sounder

data (corrected for CD). The interpreted sections along the nine selected

traverses are shown in the Figures 3.4 a and b.

36


FIGURE 3.1 MAP SHOWING THE BATHYMETRY OF THE REGION

37


FIGURE 3.2 TYPICAL ECHOGRAMS

38


FIGURE 3.3 a TYPICAL SESIMIC SECTIONS

39


FIGURE 3.3 b TYPICAL SESIMIC SECTIONS

40


FIGURE 3.4 a TYPICAL INTERPRETED SEISMIC SECTIONS

41


FIGURE 3.4 b TYPICAL INTERPRETED SEISMIC SECTIONS

42


Line-40/1: (central line close to Land Fall Point): Along this track the bathymetry

varies from 6meters (near shore) to 15.5 m in the offshore region. Four seismic

reflections are identified below the seabed at various depths. Particularly the

second reflector below the seabed is very undulatory representing a sedimentary

ridge like feature. Similar kind of ridges are present at off Gopalpur, south of the

study area. This layer occurred at a depth of around 30 m from the Chart Datum

(CD). The deepest reflector occurred at a depth approximately 70-75 m from CD

was interpreted as acoustic basement.

Line 46: Along this track the bathymetry varies from 6 m (near shore) to 16 m in

the offshore. Four seismic reflectors are identified below the seabed at various

depths. The sedimentary layers are very undulatory. The depth to the deepest

reflector (acoustic basement) varies from 72-85 m below the CD.

Line 58: The depth to the seabed varies from 9 m in the near shore to 16 m in the

offshore. Four seismic reflectors are identified below the seabed. The layers are

undulatory in the nature. The depth to the deepest reflector (acoustic basement)

occurred between the depths 70-80 m.

Line-15: The depth to the seabed varies from 7 m in the near shore to 16 m in the

offshore. Four seismic reflectors are identified below the seabed. The second

reflector was very undulatory resembling sedimentary ridge like feature. The depth

to this layer varies between 30 and 50 m. The depth to the acoustic basement

varies from 60 to 78 m.

Line 36: The depth to the seabed varies from 7 m (near shore) to 15.5 m in the

offshore. Four seismic reflectors are noticed below the seabed. The sediment

layers are very undulatory. The depth to the acoustic basement varies from 65 to

75 m.

Line 63: The depth to the seabed varies from 11 m in the near shore to 16 m in

the offshore. Four seismic reflectors are noticed below the seabed. The sediment

43


layers are very undulatory in nature. The depth to the acoustic basement varies

between 70 to 80 m.

Line 22: The depth to the seabed varies from 4.8 m (near shore) to 15 m in the

offshore. Five seismic reflectors are identified below the seabed. These reflectors

are very undulatory in nature. The depth to the deflector identified as acoustic

basement varies from 60 to 78 m.

Line 7: The depth to the seabed varies from 13 m in the near shore to 15 m in the

offshore. Four seismic reflectors are identified below the seabed. They are very

undulatory in nature. The depth to the acoustic basement varies from 70 to 80 m.

Line 28: The depth to the seabed varies from 6 m in the near shore to 16 m in the

offshore. Five seismic reflectors are identified below the seabed. The third seismic

reflector is seen very undulatory resembling sedimentary ridge like feature. The

depth to the deepest identified as acoustic basement varies from 65 to 78 m.

In general, the seismic data in the study area reveal four to five undulatory

sediment layers below the seabed. In some of the profiles very much undulatory

nature has been observed in the sedimentary layers between the depth ranges

from 30 to 50 m below the CD. This feature resembles a sedimentary ridge like

feature, which was similar to that observed off Gopalpur south of the study area.

The deepest reflector, which was referred in the present study as acoustic

basement, occurred between the depths 60 to 85 m. The subsurface sedimentary

stratum from the Chart Datum is free from rock, under water cables and gas

maskings that are hazardous for marine operations.

44


3.1.6 Side Scan Sonar

The Side Scan Sonar data has been collected by operating the system at 200 m

range. Some of the typical records showing sand and clay patches over the

seafloor along the traverses L-40/1, L-5 and L-11 are shown in Figure 3.5.

The data along the central line 40/1 reveal that the seabed is carpeted with sandy

layer. The area is free from rock outcrops, seabed depressions and anomalous

bodies. Towards offshore end of the line clay patches are observed. The data

along the line 11 also reveals that the seafloor is covered with sandy layer devoid

of rock outcrops, seabed depressions and other hazardous features. Offshore end

of this line few clay patches are observed. The data along the line 5 reveal that

the seafloor is covered with sand devoid of outcrops, seabed depressions and any

hazardous objects. Clay pockets are observed towards offshore end of the line.

In general, the image of the seafloor shows that the area is covered with the sand

and at places clay patches.

The summary of the soil investigation based on the bore hole data collected by

POSCO is presented in Appendix -1.

3.1.7 Creek Bathymetry

In general, the water depth ranges from 0.5 m to 11.5 m with reference to chart

datum in the JMC. Higher depths up to 11.5 m were observed in the areas already

covered with dredging i.e. up to Noliasahi from confluence end. The un dredged

area now exists from Noliasahi to south western end of the creek. The new area

covers between Noliasahi and southeastern end of the creek covering about 3.3

km in length. Depth range in the zone between confluence and Noliasahi varies

from 0.1 to 11.5 m C.D. whereas the sounding values between Noliasahi and

southwestern end of the creek is 0.6 m to 2.1 m.

45


FIGURE 3.5 TYPICAL SIDE SCAN RECORDS SHOWING THE

SAND AND CLAY

46


3.2 ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS

The study area is approximately 12 km south of Paradeep. The meteorological

and oceanographic conditions for the study area are similar to that at Paradeep.

The historical data for Paradeep based on the India Meteorological Department

(IMD) observations from 1969 to 1980 are presented in the following sections.

3.2.1 Climatic Condition

The climate at the proposed site is governed by the monsoons. The average

maximum temperature varies between 30° C to 33° C during summer reaching

maximum of 33.1 ° C in May (Table 3.3).

The temperature during winter season was moderate (15° C to 20° C) reaching

minimum of 15° C in the month of January. The area experiences humid climate

with a maximum day temperature of 41° C and night temperature of 32° C.

Minimum temperature recorded was 8.9° C.The average relative humidity varies

between 76% to 86% and 70% to 86% in morning and evening respectively.

Maximum and minimum values of relative humidity were reported 98% in January

1971 and 47% in February 1972 respectively.

3.2.2 Rainfall

Average annual intensity of rainfall was about 1500 mm and minimum of 250 mm.

A maximum annual rainfall of 2251 mm was recorded in 1971. Generally, the wet

season was during southwest monsoon, from June to October (Table 3.3).

3.2.3 Wind

Mean wind speed during summer at Paradeep port varies from 18 to 24 km/hr and

the predominant direction was south and southwest. The mean wind speed was

about 10 to 15 km/hr during winter with the direction north and northeast (Table

47


3.4). The maximum wind speed estimated by India Meteorological department for

the super cyclone, which hit Paradeep coast on 29.10.1999, was 260 km/hr.

Table 3.3 Monthly variation of air temperature, rainfall and relative humidity

(Ref: IMD Climatological Tables)

Month

Average

temperature

(°C)

Daily

Max.

Daily

Min.

Average

rainfall

(mm)

Average relative

Humidity

(%)

Morning Evening

January 27.7 15.3 17.6 77 71

February 29.1 18.3 6.5 78 75

March 31.2 22.0 26.7 79 80

April 32.0 24.6 23.5 82 84

May 33.1 25.8 54.3 82 83

June 32.7 26.2 225.7 83 84

July 31.5 25.3 329.3 86 86

August 31.3 25.5 345.9 86 85

September 32.0 25.6 242.9 83 83

October 31.7 24.3 206.3 81 79

November 30.2 20.5 108.7 79 75

December 28.0 15.3 21.7 76 70

3.2.4 Cyclones and Depressions

The formation of storms and depressions is negligible during January – March and

very high during October and November months. Monsoon depressions form in

the head Bay and move towards Orissa coast during SW monsoon season [May-

August]. The initial movement of the cyclone is towards north westerly direction,

but occasionally they change their direction and move in a north easterly direction

(generally referred as recurvature of cyclone). This recurvature of cyclones takes

place during April, May, October and November months. During SW monsoon,

depressions form in the head of Bay of Bengal and move in a westerly/ north

westerly direction. A total of 33 cyclonic storms have crossed the coast within a

radius of 200 km from Paradeep port during the period 1971 to 1995, of which 7

were cyclonic storms. The frequency of occurrence of cyclonic storms is highest

during October. The severe cyclonic storms formed over north-western Bay of

48


Bengal and in the vicinity of Paradeep are presented in Table 3.5. It shows the

number of storms that have occurred during 1842-1995 covering the area 13-24°

N 76-99° E and within a radius of 200 km from Paradeep. The most destructive

element associated with an intense cyclone is storm surge. Past history indicates

that loss of life is significant when surge magnitude is 3 m or more.

MONTH

Table 3.4

Mean

wind

speed

km/hr

Monthly mean wind speed and wind direction sectors

(Ref: IMD Climatological Tables)

Number of days with wind

speed (km/hr)

62 or

more

20-

61

Percentage number of days wind from

1-19 0 N NE E SE S SW W N

W

Calm

JAN 0830

1730

FEB 0830

1730

MAR 0830

1730

APR 0830

1730

MAY 0830

1730

JUN 0830

1730

JUL 0830

1730

AUG 0830

1730

SEP 0830

1730

OCT 0830

1730

NOV 0830

1730

DEC 0830

1730

Mean 0830

1730

12.3 0

0

14.7 0

0

18.0 0

0

22.7 0

0

23.9 0

0

21.1 0

0

20.5 0

0

18.6 0

0

18.0 0

0

11.7 0

0

10.8 0

0

10.0 0

0

16.9 0

0

3

6

4

9

9

16

15

19

15

20

14

17

14

18

11

13

8

10

5

6

5

5

3

4

10.6

14.3

26

24

23

19

21

15

15

11

16

11

16

12

16

13

19

17

20

19

25

24

24

23

27

26

24.8

21.4

2

1

1

0

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

1

0

1

1

2

1

1

1

1

2

1

1

1.1

0.8

53

15

26

6

11

5

1

0

1

1

3

2

2

1

5

2

8

2

29

10

56

22

75

25

23

8

11

20

13

7

4

1

1

0

2

2

4

3

1

1

1

2

3

3

9

12

12

29

12

35

6

10

(0830 & 1730-Time in IST)

3

21

4

19

1

7

1

1

2

2

3

3

3

2

5

4

5

6

8

18

5

14

1

21

3

10

2

15

4

22

3

9

6

5

9

12

9

9

3

4

6

10

10

13

6

16

2

11

0

8

5

11

3

17

13

33

27

44

37

45

40

41

27

32

16

24

20

29

22

34

10

23

3

10

1

7

18

28

5

7

16

12

36

32

49

48

41

42

41

41

47

53

29

36

26

28

11

12

3

6

0

2

25

27

6

1

9

1

7

1

3

1

4

0

9

6

22

12

21

12

18

7

11

4

5

1

2

1

10

4

15

4

12

0

8

1

1

0

1

0

4

2

4

2

11

5

7

4

13

2

13

2

9

0

8

2

2

0

3

0

3

0

1

0

0

0

0

2

2

1

2

0

1

3

3

3

1

5

0

1

2

0

49


Table 3.5 Monthly distribution of storms during 1842 to 1995

Month

Total number of storms

13-24° N 76-99° E 200 km radius

January 7 0

February 1 0

March 1 0

April 28 0

May 79 14

June 120 72

July 188 139

August 198 137

September 198 116

October 175 61

November 97 20

December 34 5

During October 1999, two cyclones formed in the Bay of Bengal and crossed

Orissa Coast. The cyclone during 14-19 October crossed at Gopalpur and the

‘Super Cyclone’ (25-29 October) crossed at Paradeep on 29.10.1999. Tracks of

those two cyclones are shown in Figure 3.6. A depression formed at 13.8° N;

92.8° E on 15.10.1999 intensified into a cyclonic storm, moved west north west

and crossed at Gopalpur on 19.10.1999. Another depression which formed on

25.10.1999 at 12.8° N; 98° E, moved rapidly and intensified into a severe cyclonic

storm with core of hurricane winds. The severe cyclone further intensified into a

‘Super cyclone’ and crossed at Paradeep on 29.10.1999. The lowest sea level

pressure recorded at Paradeep was 963.1 mb. The maximum wind speed

estimated was 260 km/hr and the radius of maximum wind was 10-15 km. While

crossing the coast, the super cyclone produced 5.5 m storm surge above CD,

which inundated land upto about 30 km inland.

During the period of our observations, a monsoon depression formed in the head

Bay of Bengal on 16.9.2005, moved closer to the study area and finally crossed at

Kalingapatnam, (Andhra Pradesh), on 19.9.2005. Track of the depression is

shown in Figure 3.7.

50


3.2.5 Visibility

The monthly average visibility based on the India Meteorological observations at

Paradeep is presented in Table 3.6. Visibility is less in July and August compared

to other months.

3.3 PHYSICAL PROCESSES

3.3.1 Tides

Tides in the area are mixed, semidiurnal type with an average spring tide range of

1.87 m and a neap tide range of 0.7 m (Paradeep Port Tide Table, 2005). Tidal

levels at Paradeep are presented below.

Highest astronomical tide (HAT) +3.06 m

Mean high water springs (MHWS) +2.58 m

Mean high water neaps (MHWN) +2.02 m

Mean sea level (MSL) +1.66 m

Mean low water neap (MLWN) +1.32 m

Mean low water spring (MLWS) +0.71 m

Mean lower low water springs (MLLS) +0.64 m

Chart Datum (CD) 0.00 m

51


FIGURE 3.6 TRACK OF CYCLONE PASSED THROUGH THE

STUDY REGION DURING OCTOBER 1999

52


FIGURE 3.7 TRACK OF CYCLONE PASSED THROUGH THE

STUDY REGION DURING THE STUDY PERIOD

53


Table 3.6 Monthly average visibility (Ref: IMD Climatological Table)

MONTH

JAN 08.30

17.30

FEB 08.30

17.30

MAR 08.30

17.30

APR 08.30

17.30

MAY 08.30

17.30

JUN 08.30

17.30

JUL 08.30

17.30

AUG 08.30

17.30

SEP 08.30

17.30

OCT 08.30

17.30

NOV 08.30

17.30

DEC 08.30

17.30

Annual 08.30

17.30

NO OF DAYS WITH VISIBILITY

UPTO

1Km

1-4

Km

4-10

Km

10-20

Km

0.3 1.8 11.4 2.2

0.0 0.1 13.3 13.2

0.6 0.3 10.8 3.3

0.0 0.3 11.7 12.8

0.0 0.2 10.3 5.5

0.0 0.5 9.3 17.8

0.0 0.2 10.5 7.3

0.0 0.2 8.3 19.6

0.0 0.3 10.0 8.9

0.0 0.6 8.8 20.4

0.1 1.9 13.3 8.2

0.0 2.0 14.2 12.7

0.0 4.0 14.5 9.0

0.2 3.3 17.9 9.3

0.1 3.6 13.7 9.6

0.1 2.9 15.2 11.6

0.1 1.8 10.7 10.7

0.2 1.6 12.3 15.6

0.0 1.2 8.8 11.5

0.0 1.5 11.3 16.6

0.0 1.3 8.4 8.6

0.1 0.9 14.7 12.1

0.0 1.0 12.4 2.6

0.1 0.0 14.8 13.7

1.2 17.6 134.8 87.4

0.7 13.9 151.8 175.4

[08:30 & 17:30 – Time in IST]

OVER

20 Km

15.3

4.4

13.0

3.2

15.0

3.4

12.0

1.9

11.8

1.2

6.5

1.1

3.5

0.3

4.0

1.2

6.7

0.3

9.5

1.6

11.7

2.2

15.0

2.4

124

232

The tides recorded at Paradeep port during 13.9.05 to 12.10.05 is shown in

Figure 3.8. Water level variations measured using tide pole at Noliosahi during

September shows that the range in water level variations was about 0.4 m. For

the same period, tide gauge data at Paradeep Port, shows the tidal variation of

more than 1 m. The change of tidal phase at Noliosahi was 2 hrs later than at

Paradeep Port.

54


3.5

3

2.5

Tide (m)

2

1.5

1

0.5

13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

September October 2005

FIGURE 3.8 MEASURED TIDE AT PARADIP DURING SEPTEMBER -OCTOBER 2005

55


3.3.2 Waves

Waves in the open sea are generated by winds. Shallow water waves near

Paradeep approach the coast from directions ranging from ESE to SW with

predominance from southeast and south. Generally, deep-water wave condition in

Paradeep is moderate, with waves coming from SW in the period from April to

September and from NE in the period between October and December. The sea

conditions are generally calm in the period between January to March. Average

wave height and period of deep and shallow water waves are higher during the

southwest monsoon compared to the other seasons. Extreme wave conditions at

the study region are caused by cyclones.

Based on the wave measurements carried out from September to November, it

was found that the significant wave height (Hs) varied from 0.5 to 3.5 m (Figure

3.9) with an average value of 1.3 m (Table 3.7). The significant wave height

predominantly varied from 0.5 to 1.5 m (Table 3.8). The mean wave period varied

from 3.6 to 11.8 s. The wave direction varied from 96 to 205° with an average

value of 166° (Figure 3.10). The maximum spectral energy varied from 0.2 to 27.3

m 2 /Hz. The wave spectrum was broad with spectral width parameter varying from

0.6 to 0.94 with an average value of 0.8 (Figure 3.11). The waves were

approaching predominately from 150 to 180° (Table 3.9 and Figure 3.12). The

maximum wave height varied from 0.8 to 6.1 m with an average value of 2.1 m.

The maximum wave height predominantly varied from 1 to 2.5 m (Table 3.10).

Table 3.7 Minimum, maximum and average value of wave parameters

Parameter Minimum Maximum Average

Hmax (m) 0.8 6.1 2.1

Hs (m) 0.5 3.5 1.3

Tz (s) 3.6 11.8 6.6

THmax (s) 5.3 20 13.0

Spectral peak period (s) 1.7 22.4 10.4

Direction (deg) 96 205 166

Emax (m 2 /Hz) 0.2 27.3 2.7

Spectral width parameter 0.6 0.94 0.8

wave steepness 1/181 1/17 1/45

56


Table 3.8 Joint distribution of Hs and Tz (September - November 2005)

Hs

Mean wave period, Tz (s)

(m) 3-4 4-5 5-6 6-7 7-8 8-9 9-10 10-11 11-12 Total

0.5 - 1.0 6 27 24 27 26 17 10 3 1 141

1.0 - 1.5 . 35 70 38 35 31 13 7 4 233

1.5 - 2.0 . 6 16 18 10 3 . . . 53

2.0 - 2.5 . . 9 10 2 . . . . 21

2.5 - 3.0 . . 3 4 . . . . . 7

3.0 - 3.5 . . . 2 3 . . . . 5

3.5 - 4.0 . . . . 1 . . . . 1

Total 6 68 122 99 77 51 23 10 5 461

Table 3.9 Joint distribution of Hs and Dp (September-November 2005)

Hs

Mean wave direction, Dp (deg)

(m) 90-120 120-150 150-180 180-210 Total

0.5 - 1.0 . 7 119 15 141

1.0 - 1.5 1 27 179 26 233

1.5 - 2.0 3 5 41 4 53

2.0 - 2.5 . 1 7 13 21

2.5 - 3.0 . 1 3 3 7

3.0 - 3.5 . . 3 2 5

3.5 - 4.0 . . 1 . 1

Total 4 41 353 63 461

Table 3.10 Joint distribution of Hmax and THmax (September- November 2005)

Hmax

Wave period corresponding to maximum wave height, T Hmax (s)

(m) 2-4 4-6 6-8 8-10 10-12 12-14 14-16 16-18 18-20 Total

0.5 - 1.0 . . 1 2 . . . . . 3

1.0 - 1.5 2 . 4 16 41 19 5 2 . 89

1.5 - 2.0 8 8 14 24 51 53 25 4 . 187

2.0 - 2.5 6 11 18 22 19 11 4 1 . 92

2.5 - 3.0 3 6 2 6 7 8 4 . 1 37

3.0 - 3.5 . 2 4 7 5 2 1 1 . 22

3.5 - 4.0 1 1 3 7 2 . . . . 14

4.0 - 4.5 1 1 2 2 1 . . . . 7

4.5 - 5.0 . 2 . 2 . . . . . 4

5.0 - 5.5 . 1 . 1 . . . . . 2

5.5 - 6.0 . 1 1 . 2 . . . . 4

Total 21 33 49 89 128 93 39 8 1 461

57


6

(A)

WAVE HEIGHT (m)

5

4

3

2

MAXIMUM WAVE HEIGHT

SIGNIFICANT WAVE HEIGHT

1

0

20

6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 1516 1718 19 20 21 2223 24 25 26 2728 29 30 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1112 13 1415 16 1718 19 20 21 22 2324 25 26 2728 29 30 31 1 2 3 4 5

September

DAYS October

November

MEAN WAVE PERIOD

(B)

WAVE PERIOD CORRESPONDING TO Hmax

SPECTRAL PEAK PERIOD

WAVE PERIOD (s)

15

10

5

0

6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 1516 1718 19 20 21 2223 24 25 26 2728 29 30 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1112 13 1415 16 1718 19 20 21 22 2324 25 26 2728 29 30 31 1 2 3 4 5

September

DAYS October November

FIGURE 3.9 VARIATION OF (A) SIGNIFICANT WAVE HEIGHT AND MAXIMUM WAVE HEIGHT (B) MEAN WAVE

PERIOD, WAVE PERIOD CORRESPONDING TO MAXIMUM WAVE HEIGHT AND SPECTRAL PEAK PERIOD

58


MAXIMUM SPECTRAL ENERGY(m 2 /Hz)

30

20

10

0

270

(A)

6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 1516 1718 19 20 212223 2425 26 2728 29 30 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 101112 131415 1617 1819 20 21 22 2324 25 26 2728 29 30 31 1 2 3 4 5

September October November

DAYS

WAVE DIRECTION (DEG)

225

180

135

(B)

90

6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 1516 1718 19 20 21 2223 2425 26 2728 2930 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 101112 13 1415 161718 19 20 2122 2324 25 26 2728 29 30 31 1 2 3 4 5

September DAYS October November

FIGURE 3.10 VARIATION OF (A) MAXIMUM SPECTRAL ENERGY AND (B) WAVE DIRECTION

59


1.0

SPECTRAL WIDTH PARAMETER

0.9

0.8

0.7

0.6

(A)

0.5

0.08

6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 1516 1718 19 20 21 2223 24 25 26 2728 29 30 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1112 13 1415 16 1718 19 20 21 22 2324 25 26 2728 29 30 31 1 2 3 4 5

SEPTEMBER DAYS OCTOBER NOVEMBER

WAVE STEEPNESS

0.06

0.04

0.02

(B)

0.00

6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 1516 17 18 19 20 21 2223 24 25 26 2728 29 30 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1112 13 1415 16 1718 19 20 21 22 2324 25 26 2728 29 30 31 1 2 3 4 5

DAYS

SEPTEMBER OCTOBER NOVEMBER

FIGURE 3.11 VARIATION OF (A) SPECTRAL WIDTH PARAMETER AND (B) WAVE STEEPNESS

60


N

330

30

300

60

W

E

240

120

2.5 - 3.0 1.0 m - 1.5 m

SIGNIFICANT WAVE HEIGHT

0.5 - 1.0 m

1.5 - 2.0 m

2.0 - 2.5 m

3.0 - 3.5 m

3.5 - 4.0 m

210

S

150

CONCENTRIC CIRCLES REPRESENT 10, 20, 30, 40 AND 50% FREQUENCY OF OCCURRENCE

FIGURE 3.12 WAVE ROSE DIAGRAM (SIGNIFICANT WAVE HEIGHT)

61


The wave measurements carried out by NIO off Paradeep during 1996-1997

shows that the significant wave height varied from 0.5 to 3.4 m and the maximum

wave height varied between 0.6 m to 6.3 m and the highest value was associated

with cyclone. Wave periods were found to vary from 8 to 15 s. Average wave

direction was south-westerly to south-easterly.

3.3.3 Currents

Monsoon winds dominate the current pattern in the Bay of Bengal. A general

circulation is formed that varies with season, sometimes in a direction opposite

from the prevailing winds. The most frequent occurrence of the current velocity

was between 0.3 to 0.4 m/s throughout the year but higher order currents

exceeding 0.8 m/s were observed during southwest monsoon season. Off

Paradeep the currents were in the NE direction during January- September and

SW direction during October – December. Currents were weak during December

– February. In general, the shelf circulation along the east coast of India is

northerly during May – June, with the onset of Southwest monsoon driven by

South/ South westerly winds.

Current measurements during September-October shows that at location L1, the

near surface (14 m above seabed) current speed varied from 0.01 to 0.91 m/s

with an average value of 0.2 m/s (Figure 3.13). At two occasions, the speed was

more than 0.8 m/s. Strong fluctuations are seen in both speed and direction of

current at surface (14 m above seabed) during the observational period. At

location L1, the near bed (2 m above seabed) current speed varied from 0.01 to

0.86 m/s with an average value of 0.2 m/s (Figure 3.14). At two occasions, the

speed was more than 0.7 m/s. Direction was steady (190-220°) in the beginning

and it was highly fluctuating, which could be mainly due to the influence of the

cyclone.

62


360

WATER DEPTH : 16 m

MEASURED AT 14 m ABOVE SEABED (NEAR SURFACE)

270

Direction (deg)

180

90

0

5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

1

0.8

speed (m/s)

0.6

0.4

0.2

0

5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

SEPTEMBER OCTOBER 2005

FIGURE 3.13 VARIATION OF CURRENT SPEED AND DIRECTION AT 14 m ABOVE SEABED AT LOCATION L1

63


360

WATER DEPTH : 16 m

MEASURED AT 2 m ABOVE SEABED

270

Direction (deg)

180

90

0

5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

1

0.8

speed (m/s)

0.6

0.4

0.2

0

5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

SEPTEMBER OCTOBER 2005

FIGURE 3.14 VARIATION OF CURRENT SPEED AND DIRECTION AT 2 m ABOVE SEABED AT LOCATION L1

64


At location L2, the near surface (8 m above sea bed) current speed varied from

0.1 to 0.7 m/s. At location L2, the current speed could not be collected during the

cyclone period (12-15 September and 17-22 September). The flow was mostly

between 240-270° (Figure 3.15).

Based on the current measurements at locations L1 and L2 during the period

5.9.05 to 8.10.05, rose diagrams of the currents were plotted. At location L1 (14 m

above seabed) predominant speed was found to be 0.2 to 0.4 m/s and 0.4 to 0.6

m/s with the direction 210 to 240° and 240 to 270° (Figure 3.16). At bottom (2 m

above seabed) predominant speed and direction were 0.2 to 0.4 m/s and 210 to

240° (Figure 3.17). At location L2, the predominant speed was 0.2 to 0.4 m/s with

the direction 210 to 240° (Figure 3.18).

3.3.4 Temperature, salinity and density

Data on temperature and salinity had been collected in the study area at 9

stations (N1, N2, N3, C1, C2, C3, S1, S2, S3) (shown in Figure 1.5) on 1.10.2005.

The temperature is uniform throughout the depth and it is about 30° C (Figure

3.19). There is not much spatial variation. Salinity values in general are low due to

fresh water discharge from the Mahanadi River, which is close to the study area.

Salinity was uniform in the top 8 m layer which was about 20-22 psu along the

northern transect (N1, N2, N3). More or less similar trend was observed along

central (C1, C2, C3) and southern transects (S1, S2, S3). Strong gradient in

salinity was observed from 8 m to bottom at all the stations. Mostly it varied from

26-28 psu at all the stations.

Density profiles in the study area are shown in Figure 3.20. It varied from 1011-

1012 kg/m 3 in the top layer along the northern transect and 1010-1011 kg/m 3

along the central transect and at stations S2 and S3. In the bottom layer (8-20 m)

density varied between 1011-1016 kg/m 3 .

65


360

WATER DEPTH : 10 m

MEASURED AT 8 m ABOVE SEABED (NEAR SURFACE)

270

Direction (deg)

180

NO DATA

NO DATA

90

0

5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

1

0.8

speed (m/s)

0.6

0.4

NO DATA

NO DATA

0.2

0

5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

SEPTEMBER OCTOBER 2005

FIGURE 3.15 VARIATION OF CURRENT SPEED AND DIRECTION AT 8 m ABOVE SEABED AT LOCATION L2

66


N

330

30

300

60

W

E

10%

20%

240

30%

120

40%

210

50%

150

S

CURRENT SPEED

0.0 - 0.2 m/s

0.2 - 0.4 m/s

0.4 - 0.6 m/s

0.6 - 0.8 m/s

0.8 - 1.0 m/s

CONCENTRIC CIRCLES REPRESENT 10, 20, 30, 40 AND 50% FREQUENCY OF OCCURRENCE

FIGURE 3.16 ROSE DIAGRAM OF CURRENTS RECORDED AT 14 m ABOVE

SEABED AT LOCATION L1

67


N

330

30

300

60

W

E

10%

20%

240

30%

120

40%

210

50%

150

S

CURRENT SPEED

0.0 - 0.2 m/s

0.2 - 0.4 m/s

0.4 - 0.6 m/s

0.6 - 0.8 m/s

0.8 - 1.0 m/s

CONCENTRIC CIRCLES REPRESENT 10, 20, 30, 40 AND 50% FREQUENCY OF OCCURRENCE

FIGURE 3.17 ROSE DIAGRAM OF CURRENTS RECORDED AT 2 m ABOVE

SEABED AT LOCATION L1

68


N

330

30

300

60

W

E

10%

20%

240

30%

120

40%

210

50%

150

S

CURRENT SPEED

0.0 - 0.2 m/s

0.2 - 0.4 m/s

0.4 - 0.6 m/s

0.6 - 0.8 m/s

CONCENTRIC CIRCLES REPRESENT 10, 20, 30, 40 AND 50% FREQUENCY OF OCCURRENCE

FIGURE 3.18 ROSE DIAGRAM OF CURRENTS RECORDED AT 8 m ABOVE

SEABED AT LOCATION L2

69


0

20 24 28 32

20 24 28 32

20 24 28 32

4

St.No N1

St.No N2

St.No N3

Depth(m)

8

12

16

20

0

20 24 28 32

20 24 28 32 20 24 28 32

4

St.No C1

St.No C2

St.No C3

Depth(m)

8

12

16

20

20 24 28 32

20 24 28 32

20 24 28 32

0

4

St.No S1

St.No S2

St.No S3

Depth(m)

8

12

16

Fig. Vertical distribution of Temperature( C) and Salinity (psu) off Paradip.

Temperature (°c)

Salinity (psu)

FIGURE 3.19 VERTICAL DISTRIBUTION OF TEMPERATURE (°C)

AND SALINITY (PSU) AT DIFFERENT STATIONS

70


1010 1012 1014 1016

1010 1012 1014 1016

1010 1012 1014 1016

0

4

St.No N1

St.No N2

St.No N3

Depth(m)

8

12

16

20

0

1010 1012 1014 1016

1010 1012 1014 1016 1010 1012 1014 1016

4

St.No C1

St.No C2

St.No C3

Depth(m)

8

12

16

20

0

1010 1012 1014 1016

1010 1012 1014 1016

1010 1012 1014 1016

Depth(m)

4

8

12

St.No S1

St.No S2

St.No S3

16

20

Fig. Vertical distribution of Density (kg/m 3 ) off Paradip.

Density

FIGURE 3.20 VERTICAL DISTRIBUTION OF DENSITY (kg/m 3 ) AT

DIFFERENT STATIONS

71


3.3.5. Longshore sediment transport rate

Littoral drift estimated by various investigators along this coast in general was

about 1 x 10 6 m 3 /year. Sediment transport studies indicate that the region around

the mouth of the Jatadharmohan creek falls within the zone of wave divergence

and this would help the deposition of sediments in the vicinity of the river mouth.

Calculated annual gross longshore sediment transport rate along Jatadharmohan

sand spit was 1.12 x 10 6 m 3 /year. The net drift was 0.95 x 10 6 m 3 /year towards

north.

3.3.6. Beach profile

The beach profile (station location 20° 13’ 40.23” N 86° 35’ 37.50”E) taken on the

northern side of the proposed port is shown in Figure 3.21. High sand dunes (4 m

height) were seen along this stretch. The beach width was around 40 m in

October and 60 m in December. Deposition was observed in December.

The beach profile (station location 20° 13.68’ N 86° 35.573’ E) taken on the

northern side of the JMC confluence is shown in Figure 3.22. Erosion was

observed (sand dune was eroded) in September during the cyclone period.

The beach material in the inter tidal zone is between medium and course size.

The width of the breaker zone is noticed around 100m during the month of

September and October months and it is around 30m during December and

January months.

72


0

Location 20 deg 13' 40.23" N : 86 deg 35' 37.50"E

Elevation with respect to Bench mark (m)

2

4

6

October 2005

December 2005

WL

0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140

Distance (m)

FIGURE 3.21 VARIATION OF BEACH PROFILE NORTH OF THE PROPOSED PORT LOCATION

73


0

Location 20 deg 13.68' N : 86 deg 35.573' E

Elevation with respect to Bench mark (m)

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

September 2005

October 2005

December 2005

WL

8

9

0 20 40 60 80 100

Distance (m)

FIGURE 3.22 VARIATION OF BEACH PROFILE NORTH OF JMC CONFLUENCE

74


3.4 WATER QUALITY CHARACTERISTICS

In order to assess the quality of the waters, it is essential to study the spatial and

temporal variations of these parameters in the potential impact zone in the coastal

waters of the proposed discharge point. The concentrations of hydrochemical

characteristics in the marine environment off Jatadharmohan Creek are shown in

Tables 3.11 and 3.12.

pH values ranged between 7.52 to 8.09 in the surface and bottom waters of the

study area. The variations of pH between surface and bottom waters are marginal

and these values can be compared with that of tropical coastal waters.

Table 3.11 Hydro chemical characteristics in the marine environment off

Jatadharmohan Creek (Date of collection : 30.09.2005)

Stations Depth

DO BOD

TSM Salinity PHC

pH

(mg/l) (mg/l)

(mg/l) (psu) (µg/l)

N1

S 8.06 1.77 7.52 45.7 21.64 16.8

B 7.74 1.61 7.65 39.6 26.75 10.2

N2

S 7.90 3.06 7.54 42.3 19.56 2.55

B 7.58 2.10 7.66 36.5 27.73 4.20

N3

S 7.90 2.26 7.56 40.6 20.30 2.03

B 7.26 2.26 7.79 33.3 27.93 2.03

C1

S 8.38 2.26 7.82 43.3 20.46 0.94

B 7.58 2.10 7.96 38.0 27.00 3.22

C2

S 8.54 2.90 7.90 40.5 20.70 3.22

B 8.22 2.74 7.92 34.8 27.56 3.64

C3

S 8.22 3.06 8.09 37.5 19.85 3.64

B 7.74 2.74 7.85 32.4 28.08 2.55

S1

S 8.06 2.90 8.06 44.3 20.76 2.91

B 7.42 2.58 7.89 37.6 27.19 1.84

S2

S 7.90 1.61 7.89 41.6 20.76 2.62

B 7.58 1.45 7.86 36.4 27.61 1.84

S3

S 7.90 1.77 7.83 37.8 19.33 ND

B 7.58 1.61 7.96 34.8 28.02 1.55

JMC-1 9.02 3.38 6.78 11.0 3.33 -

JMC-2 8.54 3.22 7.49 15.0 1.66 -

S = Surface

B = Bottom

DO = Dissolved Oxygen BOD = Biochemical Oxygen Demand

TSM = Total Suspended Matter PHC = Petroleum Hydrocarbons

JMC = Jatadharmohan Creek Sample

75


Dissolved Oxygen (DO) varied between 7.26 mg/l to 8.54 mg/l in the entire study

region. High concentrations of DO values and less variations in surface and

bottom waters indicate well-oxygenated and well-mixed conditions in these

coastal waters.

BOD5 values ranged between 1.45 mg/l to 3.06 mg/l in the study region indicate

that these values are within the primary water quality criteria and do not pose any

threat to the environment under present condition.

Salinity values ranged between 19.33 psu to 21.64 psu in surface waters and

26.75 to 28.08 psu in bottom waters of the study region. The surface to bottom

difference in salinity values showed the influence of fresh water from the adjacent

rivers and creek.

The Total Suspended Matter (TSM) ranged between 32.4 mg/l to 45.7 mg/l in both

surface and bottom water of the study region.

Nutrients play a vital role in the biogeochemical cycles in the marine environment.

The concentrations of nitrite (NO 2 - N) in surface and bottom waters varied

between 0.98 µg/l to 4.32 µg/l, while nitrate (NO3 - N) varied between 10.5 µg/l to

50.0 µg/l, which are within the acceptable limits of coastal environment. Not much

variations were noticed between surface and bottom concentrations. Ammonia

(NH 4 - N) varied between 17.8 µg/l to 61.2 µg/l in the study region with high

concentrations noticed in the near shore stations (N1, C1, S1) and central

transect. High range in concentrations of total nitrogen (344 µg/l – 833 µg/l) in the

marine environment indicates the impact of organic load from land runoff, creek

and other discharges.

Inorganic phosphate (PO 4 -P) is in the range of 5.76 µg/l to 31.7 µg/l in both

surface and bottom concentrations, while total phosphorus varied between 12.5

µg/l to 106 µg/l in the entire study region. High total nitrogen and total phosphorus

concentrations in the study region indicate the organic load from the land drainage

and other anthropogenic inputs from the nearby creek.

76


Table 3.12 Hydrochemical characteristics in the marine environment off

Jatadharmohan Creek (Date of collection : 30.09.2005)

Stations Depth

NO 2 -N NO 3 -N NH 4 -N TN PO 4 -P TP SiO 4 -Si

(µg/l) (µg/l) (µg/l) (µg/l) (µg/l) (µg/l) (µg/l)

N1

S 3.08 32.9 39.3 344 9.92 76.2 207

B 2.80 19.0 58.1 502 7.36 80.6 53.2

N2

S 3.08 12.5 34.3 433 10.2 99.2 493

B 1.82 14.4 30.9 553 5.76 72.0 64.4

N3

S 4.32 50.0 37.0 578 11.5 99.2 305

B 2.80 34.2 44.0 749 7.04 47.6 14.0

C1

S 3.08 11.2 56.1 550 16.0 37.4 344

B 3.36 24.4 61.2 512 9.92 36.8 148

C2

S 2.80 13.2 55.7 496 5.76 72.6 277

B 2.10 21.7 36.3 584 13.1 16.6 112

C3

S 3.36 10.5 18.2 833 17.3 103 482

B 2.10 39.5 53.8 505 7.36 12.5 72.8

S1

S 1.54 40.2 23.8 437 12.8 91.5 190

B 2.54 20.4 48.0 458 8.64 51.8 30.8

S2

S 3.08 22.4 29.5 528 31.7 19.5 378

B 0.98 23.0 21.6 623 11.5 112 22.4

S3

S 1.54 19.7 17.8 622 28.8 98.6 398

B 1.82 23.0 27.6 682 29.6 106 101

JMC-1 7.14 90.2 41.3 540 20.2 161 1322

JMC-2 10.2 90.2 24.9 823 43.2 107 1439

S = Surface

NO 2 -N = Nitrite-Nitrogen;

NH4-N = Ammonia;

PO4-P = Phosphate-Phosphorus;

SiO 4-Si = Silicate-Silicon

B = Bottom

NO 3 -N = Nitrate-Nitrogen;

TN = Total Nitrogen;

TP = Total Phosphorus;

JMC = Jatadharmohan Creek

Silicate - Silicon (SiO 4 - Si), one of the major nutrients for phytoplankton, varied

between 190 µg/l to 493 µg/l in surface water and 14 µg/l to 148 µg/l in bottom

waters. The high concentration of silicate in surface waters clearly indicates the

flow of fresh water from the creek and the low concentrations in bottom water are

in the range of typical coastal waters. The variation in surface and bottom

concentrations clearly indicates the surface flow of fresh waters from the creek

into the coastal environment.

The organic chemical constituent viz., petroleum hydrocarbons are categorized as

highly persistent and toxic pollutants in the marine environment. The majority of oil

77


entering the marine environment originates from land based sources including

coastal refineries, municipal and industrial waste water discharges, urban run off

and river flow. Thus there is an essential need to check these constituents in the

coastal environment under study. The concentrations Petroleum hydrocarbons of

the study area are shown in Table 3.11. Petroleum hydrocarbons range between

ND to 16.8 µg/l in the entire study region. No variation was found in their

concentrations between surface and bottom waters and are well within the normal

limits of coastal waters.

The samples collected at the Jatadharmohan Creek (Figure 1.6) were also

analysed for the hydrochemical constituents to know the water quality of the

creek. Samples were collected mainly at two stations, JMC -1 and JMC-2 (near

Sulai and Noliasahi). The pH values varied between 6.78 and 7.49. DO values

ranged between 8.54 mg/l and 9.02 mg/l whereas BOD 5 varied between 3.22 mg/l

and 3.38 mg/l. Low salinity (1.66 psu and 3.33 psu) values were noticed in the

creek region. The total suspended matter ranged between 11 mg/l and 15 mg/l in

the creek region. The nutrient concentrations are high in the creek when

compared to coastal waters. Nitrite (NO 2 ) varied between 7.14 µg/l and 10.2 µg/l;

Nitrate was 90.2 µg/l, ammonia varied between 24.9 µg/l and 41.3 µg/l. High

concentrations of total nitrogen (540 µg/l and 823 µg/l) and total phosphorus (107

µg/l and 161 µg/l) were observed in the creek showing the influence of organic

load from the land run off and anthropogenic inputs. Very high concentrations of

silicate (1322 µg/l and 1439 µg/l) concomitant with low salinity values indicate the

influence of fresh water in the creek.

Most of the seabed sediments collected in the study area were sandy sediments

and only samples at stations N3, C3 and S3 were clayey. Clayey sediments were

subjected to chemical analysis for trace metals. The concentrations of trace

metals are given in Table 3.13. The concentrations of the trace metals in the

sediments were within the threshold limits and no contamination was noticed in

the bed sediments.

78


Table 3.13 Tracemetal elements in sediments in the marine environment

off Jatadharamohan Creek

Stations

Cu Co Ni Mn Pb Cd Cr Fe

(µg/g) (µg/g) (µg/g) (µg/g) (µg/g) (µg/g) (µg/g) (mg/g)

N3 18.5 34.0 41.0 510 45 8.0 33.4 80.0

C3 32.0 26.0 44.0 502 30 5.3 30.0 64.0

S3 21.5 37.0 54.0 515 32 5.1 43.4 92.0

Cu = Copper Co = Cobalt Ni = Nickel Mn = Manganese

Pb = Lead Cd = Cadmium Cr = Chromium Fe = Ferrous

3.5. BIOLOGICAL ASPECTS

3.5.1 Phytoplankton density

Phytoplanktons are the basis of life processes in the ocean. Any manmade

activity, disturb physico-chemical environment, which in tern affect phytoplankton

and primary productivity at first level in the food chain. Phytoplankton counts were

maximum at stn. S1 (surface) 6.5024 X 10 4 L -1 and minimum at stn. C2 (bottom)

0.987 X 10 4 L -1 . The sampling area falls under the influence of river runoff, which

increases the turbidity resulting in low phytoplankton, count in the study area

compared to other coastal waters. Counts at surface water were high at stns. N1,

C2 and S1.

Phytoplankton assemblages: The phytoplankton assemblage was very high in

the coastal water of the study area. A maximum of 146 species of phytoplankton

were observed and reported (Appendix 2a to 2c). Out of this 98 species belonged

to diatoms, 44 dinoflagellates and 4 species of other algae. In the case of diatoms

genus Chaetoceros was very common and along with 52 other species formed the

dominant group of phytoplankton species. The other species of importance were

Bacteriastrum, Biddulphia, Ditylum, Skeletonema, Thalassionema and

Thalassiothrix. In the case of dinoflagellates Ceratium, Dinophysis,

Protoperidinium and Pyrophacus were dominating. Other algae mostly consisted

of Trichodesmium species which is known to form blooms along the coastal

waters. These species are reported from the other coastal areas.

79


Table 3.14 Total Phytoplankton Counts during the study

Stn. No. Surface (Cell nos. x 10 4 L -1 ) Bottom (Cell nos. x 10 4 L -1 )

N1 3.8811 3.6618

N2 3.9345 5.4159

N3 1.0011 3.4254

C1 1.4508 3.5535

C2 1.2848 0.9870

C3 2.9722 -

S1 6.5024 3.3066

S2 4.0185 4.6970

S3 2.1125 4.4690

The high phytoplankton diversity can support high biological productivity in the

area. This could be attributed to runoff from nearby rivers that brings load of

nutrients through land runoff in this coastal region.

3.5.2 Bacterial load

Bacterial counts decide the health of the area investigated. Total viable counts in

the water varied from 2.89 to 11.87 cfu x10 3 /ml, which is high. However, very

small portion of this population was harmful, counted as total coliform numbers

(Tables 3.15 and 3.16). Similarly total bacterial counts were high (8.81 to 81.65

cfu x 10 5 /g) in sediment. The coliform counts were more in sediment 0.235 to

5.362 cfu x10 5 /g compared to water column (0.12 to 3.725 cfu x10 3 /ml). The high

coliform in sediment may be due to land runoff during rainy season.

80


Table 3.15 Bacterial population in water column (cfu x10 3 /ml)

St. No.

Total viable counts (TVC)

Total coliforms (TC)

Surface Bottom Surface Bottom

N1 6.54 8.62 0.23 0.15

N2 7.11 10.62 0.16 0.12

N3 2.89 4.98 0.42 0.31

C1 3.56 3.86 0.33 0.22

C2 4.22 5.56 0.18 0.23

C3 7.11 6.59 0.54 0.38

S1 11.87 6.53 0.19 0.92

S2 8.45 9.52 0.77 1.34

S3 4.38 5.55 1.066 3.725

Cfu = Colony forming unit

Table 3.16 Bacterial population in sediments (cfu x 10 5 /g)

St. No. TVC TC

N1 10.23 0.235

N2 8.81 1.862

N3 11.56 1.113

C1 15.82 2.135

C2 22.95 0.892

C3 19.11 0.752

S1 55.52 5.362

S2 81.65 0.812

S3 75.32 1.352

TVC = Total viable counts

cfu = Colony forming unit

TC = Total coliforms

81


3.5.3 Zooplankton

The zooplankton community comprised of a total of 13 taxa. The maximum

number of taxa (9) were observed at N1 and N2 and the minimum (3) were at C3.

The density ranged from 49964 to 6648715 no./100m 3 which was observed at

station N3 and N2 respectively. Copepods were the major group recorded from all

the stations. They contributed about 94% of the total faunal density. All the

remaining groups together was less than 10% of the zooplankton density. The

copepod density ranged from 46179 to 6174332 no./100m 3 with lowest and

highest density observed at stns. S3 and C3 respectively. Brachyuran larvae were

observed only at stn. N1. Among decapods mostly the larval stages were

observed with protozoea of A. indicus contributing the maximum density with a

mean value of 49383 no./100m 3 . Fish larvae were recorded only from the central

and southern stations with a mean density of 2857 ± 8518 no./100m 3 (Table 3.17).

The zooplankton biomass varied between 8 and 33 ml/100m 3 with an average

value of 16.8 ml/100m 3 . Highest values were obtained at central transect and

lowest at southern and northern transect. The values appears to be lower than

reported earlier which could be attributed to the seasonal variability in zooplankton

abundance. The maximum and minimum biomass did not match its density

counterpart simply because there were large variation in the size of the groups

recorded from different stations.

3.5.4 Macrobenthos

The macrobenthic community was represented by 13 taxa (Table 3.18). The mean

macrofaunal density in the subtidal area ranged from 583 to 5750 no./m 2 (mean

=3087.7±1728.24 SD; n= 9). Stn. N2 recorded the lowest macrofaunal density

whereas highest value was recorded at S2. Polychaeta was the most dominant

group and contributed to 44.22% of the total macrofaunal density. Amphipoda was

next in dominance (15%) followed by Cumacea (7.49%) Bivalvia (6.5%),

Nemertenia (5.54%) and Sipunculid (5%).

82


Table 3.17 Composition and mean abundance (nos./100 m 3 ) of zooplankton in the

study area

Taxa

Stations

N1 N2 N3 C1 C2 C3 S1 S2 S3 Mean SD %

Copepoda 92194 5977451 47822 148964 221695 6174332 89884 80801 46179 1431036 2634397 93.73

Decapoda

Brachyuran larvaae 619 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 69 206 0.005

Zoea of Serrata 0 12786 65 0 0 0 0 0 0 1428 4259 0.09

Mysis stage of

paneid development

Protozoea of

A.indicus

Post larva of

P.indicus

206 31965 908 1108 411 16305 124 294 0 5702 11166 0.37

516 281292 714 554 0 157619 330 147 3276 49383 101262 3.23

722 0 130 0 411 0 0 0 693 217 309 0.01

A caridean 103 6393 0 0 82 0 0 0 0 731 2124 0.05

Cumaceae 103 76716 195 1266 164 0 0 0 0 8716 25503 0.57

Sergestidae

Lucifer sp. 413 217362 0 633 246 0 0 0 0 24295 72400 1.59

Isopoda 0 0 130 0 0 0 0 0 315 49 108 0.003

Euphausidacae (

furcilla)

0 0 0 0 0 0 124 49 0 19 42 0.001

Nematoda 309 19179 0 79 0 0 83 196 0 2205 6366 0.14

Fish larvae 0 25572 0 0 0 0 41 98 0 2857 8518 0.19

Biomass(ml/100m 3 ) 12 26 8 11 28 33 14 8 12

Total density

(nos./100 m 3 )

95184 6648715 49964 152603 223008 6348257 90585 81584 50463 1526707 2820245 100.00

83


Table 3.18 Density (no./m 2 ) and biomass ( wet wt.g/m 2 ) of macrobenthic

group in the study area.

Taxa S1 S2 S3 C1 C2 C3 N1 N2 N3

Nematoda 0 167 0 0 0 0 0 42 250

Nemertenia 0 583 42 250 83 167 333 42 42

Polychaeta 667 2583 1500 1500 833 1667 500 417 2625

Oligochaeta 0 0 0 0 0 0 167 0 0

Sipunculid 0 917 208 0 83 0 83 0 125

Bivalvia 0 500 333 83 250 417 167 42 42

Gastropoda 0 0 42 0 0 0 167 0 0

Isopoda 0 83 0 0 250 333 250 0 167

Amphipoda 667 83 42 83 333 583 2083 0 333

Tanaidacea 167 0 0 0 0 167 0 0 375

Cumacea 0 83 42 167 0 583 750 0 458

Decapoda 0 750 125 83 250 0 250 42 125

Ophiuroidea 0 0 83 0 0 83 0 0 0

Total (no./m 2 ) 1500 5750 2416 2167 2083 4000 4750 583 4541

Biomass (g/m 2 ) 1.57 20.4 21.73 1.34 3.67 6.71 8.78 0.45 16.31

The macrobenthic species composition is given in Table 3.19. Density of

polychaetes ranged from 416 to 2624 no./m 2 (mean =1365.62 ± 837.8 SD).

Magelona sp. was the most dominant polychaete species (7.19%) Density of

Magelona sp. ranged from 0 to 666 no./m 2 . Highest density of Magelona sp. was

recorded at S2. Prionospio sp. was next in dominance with 4.04% of the total

macrofaunal density. Density of Prionospio sp. ranged from 0 to 833 no./m 2 with

highest at C3. Cossura sp., (2.39%), Lumbriconereis sp. (2.54%) and Onuphis sp.

(2.39%) were the other dominant polychaete species.

Among the crustaceans, Amphipoda was dominant group and contributed to 14%

of the total faunal density. The values ranged from 0 to 2083.25 no./m 2 with

highest values recorded at N1. Cumacea was next in dominance (7%) followed by

Isopoda (3.8%), Decapoda (5.8%) and Tanaidacea (2.54%). Tellina sp. dominated

among bivalves (1.64%) and density ranged from 0-333 no./m 2 . A total of 55

species belonging to 13 taxa were identified in the study area (Table 3.20). S3

84


and N3 recorded highest diversity (32 species) and lowest species number (5

species) was recorded at S1. Polychaeta was the most diverse group (33 species)

followed by Bivalvia (10 species). Among the polychaetes, Capitellidae family

was the most diverse with 3 species followed by Cirratulidae, Parnoidae,

Glyceridae, Eunicidae, and Magelonidae were represented by 2 species each.

Based on the faunal abundance data, Bray-Curtis similarity index (%) was

calculated (Figure 3.23). Based on this analysis the data was divided in to two

major groups. The first group was formed of S1, C3 and N1 at >20% similarity and

the second cluster formed of the remaining stations (S2, S3, C1, C2, N2, and N3)

at >20% similarity. Since the grouping of stations was at very low level (≈20%), it

can be concluded that the sampling area exhibited a heterogeneous conditions.

The Shannon-Weiner diversity ranged from 1.4 to 3.2 recorded at stns. S1 and S3

respectively (Figure 3.24). Species richness showed a similar trend to diversity

with highest values recorded at S3 (3.9) and lowest at S1 (0.54). Evenness value

ranged from 0.74-0.95 recorded at stns. N1 and C2 respectively. Macrobenthic

biomass ranged from 0.4457 to 21.72 g/m 2 (8.9 ± 8.4 SD, n=9). Highest biomass

was recorded at S3 and lowest at N2.

Creek mouth area: The macrobenthic community in the creek mouth was

represented by low diversity and density (Table 3.21). The density values ranged

from 250 to 958 no./m 2 (604 ± 500 SD) with highest value being at stn. JMC-2.

The macrobenthos was dominated by polychaetes (75%). In terms of polychaete

species, Cossura sp. dominated (83 no./m 2 ) at stn. JMC-1 whereas, Prionospio

sp. was dominant at stn. JMC-2. Ancistrosyllis sp. was next dominant species

(292 no./m 2 ) at stn. JMC-2, followed by unidentified Bivalvia (125 no./m 2 ).

Biomass () wet wt.) was highest at stn. JMC-2 (0.516 g/m 2 ) and 0.21 g./m 2 at stn.

JMC-1. The area was represented by 10 macrobenthic species. Polychaeta

dominated with 5 species followed by Bivalvia (2 species). Crustaceans were

represented by Cumacea and Decapoda.

Meiobenthos: Meiobenthic samples comprised of 15 groups among which

nematodes dominated followed by polychaetes and harpacticoids. Minor groups

identified included Halacarida, Gnathostomulida, Gastropoda, Turbellaria and

85


Nauplii. Meiobenthic taxa are arranged in the decreasing order of their mean

abundance. Maximum meiobenthic density (400 no./10cm 2 ) was observed at N1

and minimum (15 no./10cm 2 ) was recorded at C2. In terms of abundance,

nematodes were dominant at all the stations (Table 3.22). The mean abundance

of nematodes was 85.22 ± 86.15 SD while that of polychaetes was 28.33 ± 31.05

SD. Mean abundance of harpacticoid at all the stations was 13.67 ± 20.36 no./10

cm 2 . Maximum density of harpacticoids was 49 no./ 10 cm 2 and was recorded at

C3 and N1. Ostracoda showed a mean abundance of 6.11 ± 9.16 with a highest

density of 29 no./10cm 2 observed at N1. C2 harbored least meiobenthic density

with 5 groups and 33% diversity. Range of meiobenthos, percent composition and

percent prevalence is given in Table 3.23. Nematoda being the most dominant

group ranged from 10 to 218 no./10cm 2 and showed a percent composition of

58.28%. Nematodes and polychaetes were observed at all the stations and

showed 100% prevalence. Harpacticoid were observed at all but except one

station and had 88.89% prevalence. Gnathostomulida, halacarida, nauplii,

gastropoda and turbellaria were observed at one or two stations only and showed

33.33 – 22.22% prevalence.

In terms of diversity, 13 meiobenthic groups were observed at C3 and had a

maximum percent diversity of 86%. At N2 just 3 groups (Nematoda, Polychaeta

and Foraminifera) were observed with a diversity of 20%. N1 with highest density

of meiobenthos harbored 11 groups and percentage diversity of 73%. Percent

diversity less than 50% was observed at C2, S1, S3, N2 and N3 (Table 3.23).

86


Table 3.19: Abundance (no. /m 2 ) of macrobenthic species recorded from the

coastal waters of the study area

S1 S2 S3 C1 C2 C3 N1 N2 N3 Mean SD %

Nematoda 0 167 0 0 0 0 0 42 250 50.92 92.64 1.65

Nemertenia 0 583 42 250 83 167 333 42 42 171.29 190.30 5.55

Polychaeta

Syllis sp. 0 0 42 0 0 0 0 0 83 13.89 29.46 0.45

Phyllodoce sp. 0 83 0 0 0 0 0 0 83 18.52 36.74 0.60

Nereis sp. 0 0 83 0 0 0 0 0 42 13.89 29.46 0.45

Pseudoeurythoe sp. 167 0 42 0 0 0 0 0 0 23.15 55.55 0.75

Ancistrosyllis sp. 0 0 42 0 167 0 0 0 42 27.78 55.12 0.90

Nephtys sp. 0 0 0 417 0 83 0 42 42 64.81 135.19 2.10

Eunice sp. 0 0 42 0 0 0 0 0 42 9.26 18.37 0.30

Onuphis sp. 0 167 0 167 0 0 0 0 333 74.07 121.06 2.40

Staurocephalus incertus 0 167 42 0 0 0 0 0 125 37.03 64.02 1.20

Lumbriconereis sp. 0 83 42 83 167 167 0 83 83 78.70 60.54 2.55

Poecoelochaetus sp. 0 0 42 0 0 0 83 0 0 13.89 29.46 0.45

Glycinde sp. 0 83 0 0 0 417 0 0 0 55.55 138.19 1.80

Glycera sp. 0 0 42 83 0 0 0 0 42 18.52 30.27 0.60

Scoloplos sp. 333 0 0 167 0 0 0 0 0 55.55 117.85 1.80

Levinsenia sp. 0 167 42 0 83 0 0 0 42 37.03 56.84 1.20

Arcidae sp. 0 83 42 0 0 0 0 0 83 23.15 36.74 0.75

Prionospio sp. 0 83 0 83 0 833 0 0 125 124.99 270.02 4.05

Magelona sp. 167 667 250 333 0 83 83 0 417 222.20 220.46 7.20

Magelonidae 0 0 125 83 0 0 0 0 167 41.66 65.87 1.35

Cossura sp. 0 333 42 0 83 0 0 208 0 74.07 119.27 2.40

Cirratulus sp. 0 167 42 83 83 0 0 0 83 50.92 58.10 1.65

Tharyx sp. 0 0 167 0 0 83 0 42 250 60.18 91.06 1.95

Mediomastus sp. 0 167 208 0 83 0 0 0 42 55.55 80.68 1.80

Heteremoastsus sp. 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 42 0 4.63 13.89 0.15

Capitellidae 0 0 0 0 167 0 250 0 0 46.29 94.20 1.50

Axiothella sp. 0 83 42 0 0 0 0 0 333 50.92 109.78 1.65

Armandia sp. 0 0 0 0 0 0 83 0 0 9.26 27.78 0.30

Amage sp. 0 250 0 0 0 0 0 0 125 41.66 88.38 1.35

Hypsicomus sp. 0 0 42 0 0 0 0 0 0 4.63 13.89 0.15

Terebellides stroemi 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 42 4.63 13.89 0.15

Sabellidae 0 0 83 0 0 0 0 0 0 9.26 27.77 0.30

Oligochaeta 0 0 0 0 0 0 167 0 0 18.52 55.55 0.60

Sipunculid 0 917 208 0 83 0 83 0 125 157.40 293.71 5.10

Bivalvia

J.bivalvia 0 0 0 0 167 0 83 42 0 32.41 58.10 1.05

Laternula 0 0 0 83 83 0 0 0 0 18.52 36.75 0.60

Tellina 0 0 125 0 0 333 0 0 0 50.92 113.68 1.65

Soletellina 0 0 0 0 0 0 83 0 0 9.26 27.78 0.30

Mactra 0 0 0 0 0 83 0 0 0 9.26 27.78 0.30

Venus scabra 0 0 42 0 0 0 0 0 42 9.26 18.37 0.30

Solenidae 0 0 125 0 0 0 0 0 0 13.89 41.66 0.45

Arca sp., 0 0 42 0 0 0 0 0 0 4.63 13.89 0.15

Nuculana sp. 0 167 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 18.52 55.55 0.60

Un. Bivalvia 0 333 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 37.04 111.11 1.20

87


Table 3.19 continued.............

Gastropda

Cancelaridae 0 0 42 0 0 0 0 0 0 4.63 13.89 0.15

Cyclincha sp. 0 0 0 0 0 0 167 0 0 18.52 55.55 0.60

Crustacean

Amphipoda 667 83 42 83 333 583 2083 0 333 467.57 651.42 15.14

Isopoda

Cyathura 0 83 0 0 0 333 250 0 125 87.96 125.76 2.85

Un. Isopoda 0 0 0 0 250 0 0 0 42 32.41 82.75 1.05

Tanaidacea 167 0 0 0 0 167 0 0 375 78.70 132.47 2.55

Cumacea 0 83 42 167 0 583 750 0 458 231.47 288.74 7.50

Decapoda

Prawns 0 0 83 0 0 0 0 0 42 13.89 29.46 0.45

J.Decapoda 0 750 42 83 250 0 250 42 83 166.66 238.44 5.40

Ophiuroidae 0 0 83 0 0 83 0 0 0 18.52 36.74 0.60

Total (no./m 2 ) 1500 5750 2416 2167 2083 4000 4750 583 4541 3087.74 1728.24 100.00

Biomass(g/m 2 ) 1.567 20.404 21.727 1.367 3.668 6.706 8.778 0.446 16.312 8.997 8.411

Table 3.20 Density (no./m 2 ) and biomass (wet wt.g/m 2 ) of macrobenthos at creek

mouth area

Stations

Taxon JMC-1 JMC-2

Nematoda 41.66 0

Polychaeta

Ancistrosyllis sp. 0 291.62

Lumbriconereis sp. 0 41.66

Prionospio sp. 0 458.26

Cossura sp. 83.32 0

Mediomastus sp. 41.66 0

Bivalvia

Nuculana sp. 0 41.66

Un. Bivalvia 0 124.98

Cumacea 41.66 0

Decapoda

Decapoda 41.66 0

Total (no./m 2 ) 249.96 958.18

Biomass(g/m 2 ) 0.2083 0.516584

88


Table 3.21 Abundance (no. /10cm 2 ) of meiobenthos at the study area during

September - October 2005

Taxon C1 C2 C3 S1 S2 S3 N1 N2 N3 Mean SD

Nematoda 16 10 209 32 165 54 218 35 28 85.22 86.15

Polychaeta 8 1 74 41 24 24 81 1 1 28.33 31.05

Harpacticoida 8 1 49 11 2 2 49 0 1 13.67 20.36

Ostracoda 4 0 10 6 2 1 29 0 3 6.11 9.16

Turbellaria 0 0 17 0 3 0 0 0 0 2.22 5.63

Cumacea 7 0 7 0 0 0 5 0 0 2.11 3.22

Bivalvia 0 0 4 0 0 2 6 0 1 1.44 2.19

Foraminifera 0 0 2 0 4 1 3 2 0 1.33 1.50

Kinoryncha 3 2 4 0 0 0 3 0 0 1.33 1.66

Gnathostomulida 0 0 0 12 0 0 0 0 0 1.33 4.00

Amphipoda 3 0 4 0 0 0 2 0 0 1.00 1.58

Isopoda 2 0 0 2 1 0 2 0 0 0.78 0.97

Tanaida 1 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 3 0.67 1.12

Gastropoda 0 0 1 0 0 0 2 0 0 0.33 0.71

Nauplii 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0.22 0.44

Halacarida 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.11 0.33

Total 52 15 384 104 202 84 400 38 37 146.22 149.77

89


Table 3.22 Abundance (range and mean no./10cm 2 ) and percentage of meiobenthos

in the study area

TAXON Range Mean SD

Percentage

composition

Percentage

prevalence

Nematoda 10--218 85.22 86.15 58.28 100.00

Harpacticoida 1--49 13.67 20.36 9.35 88.89

Polychaeta 1--81 28.33 31.05 19.38 100.00

Ostracoda 1--29 6.11 9.16 4.18 77.78

Turbellaria 3--17 2.22 5.63 1.52 22.22

Cumacea 0--7 2.11 3.22 1.44 33.33

Bivalvia 2--6 1.44 2.19 0.99 44.44

Kinoryncha 2--4 1.33 1.66 0.91 44.44

Foraminifera 1--4 1.33 1.50 0.91 55.56

Gnathostomulida 0--12 1.33 4.00 0.91 11.11

Amphipoda 2--4 1.00 1.58 0.68 33.33

Isopoda 1--2 0.78 0.97 0.53 44.44

Tanaida 0--3 0.67 1.12 0.46 33.33

Gastropoda 1--2 0.33 0.71 0.23 22.22

Nauplii 0--1 0.22 0.44 0.15 22.22

Halacarida 0--1 0.11 0.33 0.08 11.11

Total 146.22 149.77 100.00

Table 3.23 Meiobenthic abundance (no./10cm 2 ) and percentage diversity in

the study area

Stations Density No. of Taxa Percentage diversity

C1 52 9 60

C2 15 5 33

C3 384 13 86

S1 104 6 40

S2 202 8 53

S3 84 6 40

N1 400 11 73

N2 38 3 20

N3 37 6 40

90


0

20

Similarity

40

60

80

100

S#1

C#3

N#1

N#2

S#3

C#2

C#1

S#2

N#3

Figure 3.23: Dendrogram of stations similarity produced by macrobenthic

species abundance of the study area

Diversity Index

5

4.5

4

3.5

3

2.5

2

1.5

1

0.5

0

S#1 S#2 S#3 C#1 C#2 C#3 N#1 N#2

Stations

d J' H'

Figure 3.24: Macrobenthic Species diversity at different sampling area

during the study period

(d: species richness; J: evenness; H: diversity)

91


3.5.5 Fisheries exploitation and potential resources along Orissa coast

Fisheries is an important industry of the coastal states of India. Information on fish

stock is a vital input in formulation of development strategies for exploitation and

monitoring of marine fisheries. Orissa has a coastline of 476 km. The continental

shelf area up to 200 m depth is about 24000 sq. km. Southern part of the Orissa

coast has a narrow shelf whereas the northern coast is characterized by several

estuarine system and an extended continental shelf. The important rives flowing

into Bay of Bengal from Orissa are the Mahanadi, Devi, Brahmani and Dhamra.

Orissa contributes about 2.95% to the total marine fish production in the country.

The trend in marine fish landing during eighties and nineties indicates an

impressive annual growth of about 5%. As the coastal areas within 50 m depth is

under fairly high level of exploitation the fishery potential of this area is only dealt

with. The experimental trawling suggested the depth distribution of demersal

fishes. The catches in the 30-40 m depth were more than that in depth less than

30 m. The fish catch composition of the inshore waters is given in Table 3.24. In

general the marine fish composition is dominated by jew fishes, elasmobranch

and Hilsa. Prawns are the important contributors in the demersal catch. It must be

borne in mind that great deal of disparity exists between statistics of fish catch of

state government departments and CMFRI.

Maximum sustainable yield: Considering that most current landing is harvested

from the inner shelf area within 50 m depth the estimate of maximum sustainable

yield of demersal finfish resources from the continental shelf of Orissa coast is

given in Table 3.25. The estimated potential yield is 77,391 tonnes of which

75.1% would be from 0-50 m depth, 22.2% from 50-200 m depth and 2.6% from

100-200 m depth. The resources beyond 100 m depth are virtually unexploited.

The shelf can sustain annual yield of 1.256 lakh tonnes from Orissa coast.

92


Table 3.24 Percentage composition of marine fish landing in Orissa

Species/group

Percentage composition

Shark, skates, rays 6.2

catfish 11.5

Hilsa 5.2

Other clupeids 22.5

Bombay duck 0.6

Perches 1.9

Jew fishes (Sciaenids) 19.1

Threadfin bream 1.1

Ribbon fish 2.3

Horse mackerel 0.5

Other carangids 1.5

Silver belly 1.8

Pomfret 10.3

Mackerel 2.1

Seer fish 4.1

Penaeid prawn 4.3

Non-penaeid prawn 0.2

Squid and cuttle fish 1.1

Other fishes 3.7

Source: Fisheries Survey of India Bull. No. 19

93


Table 3.25 MSY of demersal finfish stocks in the continental shelf along

Orissa coast

Depth zone

Demersal finfish stock (in tones)

(m) 0-50 50-100 100-200 Total

Sharks, skates & rays 7942 449 30 8421

Cat fish 5390 3602 151 9143

Ribbon fish 841 155 2 998

Perches 982 498 23 1503

Pomfret 3402 331 - 3733

Sciaenids 7686 221 - 7907

Threadfin breams 745 490 10 1245

Silver belly 2881 604 - 3485

Horse mackerel 1539 759 146 2444

Other carangids 828 609 45 1482

Bulls eye 19 425 1004 1448

Indian drift fish 96 1207 15 1318

Mackerel 956 4466 176 5598

Other fishes 24835 3383 448 28666

TOTAL 58142 17199 2050 77391

Source: Fisheries Survey of India

Fishery Potential: Orissa coast has good fisheries potential (Table 3.26). Large

exploitable resources of elasmobranch, catfish, clupeids, jew fishes and prawns

hold good promises. These resources need to be protected from destructive

human work so that they can be exploited on sustainable basis for the benefit of

local fishermen and their families. Orissa coast holds many other amazing sea

animals which needs our attention. The horseshoe crab and sea turtle are worth

mentioning. The horseshoe crab is also called living fossil which has adopted itself

to the changing climate for the last more than 400 million years. Tachypleus gigas

is the species found along the Orissa coast. Beside its academic importance,

medical science has found horseshoe crab as a potential source of bioactive

substance. There are other medical uses of this amazing creature.

94


Table 3.26 Estimated group-wise fishery potential of Orissa coast upto 50m

depth

Name of the fish

Fishery potential (tonnes)

Elasmobranchs 2515

Eels 506

Cat fishes 5090

Oil sardine 64

Other sardines 4498

Anchovies 566

Other clupeids 7472

Bombay duck 268

Lizard fishes 290

Perches 1980

Sciaenids 15933

Ribbon fishes 2373

Carangids 901

Silver bellies 440

Pomfrets 3303

Mackerels 881

Seer fishes 1641

Tunnies 172

Flat fishes 541

Penaeid prawns 2569

Non-Penaeid prawns 169

Cephalopods 92

Others 2699

Total 55023

Source: Prepared by CMFRI

95


3.5.6 Olive Ridley sea turtle of Orissa coast

The sea turtles are declared as highly endangered species world over. The olive

Ridley (Lepidochelys olivacea) is a name common to coastal people of Orissa. It

is a high profile species which has received substantial media coverage and

scientific attention in the recent year. Although olive Ridley has been coming to

Orissa coast for several decades, the attention to this species was drawn when

arribada was noticed at Gahirmatha in mid 1970s.

Bhitarkanika is a unique habitat with lush green mangrove located at the

Gahirmatha in Kendrapada District of Orissa. In 1975 Bhitarkanika was declared

as a sanctuary under a wildlife (Protection) Act 1972. Bhitarkanika is situated

about 20 km north of Paradeep Port. There is an increasing amount of human

habitation and fish landing centers around this Sanctuary. Bhitarkanika

Gahirmatha Sanctuary has been in news for Olive Ridley Sea turtle that come a

long way to lay eggs en-mass on the Gahirmatha beach. The declared sanctuary

beach extend from 20° 43'51'' N ; 87° 02'45'' E to 20° 42'55'' N ; 87° 03'33'' E.

An average width of 11 kilometres wide strip of offshore from Ekiakulanasi in the

northeast Barunei Muhana in the South west and an average width of 10 km from

Barunei Muhana to Mahanadi Muhana has been taken as the core area of the

Gahirmatha wild life sanctuary where total restriction in fishing activities is to be

imposed throughout the year. The area is very clearly demarcated in the Orissa

Gazette No. 309 date March 20, 1998.

Nesting: The interesting phenomena of arribada or mass emergence of olive

ridley, Lepidochelys olivacea along the Gahirmatha beach, Bitarkanika wild life

sanctuary, Orissa has been reported by many workers (Table 3.27). The nesting

period extends from December-January to March. Mating has been observed at

sea by the coast guard and trawlers. The females move towards the coast for

nesting and the males remain at high seas. Mass nesting takes place for a period

of 7-10 days. Each turtle lays about 60-100 eggs (Table Tennis ball sized) and

eggs are deposited within one and half hours of the female turtle emerging out of

sea. The nests are about 50 cm deep pits dug out by hand flippers on loose and

96


dry sandy beaches of Gahirmatha. After the eggs are laid down the pits is filled by

the mother. The female leaves the nest to sea after completing the nesting. Of late

shifts in nesting sites have been observed due to human interference. The

hatchling comes out after about 50 days and reach the sea. Further life cycle

stages still remain unknown. The percentage of live hatching varies from 18 to

90%.

Table 3.27 Massive nesting of Olive Ridley at Gahirmatha beach, Orissa

Year Number of female turtle (in lakh)

1977-78 2.3

1978-79 1.3

1979-80 2.0

1980-81 2.0

1981-82 No mass nesting (176 turtle only)

1982-83 6.193

1983-84 4.684

1984-85 2.918

1985-86 0.5

1986-87 6.36

1987-88 0.01

1988-89 3.15

1989-90 2.06

1990-91 6.52

1991-92 3.7

1992-93 6.874

1993-94 6.945

1994-95 3.395

1997-98 No mass nesting

1998-99 0.2

The rookery of Olive Ridley has also been reported near the mouth of rivers Devi

and Rushikulya, both located in the south of the proposed port location.

97


Mortality: Despite the legal protection given to the sea turtle, the sea turtle

population migrating to the coastal waters off Orissa has been declining in recent

years. The death of several thousand adult breeding individuals in Orissa each

year has become a major concern of the national and international community.

Mortality of olive ridley sea turtle recorded at Gahirmatha beach and other

beaches of Orissa coast is shown in Figure 3.25. Highest mortality was recorded

during 1997-98. Various causes have been assigned for the mortality of olive

ridley and they are:

1. Pesticides and PEBs have been detected but the effect on hatchlings and

adult is unknown.

2. Marine turtles are at risk when encountering oil spill. Thus, oil pollution may

cause mortality in Olive Ridley around Orissa coast.

3. Jellyfish is the main food for turtles. Olive Ridley eat a wide variety of

marine debris, plastic pieces, tarball and raw plastic pellets. The toxic

byproducts of these material may kill them.

4. Unintentional non fishing mortality due to collision with propellers and

diseases.

5. The biggest cause of mortality is the incidental capture of adult turtles in

trawl-fishing nets and death by drowning.

Our discussion with Project Swarajya- an NGO (personal communication)

revealed that during 1997-98 mass mortality of olive ridley occurred along

Gahirmatha beach. They have recorded about 50,000 dead turtles during October

1997 to May 1998. This mortality has been attributed to a single parameter – the

unregulated fishing in the area. The reckless trawl fishing and gill netting in the

vicinity of the major nesting ground are the main villain. Of late there has been no

mass nesting of the turtle along Orissa coast. A number of other activities have

been shown to destroy the olive ridley population. One is poaching. The hyenas,

dogs, jackals and other wild animals inhabiting the area take a heavy toll of turtle

eggs and hatchlings here. The turtle eggs have been on sale in the market. Turtle

meat is considered delicacy among the tribals. The unplanned human activities

seem to be the main reasons for mortality of olive turtle in Gahirmatha area. A

training programme on turtle excluder device (TED) was organized during 11-14

November 1996 to familiarize the local fishermen population. The workshop

98


strongly recommended used of TED in the shrimp trawl. The recommendations of

this workshop are available and if implemented will help in the conservation of the

sea turtle.

In the orders and recommendations given by Orissa high court on protection of

Bhitarkanika Sanctuary on 14.05.1998 it was mentioned in quote - progress and

pollution go together. As the Apex Court observed in M.C. Mehta V. Union of India

AIR 1987 SC 901, when Science and Technology are increasingly employed in

producing goods and services calculated to improve the quality of life, there is

certain element of hazard or risk inherit in the very use of Science and technology

and it is not possible to totally eliminate such hazards or risk altogether we can

only hope to reduce the element of hazard or risk to the community by taking all

necessary steps for locating such industries in a manner which would pose least

risk of danger to the community and maximizing safety requirement. As observed

in the United Nations Conference held at Stockholm in June, 1972, economic and

social development was essential for ensuring a favorable living and working

environment for man and for creating condition on earth that were necessary for

the improvement of the quality of life. It may be noted that the suggested port

location is out of the core area of Gahirmatha sanctuary since Gahirmatha is

about 35 km away from the proposed Port location. It is felt that the sea turtles of

Orissa coast can sustainable be conserved by regular monitoring of mechanized

fishing activities and poaching – the main threats to sea turtles.

3.5.7 Ecology

The tidal inlet is shallow and does not attain much importance from the point of

view of fisheries, benthic communities and vegetation. Mangroves are totally

absent in the study area. Patches of casuarina, cashew trees and sea grass are

observed towards landward of creek as well as on the sand spit. North of

Noliasahi two major artificially constructed shrimp seed collection ponds are

located on either side of the creek. One is towards the mainland and the other

towards the spit.

99


FIGURE 3.25 MORTALITY OF OLIVE RIDLEY SEA TURTLE RECORDED AT GAHIRMATHA BEACH AND OTHER BEACHES

OF ORISSA COAST

100


Appendix 1: Summary of soil investigation

Bore hole data was collected at 27 locations (15 in the land and 12 in the

coastal locations). The locations are shown in Figure A1. Field test and

laboratory test were based on IS code.

A silty sand or sand soil strata composed with sea sand is practically existed.

There are clay, silt and sand mixed up according to the ground depth. The

upper layer between 10 m and 15 m is composed with sandy soil which has N

value of below 10 ~ 30. Clay layer inside sandy soil layer is existed between 2

and 10 m. N value of this layer is about 15 ~ 40.

Soil layer pattern indicates that clay layer become thick from land to ocean.

Specially, in case of coastal zone thick silty clay which has thickness of

between 15 and 20 m is existed in ground depth of below 40 m. Though the

clay in costal zone is composed with Black Cotton clay which has quite

expansibility. In spite of N value of sub-soil layer is over between 30 and 50,

generally it has a fine stiffness.

Bore hole data in the creek at locations PM7, PM4, PM5 and PM6 is shown in

Figure A2. The soil is sand and will be used for the land reclamation.

Soil profile along the sand bar is shown in Figure A3. The bore hole location

PC 22 is in the navigational channel. The first 31.5 m is sand with a clay

pocket of 1.5 m thick at 13.5 to 15 m. Soil profile in the nearshore at around

13 m depth is shown in Figure A4. The soil consists of Sandy Clay, Inorganic

Clay and Sand. The range of ‘N’ is N7~N58.

A - 1


FIGURE A1 LOCATIONS OF BOREHOLE DATA COLLECTED

A - 2


FIGURE A2 SOIL PROFILE IN THE CREEK

FIGURE A3 SOIL PROFILE ALONG THE SAND BAR

A - 3


FIGURE A4 SOIL PROFILE IN THE NEARSHORE (13 M DEPTH)

A - 4


Appendix 2a List of Phytoplankton recorded in the study area (north

transect)

Sr.No.

Genera / Species

N1 N2 N3

Diatoms

Surface Bottom Surface Bottom Surface Bottom

1. Actinoptychus senarius + + + + + -

2. Actinoptychus splendens - - - + -

3. Asterionella japonica + + + + + +

4. Asteromphalus flabellatus + + + - + +

5 Bacillaria paxillifer - - + - + +

6. Bacteriastrum cosmosum - - + + + -

7. Bacteriastrum delicatula + + + + + +

8. Bacteriastrum elongatum + - - + + +

9. Bacteriastrum furcata - - + + + +

10. Bacteriastrum hyalinum + + + + + +

11. Biddulphia mobiliensis + + + - - -

12. Biddulphia regia + + + + + +

13. Biddulphia sinensis + + + + +

14. Cerataulina turgidus - + + + +

15. Chaetoceros affine - + + + +

16. Chaetoceros armatum + + - - - -

17. Chaetoceros atlanticus - + + +

18 Chaetoceros boreale + + + +

19. Chaetoceros breve + + + + + +

20 Chaetoceros ceratosporum - + + + - +

21 Chaetoceros coarctatus - - - - + -

22 Chaetoceros compressus + + + + + +

23 Chaetoceros coronatum + + + + + +

24 Chaetoceros crinitum + + + + + +

25 Chaetoceros cinctum + + + + + +

26 Chaetoceros constrictus - - + - - -

27 Chaetoceros concavicorne - + + + - +

28 Chaetoceros convolutum + - - - - -

29 Chaetoceros curvisetus + + + + + +

30 Chaetoceros danicum - - + + -

31 Chaetoceros dadayi - - + + - +

32 Chaetoceros decipiens + + + + + +

34 Chaetoceros diadema - + + - - -

35 Chaetoceros difficile - - + - - -

36 Chaetoceros diversum + + + + + +

37 Chaetoceros debile + + + + + +

38 Chaetoceros ebenii + - - - - -

39 Chaetoceros externum + - + + - -

40 Chaetoceros filiforme + + - - - -

A - 5


Appendix 2a contd………

Sr.No.

Genera / Species

N1 N2 N3

Diatoms

Surface Bottom Surface Bottom Surface Bottom

41 Chaetoceros fragile - - + + + +

42 Chaetoceros glandaxii - - - + - -

43 Chaetoceros holsaticum + + + + + +

44 Chaetoceros ingolfianum - + - + + +

45 Chaetoceros lauderi + + + + + +

46 Chaetoceros laciniosus + + + + + +

47 Chaetoceros lorenzianus + + + + + +

48 Chaetoceros mitra + - - + + +

49 Chaetoceros messanense + + + + + +

50 Chaetoceros peruvianum - + + + + +

51 Chaetoceros perpusillum - - - - + -

52 Chaetoceros psuedocurvisetum + + + - + -

53 Chaetoceros psuedocrinitum + - - + -

54 Chaetoceros radicans - + + + + +

55 Chaetoceros seiricanthus - + - - - -

56 Chaetoceros simile + - - - - -

57 Chaetoceros subtile + + + + + +

58 Chaetoceros tetrastichon + - - - - +

59 Chaetoceros teres - + - - - +

60 Chaetoceros tortissimum + + + + + +

61 Chaetoceros wellei + + + + +

62 Chaetoceros wighami - + - + + +

63 Cocconies pseudomarginata - - - + +

64 Corethron criophilum + + + + + +

65 Coscinodiscus centralis + + + + + +

66 Coscinodiscus eccentricus - - - + + -

67 Coscinodiscus marginatus + - + - - +

68 Coscinodiscus nitidus + + - - + +

69 Coscinodiscus occulus - - - - + +

70 Coscinodiscus welsii - - - + - -

71 Cylinderotheca closterium + + + + - -

72 Detonula pimula + + + + + +

73 Ditylum brightwelli + + + + + +

74 Eucampia zodicus - + - + - -

75 Goentvedia elliptica + + - + - +

76 Hemiaulus sinensis + + + + + +

77 Leptocylindrus danicus + + + + + +

78 Leptocylindrus minimus + + + + + +

79 Navicula maculosa - - + - -- +

80 Navicula membranaceae + + + - + +

A - 6


Appendix 2a contd………

Sr.No.

Genera / Species

N1 N2 N3

Diatoms

Surface Bottom Surface Bottom Surface Bottom

81 Nitzschia sigma - - + + + -

82 Pseudo-nitzschia multiseries - - - + + +

83 Pseudo-nitzschia multiseriata - - + + + -

84 Pseudo-nitzschia pungens - - + - + -

85 Pseudo-nitzschia seriata + + + - + +

86 Rhizosolenia alata - - - + + -

87 Rhizosolenia delicatula + + + - - -

88 Rhizosolenia hebetata - - - - - +

89 Rhizosolenia setigera + + + + + +

90 Rhizosolenia stolterfothii - - + + + +

91 Skeletonema costatum + + + + + +

92 Stephanopyxis palmeriana - - - + - -

93 Suriella gemma + + - +

94 Thalassionema nitzschoides + + + + + +

95 Thalassiosira condensata - - + - -

96 Thalassiosira subtilis - - - + -

97 Thalassiothrix frauenfeldi + + + + + +

98 Thalassiothrix longissima + + + + +

Dinoflagellates

99 Alaxandrium catenella + - - - - -

100 Ceratium azoricum - - - + - -

101 Ceratium breve - - - - + -

102 Ceratium contrarium + + - - - -

103 Ceratium concilians - - - - + -

104 Ceratium furca + + - - + -

105 Ceratium longirostrum + + + + + +

106 Ceratium longissimum + + + + + +

107 Dinophysis apicata - - - + + -

108 Dinophysis caudata + + + + + +

109 Dinophysis purvula - - + - - -

110 Gonyaulax brevisulcatum - - - - + --

111 Gonyaulax diegensis + - - - -

112 Gonyaulax milneri - - - - + -

113 Gonyaulax ovalis - - - - - -

114 Gonyaulax pacifica - - - - + -

115 Gonyaulax polygramma - - - + + +

116 Gymnodinium sp. - - - + - -

117 Gymnodinium gracile + - - + - +

118 Heteroaulacus polyedricus - - - + + -

119 Heterodinium triquetra - - - - + -

120 Heterodinium rigdenae - - - - + -

A - 7


Appendix 2a contd……

Genera / Species

N1 N2 N3

Sr.No.

Surfac Botto Botto

Diatoms

Surface Bottom e m Surface m

121 Peridinium angustum - - - - + -

122 Peridinium lenticulatum - - - - + -

123 Peridinium orientale - - - - + -

124 Podolampus palmipes - - - + + -

125 Prorocentrum cordatum - - - - - -

126 Prorocentrum gracile + - - + + -

127 Prorocentrum micans + - + + + -

128 Prorocentrum minimus - + - + + -

129 Protoperidinium abei - - - - - +

130 Protoperidinium conicum + - - - - -

131 Protoperidinium depressum + + - + + +

132 Protoperidinium paradoxum - - - + - -

133 Protoperidinium sournaii - - - + - -

134 Protoperidinium sternii + - - - + +

135 Protoperidinium subinerme + - + - - -

136 Protoperidinium subipyriformae - - - - - +

137 Protoperidinium tristylum + + + - + -

138 Pyrocystis noctiluca + + + + -

139 Pyrophacus horologium + + + + + +

140 Pyrophacus steinii + + + + + +

141 Scripsiella trochoidea - - - - + -

142 Spiraulax jollifei - - - - + -

Other algae

143 Distephanus sp. - - + - - -

144 Pediastrum sp. - - - - + -

145 Trichodesmium erythraeum + - + + + +

146 Trichodesmium thiebautii - - + - + +

A - 8


Appendix 2b List of Phytoplankton recorded in the study area (Central

transect)

Sr.No. Genera/ Species C1 C2 C3

Diatoms

Surface Bottom Surface Bottom Surface

1 Actinoptychus senarius - + + + +

2 Amphora sp. - - - + -

3 Asterionella japonica + + + + +

4 Asteromphalus flabellatus - + + - +

5 Bacillaria paxillifer - + - - -

6 Bacteriastrum cosmosum - - - - -

7 Bacteriastrum delicatula - + + + +

8 Bacteriastrum elongatum + + + + +

9 Bacteriastrum hyalinum + + - - +

10 Biddulphia regia + + + + +

11 Biddulphia sinensis + + + - -

12 Cerataulina turgidus - + + + +

13 Chaetoceros affine + + + +

14 Chaetoceros armatum + + - - -

15 Chaetoceros atlanticus - + - - -

16 Chaetoceros boreale - + - - -

17 Chaetoceros breve + - - + +

18 Chaetoceros castracanei - - + - -

19 Chaetoceros compressum + + + + +

20 Chaetoceros coronatum + + + + +

21 Chaetoceros crinitum - - + - -

22 Chaetoceros cinctum - + + + -

23 Chaetoceros constrictus - + - + -

24 Chaetoceros concavicorne - + - - +

25 Chaetoceros convolutum - - + - -

26 Chaetoceros curvisetum + + + + +

27 Chaetoceros dadayi - - - + -

28 Chaetoceros decipiens + + + + +

29 Chaetoceros depressum - - + - -

30 Chaetoceros diadema - - + - -

31 Chaetoceros dichaeta + + - - -

32 Chaetoceros difficile - - - + +

33 Chaetoceros diversum + + + + +

34 Chaetoceros debile - - + - -

35 Chaetoceros densum - - - +

36 Chaetoce ros externum - - - + +

37 Chaetoceros filiforme + - - + -

38 Chaetoceros fragile + + - - -

39 Chaetoceros gracile + - + - -

40 Chaetoceros holsaticum + + + + +

A - 9


Appendix 2b contd……

Sr.No. Genera/ Species C1 C2 C3

Diatoms Surface Bottom Surface Bottom Surface

41 Chaetoceros imbricatum + - - - -

42 Chaetoceros ingolfianum - - - - +

43 Chaetoceros lauderi - - + - -

44 Chaetoceros laciniosus + + + + +

45 Chaetoceros lorenzianus + + + + +

46 Chaetoceros mitra + + - - -

47 Chaetoceros messanense + + + + +

48 Chaetoceros neapolitanum + + - - -

49 Chaetoceros peruvianum - - + + +

50 Chaetoceros psuedocrinitum - - - - +

51 Chaetoceros radicans - - + - +

52 Chaetoceros seiricanthus - - + + +

53 Chaetoceros simile - - + - -

54 Chaetoceros sociale + + - - -

55 Chaetoceros subtile - - + + +

56 Chaetoceros tetrastichon + - - - -

57 Chaetoceros tortissimum + + + + +

58 Chaetoceros wellei - + + - -

59 Chaetoceros wighami + + - - -

60 Corethron criophilum - - - + -

61 Coscinodiscus centralis + + + + +

62 Coscinodiscus eccentricus + - - - -

63 Coscinodiscus marginatus - + + + -

64 Coscinodiscus occulus + + - - -

65 Coscinodiscus welsii - + - - -

66 Cylinderotheca closterium + + + - +

67 Detonula pimula + + + + +

68 Ditylum brightwelli + + + + +

69 Fragillaria oceanica - + - - -

70 Gramatophora undulata + - - - -

71 Gyrosigma bolticum - - + - -

72 Hemiaulus sinensis + + + + +

73 Leptocylindrus danicus - + - + +

74 Leptocylindrus minimus + + + + +

75 Navicula maculosa + - + - -

76 Navicula membranaceae - + - + +

77 Nitzschia sigma + + - + +

78 Paralia sulcata + + + - -

79 Pluerosigma elongatum + - - - -

80 Pseudo-nitzschia multiseries - - + - -

81 Pseudo-nitzschia multiseriata - - - + +

82 Pseudo-nitzschia pungens + + + - -

83 Pseudo-nitzschia seriata + + + + +

84 Rhizosolenia delicatula - + - + -

A - 10


Appendix 2b contd……

Sr.No. Genera/ Species C1 C2 C3

Diatoms Surface Bottom Surface Bottom Surface

85 Rhizosolenia hebetata - - + - -

86 Rhizosolenia setigera + + + + +

87 Skeletonema costatum + + + + +

88 Stephanopyxis palmeriana + - - - -

89 Suriella gemma + + - -

90 Thalassionema nitzschoides + + + + +

91 Thalassiothrix frauenfeldi + + + + +

92 Thalassiothrix longissima - + + + -

93 Triceratium favus + - - - -

Dinoflagellates

94 Alaxandrium catenella + + - -

95 Amphisolenia schauinslandii - + - -

96 Ceratium contrarium - + - - -

97 Ceratium furca + + - - +

98 Ceratium linula - - + + -

99 Ceratium longirostrum + - - + +

100 Ceratium missilience - - - + -

101 Ceratium symmetricum - + - -

102 Balachina coerulea - - - - +

103 Dinophysis caudata - + + - -

104 Dinophysis expulsa - - - - +

105 Dinophysis purvula + - - - -

106 Gonyaulax brevisulcatum - - + + -

107 Gonyaulax polygramma - - + - +

108 Gymnodinium gracile - - + - -

109 Heterodinium triquetra + - - - -

110 Prorocentrum gracile - - + - +

111 Prorocentrum micans + + - +

112 Prorocentrum minimus - - - + +

113 Protoperidinium depressum + + + +

114 Protoperidinium sternii - - - - +

115 Protoperidinium tristylum + - + - +

116 Pyrocystis noctiluca + + + + +

117 Pyrophacus horologium + + + +

118 Pyrophacus steinii + + + - -

119 Scripsiella trochoidea - - + - +

Other algae

120 Trichodesmium erythraeum + + + +

121 Trichodesmium thibautti + + + - -

A - 11


Appendix 2c List of Phytoplankton recorded in the study area (South

transect)

Sr.No.

Genera/ Species

S1 S2 S3

Diatoms

Surface Bottom Surface Bottom Surface Bottom

1

Actinoptychus senarius

+ - - - - -

2 Actinoptychus splendens - - - - - -

3 Amphora sp. - - - - - -

4 Asterionella japonica + + + + + -

5 Asteromphalus flabellatus + - + + + +

6 Bacteriastrum delicatula + + + + + +

7 Bacteriastrum elongatum + + + + + +

8 Bacteriastrum furcata + + + + + -

9 Bacteriastrum hyalinum + + + + + +

10 Biddulphia mobiliensis + - + + + -

11 Biddulphia regia + + + + + -

12 Biddulphia sinensis + + + + + +

13 Campylonies gravillei - + - - - +

14 Cerataulina turgidus + + + + - +

15 Chaetoceros affine + + + + + +

16 Chaetoceros atlanticu s + + + + + -

17 Chaetoceros boreale + + + + + -

18 Chaetoceros breve + + + + +

19 Chaetoceros ceratosporum + + - - - -

20 Chaetoceros compressum + + + + + +

21 Chaetoceros coronatum + + + + + +

22 Chaetoceros crinitum - - - - + -

23 Chaetoceros cinctum + + + + + +

24 Chaetoceros concavicorne + + - - - -

25 Chaetoceros curvisetum + + + + + +

26 Chaetoceros danicum - - - + - -

27 Chaetoceros dadayi + + + + + +

28 Chaetoceros decipiens + + + + + +

29 Chaetoceros difficile - - + - - -

30 Chaetoceros diversum + + + + + +

31 Chaetoceros debile + + + + + -

32 Chaetoceros externum - - - - + -

33 Chaetoceros exospermum - + - - - -

34 Chaetoceros filiforme + + + + + +

35 Chaetoceros glandaxii - + - - - -

36 Chaetoceros gracile - - + - - -

37 Chaetoceros holsaticum + + + + + -

38 Chaetoceros ingolfianum + + + + + +

39 Chaetoceros laciniosus + + + + + +

40 Chaetoceros lorenzianus + + + + + +

41 Chaetoceros mitra + + + + + +

42 Chaetoceros messanense + + + + + -

A - 12


Appendix 2c contd….

Sr.No.

Genera/ Species

S1 S2 S3

Diatoms

Surface Bottom Surface Bottom Surface Bottom

43 Chaetoceros peruvianum + + + + + +

44 Chaetoceros psuedocurvisetum + + - + + -

45 Chaetoceros psuedocrinitum - - + - + -

46 Chaetoceros radicans + + + + + -

47 Chaetocero s seiricanthus - + - - - -

48 Chaetoceros simile - - - - + -

49 Chaetoceros subtile + + + + + -

50 Chaetoceros tortissimum + + - + + -

51 Chaetoceros wellei + + + - - -

52 Chaetoceros wighami - - + - - -

53 Corethron criophilum + - + + + -

54 Coscinodiscus centralis + + + + + +

55 Coscinodiscus eccentricus + - + - - -

56 Coscinodiscus marginatus - + + + + +

57 Coscinodiscus nitidus - + + + - +

58 Coscinodiscus occulus + + - + + -

59

Coscinodiscus welsii + + +

-

+

-

60 Cylinderotheca closterium - + + + + +

61 Detonula pimula + + + + + +

62 Ditylum brightwelli + + + + + +

63 Fragillaria oceanica + - - - + -

64 Goentvedia elliptica - - + - - -

65 Hemiaulus sinensis + + + + + +

66 Leptocylindrus danicus + + + - + -

67 Leptocylindrus minimus + + + + + +

68 Melosira moniliformis - - - - - +

69 Navicula maculosa + + + + + +

70 Navicula membranaceae + + + + + -

71 Nitzschia sigma + + - + + +

72 Paralia sulcata - - - + - -

73 Pseudo-nitzschia multiseries + - - - - -

74 Pseudo-nitzschia multiseriata + + + + + +

75 Pseudo-nitzschia pungens + + - - - -

76 Pseudo-nitzschia seriata + - + + + +

77 Rhizosolenia hebetata - + + - + +

78 Rhizosolenia setigera + + + + + +

79 Rhizosolenia stolterfothii + - + + + -

80 Skeletonema costatum + + + + + +

81 Suriella gemma + - - - - -

82 Thalassionema nitzschoides + + + + + +

83 Thalassiosira condensata + + - - - -

84 Thalassiothrix frauenfeldi + + + + + +

85 Thalassiothrix longissima + + + + + +

A - 13


Sr.No.

Appendix 2c contd….

Genera/ Species

S1 S2 S3

Dinoflagellates Surface Bottom Surface Bottom Surface Bottom

86 Alaxandrium catenella + - - - - -

87 Amphidinium sp. - - + - - -

88 Blepharocysta okamurai - - - - - +

89 Ceratium breve - - - - - +

90 Ceratium declinatum + - - -

91 Ceratium digitatum - - - - - -

92 Ceratium elongatum - - - - - -

93 Ceratium furca + - + - + +

94 Ceratium longirostrum + - + - + +

95 Ceratium longissimum + + + + +

96 Ceratium peradoxides - - + - - -

97 Dinophysis brevisulcus - - - - - +

98 Dinophysis argus - - + - -

99 Dinophysis caudata + - + + - -

100 Dinophysis exigua - - - + -

101 Gonyaulax milneri - - - + - -

102 Gonyaulax turbynii - - - - - +

103 Gymnodinium gracile - - - - + -

104 Gymnodinium splendens - + - - - -

105 Gymnodinium spirale + - - - - -

106 Heteroaulacus polyedricus - - + - - -

107 Heteroaulacus sphaericus - - - - - +

108 Heterodinium rigdenae + - + - + -

109 Peridinium conicum - - + - - -

110 Prorocentrum gracile - - + - + +

111 Prorocentrum micans + + + - + +

112 Prorocentrum minimus + + + + -

113 Protoperidinium depressum + + + - + -

114 Protoperidinium inclinatum - - + - - -

115 Protoperidinium minutum - + - - - -

116 Protoperidinium sournaii - - - - + -

117 Protoperidinium sternii - + + - - -

118 Protoperidinium su binerme - - - - + +

119 Protoperidinium tristylum + - + + - +

120 Pyrodinium sp.1 - - - - - +

121 Pyrocystis noctiluca - - - - + -

122

Pyrophacus horologium +

+

+ + + +

123 Pyrophacus steinii + - + + + +

124 Pyrophacus vancampoae + - - - - -

125 Scripsiella trochoidea + - + + + +

Other algae

126 Trichodesmium erythraeum + - + + + +

127 Trichodesmium thibautti + - + - + -

A - 14

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