Just-About-Right (JAR) Scales: - ASTM International


Just-About-Right (JAR) Scales: - ASTM International


(JAR) Scales:

Design, Usage, Benefits and Risks

Lori Rothman

Merry Jo Parker



Design, Usage, Benefits,

and Risks

Lori Rothman and Merry Jo Parker

ASTM Stock Number: MNL63

ASTM International

100 Barr Harbor Drive

PO Box C700

West Conshohocken, PA 19428–2959

Printed in the U.S.A.

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

Rothman, Lori

Just-about-right JAR scales: design, usage, benefits, and risks / Lori Rothman and Merry Jo Parker sponsored by Committee

E18 on Sensory Evaluation.

p. cm. — ASTM international manual series; MNL 63

ASTM stock number: MNL63.”

Includes bibliographical references.

ISBN 978-0-8031-7010-0

1. Consumers—Research—Statistical methods—Handbooks, manuals, etc.

2. Consumer goods—Evaluation—Statistical methods—Handbooks, manuals, etc.

3. Quality of products—Handbooks, manuals, etc. I. Parker, Merry Jo, II. ASTM Committee E18 on Sensory Evaluation of

Materials and Products. III. Title.

HF5415.3.R6786 2009

658.834015195—dc22 2008041327

Copyright © 2009 ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA. All rights reserved. This material may not be reproduced

or copied, in whole or in part, in any printed, mechanical, electronic, film, or other distribution and storage media, without

the written consent of the publisher.

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NOTE: The Society is not responsible, as a body, for the statements and opinions expressed in this publication. ASTM

International does not endorse any products represented in this publication.

Printed in Bridgeport, NJ

February 2009



When we volunteered for this assignment, we did not know that it would take 10 years to complete. Or that this document

would become Manual 63. Originally conceived as a Standard Guide, the completed document was more than 200 pages in

length. Several comments were received during the subcommittee ballotting process that the document was too large to be a

Standard Guide; thus the idea for a Manual was born. Our goal was to create THE definitive document on Just About Right

scales in an easily understood, practical format and we think we have succeeded. Please tell us if you think otherwise.

Lori Rothman

Kraft Foods

801 Waukegan Road

Glenview, IL 60025

Merry Jo Parker

Food Perspectives

2880 Vicksburg Lane North

Plymouth, MN 55447



This manual is dedicated to our hardworking colleagues at ASTM E18.04.26.



This manual represents the fruits of more than 10 years of labor by a wide range of individuals associated with ASTM

International Committee E18. Through the years, E18 committee members helped ‘grow’ the manual, from setting the scope and

creating the outline to writing the chapters themselves. Countless versions were edited by the E18.04.26 task group members;

each and every editing session made the document more cohesive and compelling. We are particularly grateful to the case study

authors, who worked with a common data set to produce the fantastic array of statistical options presented. Many of those

authors ventured from their comfort zones, working with novel techniques to showcase them in a format easily read and

understood. Task force members evaluated and edited these case studies, making sure that each technique was fairly presented

with all its pros and cons. Janya Walsh provided the first draft of the Bibliography. A special ‘thank you’ goes to Bill Raynor of

Kimberly Clark for reviewing all the statistical case studies. Tom Carr of Carr Consulting and Greg Stucky of Insights Now also

deserve special recognition for their contributions. Richard Popper of P&K provided enormously helpful specific feedback on

the entire document, an invaluable contribution. Scott Orthey of ASTM was our cheerleader extraordinaire, particularly as we

became close to publishing. Thanks to the changing officers of E18 for their continual support and encouragement and to the

publication staff of ASTM International, especially Kathy Dernoga and Monica Siperko. Finally, the editors thank each other for

their continued dedication, dogged persistence and friendship. Neither of us could have done it alone.

Lori Rothman

Kraft Foods

801 Waukegan Road

Glenview, IL 60025

Merry Jo Parker

Food Perspectives

2880 Vicksburg Lane North

Plymouth, MN 55447








Structure and Use of Just-About-Right Scales 1


A. Graphical Data Display 14

B. Graphical Scaling 16

C. Percent Difference from Norm and Percent Difference

from Just Right 18

D. The Mean 23

E. Mean Direction and Mean Absolute Deviation 25

F. Mean versus Scale Mid-Point 27

G. Methods for Determining Whether JAR Distributions

are Similar Among Products Chi-Square, Cochran-

Mantel-Haenszel CMH, Stuart-Maxwell, McNemar 29

H. A Proportional Odds/Hazards Approach to JAR Data 38

I. Student’s t-Test—Analysis of Variance of Two Samples 42

J. Analysis of Variance ANOVA 44

K. Thurstonian Ideal Point Modeling 46

L. Penalty Analysis or Mean Drop Analysis 50

M. Using Grand Mean versus JAR Mean to Create Penalties

in Penalty Analysis 54

N. A Regression-Based Approach for Testing Significance

of JAR Variable Penalties 57

O. Bootstrapping Penalty Analysis 63

P. Opportunity Analysis 67

Q. PRIMO Analysis 71

R. Chi-Square 75

S. Biplots, Correspondence Analysis, and Principal

Components Analysis 82

T. Correlation 86

U. Regression 88

V. Preference Mapping from JAR Data Using Tree-Based

Regressions 90

W. Application of JAR Data to Preference Mapping Using

Dummy Variables 94

X. Collecting Intensity and Hedonic Information Separately 102

Y. Designed Experiments 104

Z. Ideal Scaling 106

Bibliography 110

Lori Rothman is a Section Manager for Kraft Foods in the Department of Perceptual and

Applied Quantitative Sciences and Innovative Applications, a part of

Research and Development. For the past 14 years, Lori has worked

in the area of consumer research, conducting both quantitative

and qualitative studies for many of the Kraft brands. Lori has a B.S.

degree from Cornell University in Nutritional Sciences and an M.S.

degree from the University of California, Davis in Food Science. At

Davis, Lori researched the language of basic tastes and its transfer to

novel tastants with trained panelists. Prior to joining Kraft Foods, Lori

worked for Philip Morris (now Altria), researching the sensory impact of flavor degradation in

carbonated beverages, for Kellogg’s, where she managed the Sensory Evaluation and Shelf

Life departments and for Brach’s Candies at the inception of its Product Performance group,

where she built a state of the art sensory laboratory including shelf life testing chambers

and computerized panel evaluation booths. Lori has authored a number of publications in

refereed and industry journals and is a frequent speaker at universities and conferences. Lori

is a longstanding professional member of the Institute of Food Technologists and its Sensory

Evaluation Division as well as ASTM International where she cochairs the Accceptance

Preference Task Group. She is an active reviewer for the Journal of Quality and Preference

and has authored a chapter on “Just About Right Scales” for the book Consumer Led Food

Product Development published in 2007.

Merry Jo Parker has over 25 years experience in applying sensory principles and practices to

consumer research. In 2008 she retired as the founder, owner and CEO

of Food Perspectives Inc., a guidance research and consumer insights

consulting and testing firm. Founded in 1990, Food Perspectives has

clients across the United States from Fortune 500 companies to small

emerging companies. Food Perspectives works with product guidance

and marketing consumer insights professionals offering a variety of

research techniques, ranging from fieldwork to complete research

services that include test design, interpretation and consulting.

Prior to founding Food Perspectives Inc. Ms. Parker was, an independent consultant, a Senior

Scientist at General Mills Inc. and Research Scientist at Sandoz Nutrition focusing on product

development and consumer research on nutritional, food service and retail food products.

Ms. Parker received Bachelors and Masters Degrees in Food Science from the University

of Minnesota with an emphasis in sensory science. She has been a member of ASTM

since 1999 and serves as the Chairman for the ASTM Subcommittee on Fundamentals of

Sensory. In 2007 Ms. Parker co-chaired the 7th Pangborn Sensory Science Symposium. This

symposium is considered the most important international scientific gathering for sensory

and consumer scientists with over 900 attendees from 54 different countries. She has also

been a long standing professional member of the Institute of Food Technologies and IFT’s

Sensory Evaluation Division.


ISBN: 978-0-8031-7010-0

Stock #: MNL63

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