Foreign Agents in Russia - Doria

Foreign Agents in Russia - Doria


general Russian attention towards biopolitics or geopolitics, I can only see how these perspectives

reflect in foreign agents. What does the foreign agents’ codification tell about Russian governing

and nature of politics in this historical case? What kind of discoursive statements and functions does

it produce? I will start this analysis by examing the Russian governmentality providing the

framework to examine the context of foreign agents in a snapshot of Russian contemporary

governmentality – what is the tradition and what is the NKO law's relation to it as an apparatus of

governance. In next chapter I examine the institutional and non-institutional practices of governance

in law and discourses.

2.2.2 The Russian Governmentality in Recent Research Context

Examing further the thesis Vesa Oittinen (2012, 79-80.) which suggests that the main structural

difference and source of conflicts between Russia and the West is in their traditions of

governmentality – a difference penetrating the whole political, social, and sometimes even

economical spheres. In its nature of penetrating the whole rationality of governance it can be

examined in both domestic and international spheres of contemporary Russia.

The famous power vertical introduced by Vladimir Putin in early 2000 describes the Russian

governmentality as Neumann sees it very well - in centralization of power it subordinates local

administrations and civil society under the rule of the top of power hierarchy – into Kremlin. In this

model initiative, ideas, the claims for hegemonical discourses and knowledge move in hierarchy

vertically downwards, instead of upwards or horizontally. (Sukhov 2008.) In very relevant research

to formulation of discoursive ideas of self and (foreign) other Lara Ryazanova-Clarke(2012)

examined the discourse formation of Russianness and described how the social positions where

discourses are produced in 21 st century Russia:

”The dominant discourse associated with the voice of authorities produces its own

picture of Russianness, which diverges from that depicted by the counter-discoursive

stream located, during Putin regime, at the margin of the public space.” (ibid. 4)

The direct governmentality in Russian social structures is documented among others in studies

of Russian working culture (Karhunen 2008, Castén 2011) where the power relations work

fairly vertically compared to western working cultures that are often characterized with

relatively much employee and local manager independence and initiative. In Russian working

places the culture of strong leadership and its general involvement in employee tasks is

strongly rooted. Addingly studies on public institutions have pointed out the tendency of

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