05.01.2014 Views

French Colonial Outposts in North America - H-Net

French Colonial Outposts in North America - H-Net

French Colonial Outposts in North America - H-Net

SHOW MORE
SHOW LESS

You also want an ePaper? Increase the reach of your titles

YUMPU automatically turns print PDFs into web optimized ePapers that Google loves.

French Colonial

Outposts in North

America

Robert H. Jackson

1


Beginng in 1608, the French

established a series of permanent

outposts in North America. There

had been earlier French settlements,

but the establishment of Quebec in

1608 initiated French settlement.

Quebec was the heart of settlement

in the St. Lawrence Valley, which

included farming hamlets and towns

such as Montreal and Trois Rivieres.

Some 40,000 people lived in the St.

Lawrence Valley at the end of French

rule.

2


Contemporary Map of French

settlements in the St. Lawrence River

Valley.

3


Quebec City was the center of

French settlement in the valley.

Champlain first settled at the base of

a bluff in an area known as the

“Lower City” French settlement then

spread to the top of the bluff and the

fortified “Upper City.”

4


Quebec City in 1760.

5


Map of Quebec City in the mid-1770s.

6


Site of Champlain’s first

fort in Quebec.

7


Site of Champlain’s first

fort.

8


Lower City.

9


Lower City.

10


Lower City.

11


Lower City.

12


Colonial Church in

Lower City

13


Upper City

14


Upper City

15


Upper City

16


Upper City

17


Upper City Church

18


Defensive Walls seen

from the Lower City.

19


Mid-19 th Century British

Military Installation

Outside City Walls

20


Fortress Louisbourg established

by the French on Cape Breton

Island in 1713, and destroyed by

the British in 1758.Louisbourg

was also a commercial and

fishing center. In 1745, a colonial

American force forcedthe

surrender of the outpost.

21


Map of Louisbourg in 1734.

22


Occupation of Louisbourg in

1745 by an English colonial

militia force.

23


Views of the restored

outpost.

24


Population

1757

1755

1753

1751

1749

1747

1745

1743

1741

Population of

Louisbourg

29

3000

2500

2000

1500

Population

1000

500

0

1713

1715

1717

1719

1721

1723

1725

1727

1729

1731

1733

1735

1737

1739

Year


Baptisms and Burials

Recorded at Louisbourg

200

180

160

140

120

100

80

Baptisms

Burials

Baptisms/Burials

60

40

20

0

1713

1715

1717

1719

1721

1723

1725

1727

1729

1731

1733

1735

1737

1739

1741

1743

1745

1747

1749

1751

1753

1755

1757

Year

30


Lake Champlain Region. The

French attempted to contest

English claims to the upper

Hudson Valley by establishing

outposts on Lake Champlain and

eventually attempting to occupy

Lake George at the onset of the

Seven Years War. In 1757,

French forces destroyed Fort

William Henry on the southern

shore of Lake George.

31


Contemporary map of Lake

Champlain.

32


In 1739, the French built Fort St.

Frederick at a strategic point on Lake

Champlain, at a site where the lake is

only ¼ mile wide. The new fort

controlled all lake traffic south or

north.

33


Fort St. Frederick in a

1740 Drawing

34


The dominant feature of Fort St.

Frederick was the bastion, built

alongside the lake. Shown here in an

18 th century illustration.

35


Architectural Reconstruction of the

bastion

36


Diagram of Fort St. Frederick

37


Ruins today of Fort St. Frederick

38


Ruins of the Bastion today

39


In the mid-1750s, the French

occupied the southern part of Lake

Champlain, and began the

construction of Fort Carrilon, shown

in an 18 th century map.

40


Map showing 1757 French campaign

from Carillon to Fort William Henry

on Lake George.

41


Battle for Fort William Henry.

42


Fort Carillon during 1759 British

campaign.

43


Carillon passed into British hands and was

renamed Ticonderoga. The outpost figured

prominently in the American Revolution. After the

conclusion of the war, the United States army

abandoned Carillon/Ticonderoga to ruin.

44


Ruins of Fort Ticonderoga in 1890

45


In the early part of the twentiethcentury

a member of the Pell family

that owned the site of the old fort

began reconstruction. The process

continues today.

46


Restored Structure at Fort

Carrilon/Ticonderoga

47


In 1759, British forces occupied Fort

Carrilon and Fort St. Frederick. The

British renamed Carrilon Fort

Ticonderoga. Fort St. Frederick, left

in a damaged state by the retreating

French, did not suit the military

needs of the British. In the early

1760s, the British began

construction of His Majesty’s Fort at

Crown Point. The new fort was the

largest British military installation in

North America.

48


A Contemporary Map of Crown

Point showing Fort St. Frederick.

49


A second contemporary map of

Crown Point and the ruins of Fort St.

Frederick.

50


Terre Haut-The Great Lakes and Upper

Mississippi Valley vital for the fur trade.

Contemporary map from the 1750s of a

part of the Terre Haut, showing French

outposts and allied tribes.

51


In the Niagara Falls region, the

French built a fort in the 1720s at

the point where the Niagara River

enters Lake Ontario. Fort Niagara

served during three major wars,

and was an active military

outpost into the 20 th century.

52


Overhead photograph of Fort

Niagara

53


French structure built of Stone at

Fort Niagara in the mid-1720s

54


Fort Beasuejoir

55


Fort Presque Isle-Map

56


Fort Presque Isle-Map

57


Fort Michilimackin.

58


Ste. Marie Among the

Hurons, a reconstructed

Jesuit mission established in

1639 on the shores of Lake

Ontario.

59


Another view of St. Marie

among the Hurons.

60


French Illinois.

61


Map of French Settlements

in Illinois.

62


Fort des Chartres

located on the

Mississippi River

(Illinois).

63


Fort des Chartres.

64


Fort des Chartres.

65


Fort des Chartres.

66


Cahokia (Illinois)

67


Louisiana

68


French controlled Gulf

Coast in 1720.

69


Mobile-A map dating to

1702

70


Another contemporary

map of Mobile

71


Fort St. Louis Model

72


Archaeological

excavations at French

Mobile.

73


Excavations at Mobile

74


Fort Toulouse

75


Contemporary map of

Biloxi.

76


New Orleans, the Crescent

City, established in 1718.

The French Quarter still

retains the flabor of

colonial architecture, even

with the later Spanish and

American imprint.

77


Contemporary Map of New

Orleans.

78


A second map of New

Orleans.

79


Cathedral and Cabildo

80


Cabildo

81


Structure dating to the

1790s

82


Typical French Quarter Architecture.

83


France lost most of its North

American territory in 1763, but

French colonization has left a lasting

imprint, particularly in Quebec and

Louisiana. The British defeated the

French in the Seven Years War. The

war began in what today is

Pennsylvania with the defeat of a

British expedition sent to occupy the

site of modern Pittsburgh, lead by

General Braddock.

84


Contemporary map of the

battleground where the conflict

began in 1755.

85


Early Stages of War.

86


Campaigns in New York.

87


Conquest of Canada.

88


Siege of Louisburg in

1758.

89


A second map of the Siege

of Louisburg in 1758.

90


Battle of Montmorency,

July 1759.

91


Battle of Quebec, 1759.

92


Another map of the

Battle of Quebec.

93


North America in 1765,

showing British garrisons

at former French outposts.

94


1766 map.

95

Hooray! Your file is uploaded and ready to be published.

Saved successfully!

Ooh no, something went wrong!