HRA Screening Report - Hyder Consulting

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HRA Screening Report - Hyder Consulting

Snowdonia National Park Authority

Local Development Plan

Habitats Regulations Assessment

Screening Report


Hyder Consulting (UK) Limited

2212959

Firecrest Court

Centre Park

Warrington WA1 1RG

United Kingdom

Tel: +44 (0)870 000 3008

Fax: +44 (0)870 000 3908

www.hyderconsulting.com

Snowdonia National Park Authority

Local Development Plan

Habitats Regulations Assessment

Screening Report

Author

D Hourd

Checker

N Hartley

Approver

S Hill

Report No

002-NH51128-NHR-05

Date March 2009

This report has been prepared for the Snowdonia National Park Authority in accordance with the terms and

conditions of appointment for Sustainability Appraisal dated 30 July 2008. Hyder Consulting (UK) Limited

(2212959) cannot accept any responsibility for any use of or reliance on the contents of this report by any

third party.


CONTENTS

Abbreviations ..................................................................................................iii

1 Introduction and Purpose of the Report ............................................... 1

1.1 The Purpose of Habitats Regulations Assessment and Appropriate

Assessment.......................................................................................... 1

1.2 Legislation and Guidance ..................................................................... 2

2 The Habitats Regulations Assessment Process .................................. 3

2.1 HRA Screening Methodology ............................................................... 3

2.2 The Scope of the Assessment.............................................................. 3

2.3 Applying HRA to the Snowdonia LDP................................................... 4

2.4 Definition of Significant Effects ............................................................. 5

2.5 In Combination Effects ......................................................................... 5

2.6 Mitigation Measures ............................................................................. 7

3 The Deposit LDP .................................................................................. 9

3.1 Introduction........................................................................................... 9

3.2 Influences ............................................................................................. 9

3.3 The LDP Policies .................................................................................. 9

4 The European Sites............................................................................ 11

5 Habitats Regulations Assessment of the Deposit Version LDP......... 15

5.1 Introduction......................................................................................... 15

5.2 European Sites and the Settlement Hierarchy.................................... 15

5.3 Assessment Matrices ......................................................................... 15

5.4 Summary of Key Findings .................................................................. 70

6 Conclusions and Recommendations.................................................. 72

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Tables

Table 2-1 Methodological Stages of the HRA Process 4

Table 2-2 Plans and Projects Considered for In-Combination Effects 5

Table 4-1 European Sites Located in and Around the National Park 12

Appendices

Appendix A

Preferred Strategy Options

February 2008

Appendix B

Assessment of the Preferred Strategy Options

February 2008

Appendix C

European Sites located near to or adjacent to Settlements

Appendix D

Conservation Objectives of the European Sites

Figure 1

Location of European Sites

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Abbreviations

CCW

cSAC

FCS

GB

GIS

HRA

LDP

LHMA

pSPA

RSPB

SAC

SNPA

SPA

TAN

UDP

WAG

Countryside Council for Wales

Candidate Special Area of Conservation

Favourable Conservation Status

Great Britain

Geographical Information Systems

Habitats Regulations Assessment

Local Development Plan

Local Housing Market Assessment

Potential Special Protection Area

Royal Society for the Protection of Birds

Special Area of Conservation

Snowdonia National Park Authority

Special Protection Area

Technical Advice Note

Unitary Development Plan

Welsh Assembly Government

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1 Introduction and Purpose of the Report

The Snowdonia National Park Authority (SNPA) is preparing a Local Development

Plan (LDP) for the period to 2022. The LDP builds on national and regional policy

and provides the development strategy and policy framework within which

provision is made for the development and conservation needs of the National

Park. The LDP will be used by the Authority to encourage development to the

most suitable locations and to provide a basis for determining planning applications

consistently and appropriately.

The SNPA is obliged to afford the highest levels of protection to the intrinsic

qualities of the National Park. The National Park’s biodiversity is a key aspect of

this and, as such, the SNPA is committed to protecting the designated sites located

within and around its borders.

Within the National Park and immediately adjacent there are a number of sites that

form part of the Natura 2000 Network. Natura 2000 is a network of areas

designated to conserve natural habitats and species that are rare, endangered,

vulnerable or endemic within the European Community. The sites forming part of

the network are frequently referred to as ‘European Sites’ and include Special

Areas of Conservation (SAC) designated under the EC Habitats Directive 1992

(Council Directive 92/43/EEC) for their habitats and/or species of European

importance and Special Protection Areas (SPA) classified under the EC Birds

Directive 1979 (Council Directive 79/409/EEC) for rare, vulnerable and regularly

occurring migratory bird species. There are also Ramsar Sites which are wetlands

of international importance designated under the Convention on Wetlands, signed

in Ramsar, Iran in 1971.

Prior to the adoption of the LDP it is the responsibility of the SNPA to consider the

potential effects of the LDP on European Sites. This process is referred to as

Habitats Regulations Assessment (HRA).

The HRA process for the LDP commenced for the LDP in February 2008 when the

options for the LDP were reviewed to determine their effects on European Sites.

Following consultation upon the LDP Options, the SNPA has prepared the Deposit

Version of the LDP and it is necessary to re-screen the policies in the LDP to

determine the likelihood of significant effects occurring and subsequently whether

the LDP should be subject to Appropriate Assessment. This HRA Screening

Report should be read in conjunction with the Deposit Version of the LDP 1 .

1.1 The Purpose of Habitats Regulations

Assessment and Appropriate Assessment

Under Article 6 of the Habitats Directive, an assessment is required where a plan

or project may give rise to significant effects upon a site within the Natura 2000

network. This requirement is transposed into national legislation in the

1 SNPA (March, 2009) Local Development Plan, Deposit Version

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Conservation (Natural Habitats & c) (Amendment) (England and Wales)

Regulations 2007.

As part of the assessment, effects upon SACs and SPAs must be considered.

Additionally, and as a matter of policy, the Welsh Assembly Government (WAG)

requires all public authorities to treat potential SPAs (pSPA), candidate SACs

(cSAC) and possible Ramsar sites (pRamsar) as if they were fully designated.

The overarching aim of HRA is to determine, in view of a site’s conservation

objectives and qualifying interests, whether a plan, either in isolation and/or in

combination with other plans, would have a significant adverse effect on the

designated site. If the Screening Report concludes that significant adverse effects

are likely then Appropriate Assessment must be undertaken to determine if there

will be adverse effects on site integrity.

Section 2 provides further procedural and methodological information.

1.2 Legislation and Guidance

The HRA has drawn upon the following pieces of legislation and guidance:

• Habitats Regulations (the Conservation (Natural Habitats &c.) (Amendment)

(England and Wales) Regulations 2007.

• Consultation Draft Annex to Technical Advice Note (TAN) 5, Nature

Conservation and Planning – the Assessment of Development Plans in

Wales under the Provisions of the Habitats Regulations (WAG 2006).

• Department for Communities and Local Government (2006) Planning for the

Protection of European Sites: Appropriate Assessment (whilst it is

acknowledged that this applies only to the English planning system, the

guidance has many useful and transferable points).

• European Commission, Managing Natura 2000 sites: The provisions of

Article 6 of the Habitats Directive 92/43/EEC.

• European Commission, Guidance document on Article 6(4) of the Habitats

Directive 92/43/EEC.

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2 The Habitats Regulations Assessment

Process

This section provides an outline of the stages involved in HRA and the specific

methods that have been used in preparing this report.

2.1 HRA Screening Methodology

The purpose of the HRA Screening Report, as shown on Diagram 2-1, is to

determine the likelihood of significant adverse effects occurring, as a result of the

implementation of policies in the LDP. Should significant adverse effects be

considered likely, then a full Appropriate Assessment will be required to

accompany the Deposit LDP to Examination. Alternatively, concluding that no

significant impacts are likely will enable the Deposit LDP to proceed without further

HRA.

Diagram 2.1 Stages in the HRA Process

Stage of LDP

Development

HRA

Preferred Options

Options Screening

Report

HRA Screening

Report

Deposit LDP

Yes

Likely

Significant

Effects?

No

Appropriate

Assessment

Examination

Plan proceeds without further assessment

2.2 The Scope of the Assessment

There are 21 designated sites of international nature conservation importance

within the National Park, which may be directly or indirectly affected by the LDP. In

accordance with best practice guidance and in recognition of the fact that the LDP

could result in significant effects beyond the National Park boundary, this report

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has also considered a further site outside of the National Park. The location of

these sites is shown on Figure 1.

2.3 Applying HRA to the Snowdonia LDP

This HRA Screening Report is a successor to an initial Options Screening Report,

produced in February 2008, in which an assessment was made of the impacts of

the LDP Preferred Options. Only the Preferred Options were assessed through the

process, as the Strategic Environmental Assessment process was used to inform

the selection of the most appropriate options and so it was not deemed necessary

to review the discounted options in the HRA process.

The Preferred Options subject to HRA Screening in February 2008 are presented

in Appendix A. The Screening Report consisted of a two-stage process in which

the options were first screened to discard those that would have no impact upon

European sites, with the remainder subject to a more in-depth assessment. Both

stages are documented in Appendix B. This Screening Report was consulted upon

publicly, as well as being submitted to the Countryside Council for Wales (CCW) as

the regulatory body for nature conservation in Wales, who provided feedback. The

report was followed by a meeting between CCW, representatives of Hyder

Consulting (UK) Ltd and the SNPA on 13 August 2008.

The SNPA has subsequently produced a Deposit Version of the LDP which builds

upon the Preferred Options that were consulted upon in February 2008. This

Deposit Version of the LDP will be consulted upon publicly in spring 2009. This

report documents the HRA screening of the policies contained within the Deposit

Version LDP.

Table 2-1 presents the methodological stages that have been followed in

determining whether significant effects are likely to occur.

Table 2-1

Methodological Stages of the HRA Process

Methodological

Stage (as identified

in Consultation Draft

Annex to TAN5)

Identify all European

Sites in and around the

LDP area.

Application to this Study

Data has been obtained from the CCW and the SNPA about the

European Sites within the National Park and in adjacent areas.

The identification of the sites has had regard to the fact that a

site may be spatially distant from the National Park but could still

be affected by policies in the LDP.

A list of sites is presented in Section 4.

All European Sites have been mapped using Geographical

Information Systems (GIS) – see Figure 1.

Acquire, examine and

understand conservation

objectives of each

interest feature of each

potentially affected

The interest features of all of the sites have been defined and

are presented in the tables in Section 5.

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Methodological

Stage (as identified

in Consultation Draft

Annex to TAN5)

Application to this Study

European Site.

Consider the policies

and proposals in the

LDP, and the changes

that they may cause, that

may be relevant to

European Sites.

Determine whether the

plan would have a

significant effect on any

interest feature, alone, or

in combination with other

projects and plans,

directly or indirectly.

All LDP policies that could potentially affect European Sites are

identified in Section 5. The impacts that would result from these

policies are identified.

The tables presented in Section 5 discuss whether or not the

LDP is likely to have a significant adverse effect on European

Sites.

2.4 Definition of Significant Effects

For the purposes of this assessment the definition of ‘likely’ and ‘significant’ follow

those provided in the Consultation Draft Annex to TAN5 guidance. ‘Likely’ means

‘readily foreseeable not merely a fanciful possibility’ and ‘significant’ is defined as

‘not trivial or inconsequential but an effect that is potentially relevant to the site’s

conservation objectives’.

2.5 In Combination Effects

As outlined in Table 2-1, it is necessary for the HRA to consider not only the

policies within the LDP that may lead to significant impacts upon European Sites

on their own, but those that may have a significant impact in combination with other

plans. These may be general spatial planning documents produced by

neighbouring planning authorities, or sector specific strategic plans on such topics

as waste, water resources or transport. A review has been undertaken of plans

and projects with the potential for an in-combination effect with the Snowdonia

LDP. Table 2-2 presents details of the plans and projects considered.

Table 2-2

Authority

Plans and Projects Considered for In-Combination Effects

Relevant Plan/Project

Gwynedd Council

The current development plan framework comprises the

Gwynedd Structure Plan, Menai Straits Local Plan, Rural

Arfon Local Plan, Dwyfor Local Plan, Porthmadog/Ffestiniog

Local Plan and the Dyffryn-Ardudwy Local Plan.

These are due to be replaced later in 2009 when the

Gwynedd Unitary Development Plan (UDP) is adopted. The

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Authority

Conwy County Council

Ceredigion Council

Denbighshire County

Council

Relevant Plan/Project

Proposed Modifications to the Deposit Draft 2008 version of

the UDP have been used where relevant for the incombination

effects assessment. The UDP is currently a

material planning consideration.

The current development plan framework comprises the

Clwyd Structure Plan Second Alteration, Gwynedd Structure

Plan, Colwyn Borough Local Plan and Llandudno/Conwy

District Plan.

Work on the UDP has ended although it is still a material

consideration in some planning applications.

Preparation of the Local Development Plan (LDP) has

commenced.

The UDP is used for development control purposes but work

has now ceased on its development. Preparation of the LDP

is now underway. As part of this process, a Draft Issues

paper on Nature Conservation was published in 2008,

recognising the need for the LDP to enhance as well as

protect nature conservation in European Sites and across the

wider Ceredigion area.

The Adopted UDP is used for development control purposes.

It will be replaced by the LDP which is currently in

preparation.

Flintshire County Council Until the adoption of the emerging Flintshire UDP, the

Development Plan for Flintshire consists of six documents:

Clwyd Structure Plan First Alteration and Second Alteration:

Flintshire Edition, Delyn Local Plan, Alyn & Deeside Local

Plan, Draft North Flintshire Local Plan and the emerging UDP

itself.

It is anticipated that the Flintshire UDP will be adopted in

2010.

Powys County Council

The Powys UDP is still in development but has been

approved for the purposes of making development control

decisions. Also relevant for this purpose until the UDP is fully

adopted are: Powys County Structure Plan, Minerals Local

Plan, and for the area bordering Snowdonia National Park,

the Montgomeryshire Local Plan.

Anglesey County Council The current development plan framework comprises the UDP

(work has ceased on the plan although it will be used for

development control processes in certain circumstances),

Gwynedd Structure Plan and Ynys Mon Local Plan.

The Local Development Plan is now in preparation.

Trafnidiaeth Canolbarth

Cymru (TraCC) – Mid

Wales Transportation

Provisional Regional Transport Plan (December, 2008)

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Authority

Relevant Plan/Project

Taith North Wales Regional Transport Plan 2008

North Wales Regional

Members Group

Environment Agency

National Assembly for

Wales

North Wales Regional Waste Plan

North-West Wales Catchment Flood Management Plans

Catchment Abstraction Management Strategies

Woodlands for Wales

Dwr Cymru Welsh Water Draft Water Resources Plan 2008

Dwr Cymru Welsh Water Drought Plan 2006

Gwynedd Council

WAG

North Cardigan Bay Shoreline Management Plan

The Coastal Tourism Strategy

WAG People, Places, Futures – The Wales Spatial Plan 2008

Update

WAG

WAG

WAG

WAG

One Wales: Connecting the Nation, Wales Transport

Strategy and Plan

Proposed improvements to the A470 (T) between the end of

a previously improved section at Maes-yr-Helmau to a point

near the Cross Foxes Hotel

A470 (T) interim improvements at Gelligemlyn, north of

Dolgellau. This priority scheme to repair the existing road and

resume each-way traffic flow was given the approval of the

Minister for the Economy and Transport in December 2008.

A470(T) Gelligemlym: Main Scheme. A further proposal to

improve a section of the A470 south of the interim scheme is

currently at the planning stage.

A487 Porthmadog, Minffordd and Tremadog Bypass. A

scheme to divert traffic from the congested centre of

Porthmadog that would cross undeveloped land to the north

and east of the town.

It should be noted that in-combination effects only require consideration where the

plan being assessed has an impact. A conclusion of ‘No Impact’ negates the

possibility of in-combination effects.

2.6 Mitigation Measures

In preparing this HRA Screening Report, consideration has been given to potential

avoidance and mitigation measures which would serve to avoid adverse effects on

the integrity of European Sites, for example the provision of specific clauses within

the policies that may prevent effects occurring.

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3 The Deposit LDP

3.1 Introduction

The Snowdonia LDP establishes policies to guide and direct the use of land within

the National Park in the period to 2022. It sets out the SNPA’s overall vision and

strategy for the National Park, creates land allocations for certain activities and

forms the basis for the determination of planning applications. Crucially for an area

of such significance for its landscapes and biodiversity, the LDP also contains

provisions to conserve and protect the natural and cultural environment.

3.2 Influences

Development of the LDP has been influenced by the statutory purposes of the

National Park:

• To conserve and enhance the natural beauty, wildlife and cultural heritage of

the area

• To promote opportunities for the understanding and enjoyment of the

Special Qualities of the area by the public.

In addition to the above purposes, the Authority has a duty in taking forward these

purposes to:

• Seek to foster the economic and social well-being of local communities

within the National Park.

‘Special Qualities’ are explicitly defined in the LDP and consist of a range of

attributes for which the National Park is particularly valued, including biodiversity.

The Deposit Version LDP must also reflect national and regional planning policy,

including an allocation of new housing units to be delivered by the planning

authority. It has been prepared through consideration of a wealth of information

and evidence, including strategic guidance from WAG and partners, such as

constituent authorities, statutory agencies and organisations funded by WAG. Its

development has also sought to draw out community and key stakeholder

perceptions of the most important issues that the Authority and its partners must

address.

3.3 The LDP Policies

The HRA Screening Report focuses upon the Strategic Policies and Development

Policies presented in the LDP. The Strategic Policies provide an overarching

approach for development, whilst the Development Policies help to deliver the

Strategic Policies by providing further detailed guidance against which individual

planning applciations will be assessed. The policies in the LDP are grouped into

the following sections:

• The Development Strategy

• Protecting, Enhancing and Managing the Natural Environment

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• Protecting and Enhancing the Cultural and Historic Environment

• Promoting Healthy and Sustainable Communities

• Supporting the Rural Economy

• Promoting Accessibility and Inclusion

It is important to note that the policies in the LDP constitute an overall approach to

future development in the National Park and that the LDP should be read as a

whole.

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4 The European Sites

Twenty-two European sites have been considered in this assessment, 21 located

either wholly or partially within the National Park, a further one lying just beyond the

National Park boundary. The 22 sites comprise:

• 15 Special Areas of Conservation, designated under the EU Habitats

Directive (92/43/EEC);

• 4 Special Protection Areas, designated under the EU Birds Directive

(79/409/EEC);

• 3 Ramsar Sites, designated under the Convention on Wetlands, signed in

Ramsar, Iran in 1971.

A number of these sites overlie one another, such as where a large SAC contains a

small lake designated as a Ramsar site, or when the same area is designated

under both the Habitats and Birds Directives.

A list of the sites together with their status and location is presented in Table 4-1.

The boundaries of the sites are located on Figure 1.

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Table 4-1

European Sites Located in and Around the National Park

Name of Sites

Status

Location

SAC SPA Ramsar Within Snowdonia

National Park

Outside Snowdonia

National Park

Aber Dyfi / Dyfi Estuary

Afon Dyfrdwy a Llyn

Tegid / River Dee and

Llyn Tegid

Afon Eden, Cors Goch –

Trawsfynydd



Afon Gwyrfai and Llyn

Cwellyn / River Gwyrfai

and Llyn Cwellyn


Berwyn

Berwyn a Mynyddoedd

de Clwyd / Berwyn and

South Clwyd Mountains


Cadair Idris

Coedydd Aber

Coedydd Derw a

Safleodd Ystlumod

Meirion / Meirionnydd

Oakwoods and Bat Sites


Cors Fochno & Dyfi

Corsydd Eifionydd

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Name of Sites

Status

Location

SAC SPA Ramsar Within Snowdonia

National Park

Outside Snowdonia

National Park

Craig yr Aderyn / Bird’s

Rock


Eryri / Snowdonia

Glynllifon

Llyn Idwal

Llyn Tegid

Migneint-Arenig-Dduallt

Migneint-Arenig-Dduallt

Morfa Harlech a Morfa

Dyffryn

Mwyngloddiau Fforest

Gwydir / Gwydyr Forest

Mines



Pen Llyn a’r Sarnau /

Lleyn Peninsula and the

Sarnau


Rhinog

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5 Habitats Regulations Assessment of the

Deposit Version LDP

5.1 Introduction

The LDP Screening Report produced in February 2008 concluded that Appropriate

Assessment was not required for the Preferred Options. However, it was

considered necessary to re-screen the LDP once the Deposit Version had been

prepared. This section presents the results of this screening exercise.

5.2 European Sites and the Settlement Hierarchy

A key element of the LDP is the establishment of a settlement hierarchy within the

National Park to ensure that development is directed towards the most appropriate

locations. In specific terms, this is reflected in a particular settlement’s allocation

for new housing being proportionate to its level on the hierarchy.

As part of the HRA Screening process it has been essential to understand where

settlements are situated in relation to European Sites. Appendix C of this report

presents the hierarchy and details of the European Sites that are in close proximity

to them.

5.3 Assessment Matrices

The matrices that follow present the results of the assessment of each European

Site. Information about the vulnerability of each site has been extracted from the

Natura 2000 Standard Data Forms available from the JNCC website.

When identifying the elements of the LDP that could potentially affect European

Sites it was important to focus upon those policies that would have the greatest

likelihood of impacting the sites and, therefore the definition of significance

identified in Section 2.4 was very important. The LDP is intended to be read as a

single document rather than a series of separate policies, and has been assessed

as such. Policies in one area of the LDP may mitigate potentially damaging

activities promoted in another area and should be understood in the wider context

of the LDP’s aims and purposes. Both direct effects (e.g. land take) and indirect

effects (e.g. disturbance) have been considered.

All policies within the Deposit Version LDP have been considered as being of

potential relevance to European Sites.

In-combination effects with other plans and programmes are also referred to in the

matrices

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Site Names Aber Dyfi / Dyfi Estuary Type of Site SPA Size of Site 2048.11ha

Site Description

Annex I Birds and regularly occurring

Migratory Birds not listed on Annex I:

Quality and Importance

The wide estuary of the Afon Dyfi supports tidal rivers, estuaries, mud flats, sand flats and lagoons.

Over winter the area regularly supports: Greenland White-Fronted Goose (Anser albifrons flavirostris): 1% of the Great Britain (GB) population (5 year peak mean for 1993/94 – 1997/98) [Status:

Unfavourable – declining as the flock has reduced in size in recent years for reasons unknown]

Conservation Objectives To achieve the Favourable Conservation Status of the above Species. Full details are given in Appendix D.

Vulnerability

Disturbance by leisure activities including wildfowling, and also low-flying aircraft, may be significant to feeding and roosting geese. Appropriate grazing of the saltmarsh and grassland is important

to maintain feeding areas. There is an increasing resident flock of Canada Geese on the estuary of approximately 2,000 birds. The interactions between this species and the Greenland White-

Fronted Geese, and the impact on the habitat, are unknown.

Element of the LDP

Development and Land-Use Changes and

Potential Effects

Avoidance and Mitigation

Likely Significant Effects (In View of

Avoidance and Mitigation)

In-Combination Effects (including relevant

avoidance and mitigation measures)

The Development Strategy

Located on the north bank of the estuary,

Aberdyfi is classified as a Service Settlement

capable of absorbing developments that serve

a wider area, including small scale affordable

housing, retail and employment sites.

110 houses are proposed across five Service

Settlements throughout the plan period. The

exact number of houses proposed for Aberdyfi

is not stipulated.

Only a small part of the European site lies

within the LDP jurisdiction – the north bank of

the Dyfi and part of the channel itself.

No land use changes are proposed higher up

the Dyfi Valley.

No direct land-take within the SPA is proposed.

Housing and population growth has potential to

result in indirect disturbance of SPA qualifying

bird interests through noise and light pollution

and increased recreational pressure at the

foreshore. However, the low levels of growth

proposed are not considered to have a

significant potential effect.

New developments must comply with Strategic

Policy A: National Park Purposes and

Sustainable Development and Development

Policy 1: General Development Principles

which seek to protect European designated

sites as a priority. General Development

Policy 1 also states that development will only

be permitted where: it will not have an

unacceptable impact through discharges or

emissions to air, soil, surface and ground

water; and, it does not cause significant harm

to the environment by way of noise, dust,

vibration, odour, light pollution, hazardous

matrials or waste production.

Strategic Policy D: Natural Environment

makes very strong provision for the protection

of European Sites when bringing new sites

forward referencing the responsibilities under

the Habitats Regulations.

Strategic Policy Ng: Housing restricts all new

build housing and conversion to within the

housing development boundary unless there is

a need for a local conversion in the open

countryside

Development Policy 19: New Employment and

Training Development restricts new

employment development to within or adjacent

to the main built up area, in existing buildings,

expansion of existing buildings or new

buildings only where there is no other suitable

accommodation in the locality.

Development Policy 23: Retail restricts new

retail development to within the main built up

areas and the scale should be appropriate to

its setting.

No effects on the SPA predicted.

The Afon Dyfi drains an area partly outside the

National Park which is subject to the planning

policies of Gwynedd Council and Ceredigion

Council.

No effects predicted as a result of the LDP and

hence no in-combination effects are likely.

Furthermore:

Policy B14 of the Gwynedd UDP provides

strong protection for internationally designated

nature conservation sites. Proposals likely to

have a significantly adverse impact, either in

isolation or in combination with other plans, will

be refused unless there is no alternative, an

overriding public interest and a threat to public

health and safety. The UDP then requires

compensatory measures and enhancement of

remaining features.

The southern part of the estuary is subject to

Policy ENV1.2 of the Ceredigion UDP which

affords protection to international conservation

sites similar to that outlined above.

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Element of the LDP

Development and Land-Use Changes and

Potential Effects

Avoidance and Mitigation

Likely Significant Effects (In View of

Avoidance and Mitigation)

In-Combination Effects (including relevant

avoidance and mitigation measures)

Protecting, Enhancing & Managing the

Natural Environment

The policies within this group, and the

objectives behind their creation, support the

integrity of European Sites and the objectives

of nature conservation.

Strategic Policy D: Natural Environment states

that biodiversity resources will be protected

from inappropriate development. There is a

specific clause addressing the Habitats

Regulations and the need for all future

developments to meet their requirements.

Positive impacts upon the European site as a

result of measures to support nature

conservation within the planning process.

Positive impacts would be reinforced by the

management of the site being undertaken

jointly by the Royal Society for the Protection of

Birds (RSPB) and CCW.

Protecting & Enhancing the Cultural &

Historic Environment

No relevant policies. No additional mitigation required. No effects on the SPA predicted. No significant in-combination effects have been

identified from a review of relevant plans and

projects.

Promoting Healthy & Sustainable

Communities

Strategic Policy Ng: Housing restricts all new

build housing and conversion to within the

housing development boundary.

The consequences of this policy for this

European Site are discussed under, ‘The

Development Strategy’ above.

Development Policy 11: Affordable Housing on

Exception Sites allows affordable housing on

exception sites outside but immediately

adjoining the housing development boundary.

These would be small-scale exception sites

although they may be close to or adjoining

European Sites and could therefore result in

adverse effects.

Development Policy 11 also states that there

should be no adverse effects upon the integrity

of European Sites as a result of affordable

housing on exception sites.

No effects on the SPA predicted.

No effects predicted as a result of the LDP and

hence no in-combination effects are likely.

Supporting a Sustainable Rural

Economy

Development Policy 19: New Employment and

Training Development restricts new

employment development to within or adjacent

to the main built up area, in existing buildings,

expansion of existing buildings or new

buildings only where there is no other suitable

accommodation in the locality.

Development Policy 23: Retail restricts new

retail development to within the main built up

areas and the scale should be appropriate to

its setting.

The consequences of this policy for this

European Site are discussed under, ‘The

Development Strategy’ above.

Tourism in the National Park is generally

promoted under Strategic Policy L: Tourism

and Recreation. Such activites could result in

disturbance effects upon qualifying bird

interests.

The focus for tourism is on promoting the

understanding and enjoyment of the Special

Qualities of the National Park. Developments

causing disturbance or generating noise or

light pollution will not be permitted.

Leisure and recreation activities causing an

adverse impact upon the qualifying interest will

not be permitted under Strategic Policy L:

Tourism and Recreation, part ii.

No effects on the SPA predicted.

No effects predicted as a result of the LDP and

hence no in-combination effects are likely.

Leisure impacts are monitored by on-site

wardens as part of the RSPB/CCW

management arrangements.

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Element of the LDP

Development and Land-Use Changes and

Potential Effects

Avoidance and Mitigation

Likely Significant Effects (In View of

Avoidance and Mitigation)

In-Combination Effects (including relevant

avoidance and mitigation measures)

Promoting Accessibility & Inclusion

The LDP does not stipulate specifc transport

development proposals and therefore is not

specific to effects upon individual European

sites.

Strategic Policy LI: Accessibility and Transport

states that development will be supported

where changes to the road network do not

damage or cause adverse effects to

environmental designations.

Strategic Policy D: Natural Environment makes

very strong provision for the protection of

European Sites when bringing new sites

forward referencing the responsibilities under

the Habitats Regulations.

No effects on the SPA predicted.

No effects predicted as a result of the LDP and

hence no in-combination effects are likely.

Appropriate Assessment Requirements

Appropriate Assessment not required

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Site Names Afon Dyfrdwy a Llyn Tegid / River Dee and Llyn Tegid Type of Site SAC Size of Site 1308.93ha

Site Description

Annex I Habitats that are the primary

reason for site selection

Annex II Species that are a primary

reason for site selection

Annex II Species present as a qualifying

interest but not a primary reason for site

selection

Located in the eastern corner of Snowdonia, both the lake and River Dee contain important habitats with estuaries, mud flats, sand flats and lagoons.

Water courses of plain to montane levels with the Ranunculion fluitantis and Callitricho-Batrachion vegetation [Status: Unfavourable – unclassified based upon an absence of Myriophyllum

spicatum and scarcity of some species. Further research needed]

Atlantic salmon Salmo salar [Status: Unfavourable due to poor water quality and environmental disturbance]

Floating water-plantain Luronium natans [Status: Favourable – unclassified]

Sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) [Status: Unfavourable – unclassified due to low numbers]

River lamprey (Lampetra fluviatilis) [Status: Unfavourable – unclassified but numbers unknown]

Otter (Lutra lutra) [Favourable – unclassified but further research required]

Brook lamprey (Lampetra planeri) [Status: Unfavourable – unclassified but numbers unknown]

Bullhead (Cottus gobio) [Status: Unfavourable – unclassified due to low numbers]

Conservation Objectives To achieve the Favourable Conservation Status of the above Habitat and Species. Full details are given in Appendix D.

Vulnerability

The site and its features are threatened by practices which have an adverse effect on the quality, quantity and pattern of water flows. In particular the following may threaten riverine ecosystems:

inappropriate flow regulation; excessive abstraction (for industry, agriculture and domestic purposes); threats to water quality from direct and diffuse pollution; eutrophication and siltation.

Degradation of riparian habitats due to engineering works, agricultural practices and invasive plant species may also have an adverse effect. The Atlantic salmon population is threatened by

excessive exploitation by high sea, estuarine and recreational fisheries. Introduction of non-indigenous species could also threaten both fish and plant species.

Element of the LDP

Development and Land-Use Changes and

Potential Effects

Avoidance and Mitigation

Likely Significant Effects (In View of

Avoidance and Mitigation)

In-Combination Effects (including relevant

avoidance and mitigation measures)

The Development Strategy

Strategic Policy C: Spatial Strategy designates

Y Bala as one of two Local Service Centres in

the National Park where most housing and

employment development will occur.

225 houses are proposed to be spread

between Y Bala and Dolgellau throughout the

plan period. The exact number of houses

proposed for Y Bala is not stipulated. There are

two housing allocations in Y Bala. However,

both sites are small and neither is situated in

close proximity to the European Site. One site

lies within the housing development boundary,

and the other lies immediately adjacent to it.

Employment sites would be supported on land

allocated in the proposals map. The site

identified already contains significant

employment development. The site lies within

100m of the European Site.

Retail would be allowed close to the existing

commercial areas.

No direct land-take within the SAC is proposed.

In the absence of mitigation, effects from

housing, employment and retail development

of this scale is likely to be limited to an

increase in surface water run-off which may

The two housing allocations in Y Bala are very

small and neither is situated in close proximity

to the SAC. One site lies within the existing

development boundary, and the other lies

immediately adjacent to it.

New developments must comply with Strategic

Policy A: National Park Purposes and

Sustainable Development and Development

Policy 1: General Development Principles

which seek to protect European designated

sites as a priority. General Development Policy

1 also states that development will only be

permitted where: it will not have an

unacceptable impact through discharges or

emissions to air, soil, surface and ground

water; and, it does not cause significant harm

to the environment by way of noise, dust,

vibration, odour, light pollution, hazardous

matrials or waste production. As such, it is

considered that if polluted run-off or discharges

are predicted to occur, then appropriate

mitigation measures would need to be provided

as part of the design in order to comply with

this LDP policy.

Strategic Policy D: Natural Environment makes

No effects on the SAC predicted.

Indirect impacts resulting from increased runoff

or polluted discharges would be mitigated to

negligible levels by the range of policy

measures proposed.

The scale of proposed development within Y

Bala alone is such that the impacts of

increased water abstraction would be small.

Furthermore, abstractions are not taken from

Bala to serve the local population. The Water

Resources Management Plan identifies that

increased demand in the Bala Zone as a result

of new development could be met through a

programme of leakage detection. Abstraction

levels would therefore not need to increase

from the SAC.

No effects predicted as a result of the LDP and

hence no in-combination effects are likely with

respect to effects upon water quality or flow.

With respect to water quantity, the SAC is

subject to significant abstraction pressure from

a number of sources, notably further

downstream including in the Chester and

Flintshire area.

Dwr Cymru review water resource

requirements on a zonal basis which takes into

account a wide range of future demand

scenarios based upon known levels of

development and growth which would put

pressure on that zone. This includes

abstraction requirements from the SAC.

The River Dee component of the SAC also

flows within the Alwen/Dee zone. Both this and

the Bala Zone are predicted to fall into deficit

with the amount of increased demand forecast

over the plan period. However, these deficits

will be eliminated through a process of leakage

detection. Furthermore, Dwr Cymru is obliged

to apply for abstraction licenses from the

Environment Agency who review these

consents with respect to impacts upon the

2 Dwr Cymru ( March 2008) Draft Water Reosurces Management Plan

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Element of the LDP

Development and Land-Use Changes and

Potential Effects

contain polluants (such as road run-off or

construction materials) which could find their

way into the SAC. This is only likely to be of

concern for the employment site where some

of the site is greenfield land and is located

nearest to the boundary of the SAC.

Water is currently abstracted from Llyn Arenig

Fawr to serve Y Bala. It is anticipated that

future houses constructed in the settlement

would also be served by this source and it is

not expcted that a direct water abstraction from

the River Dee and Llyn Tegid SAC would be

required. The Water Resources Management

Plan 2 assesses the level of demand and

available supply from this resource based upon

a wide range of demand assumptions including

future growth predictions. The level of

development proposed in Y Bala alone is

unlikely to have a significant adverse effect

upon water quantity in the SAC although

effects may be possible in-combination with

other developments.

Avoidance and Mitigation

Likely Significant Effects (In View of

Avoidance and Mitigation)

In-Combination Effects (including relevant

avoidance and mitigation measures)

integrity of European Sites. If the Environment

Agency does not renew the consent, Dwr

Cymru would be required to obtain the water

supply from other areas. As such, the

development proposed in the LDP cannot

result an adverse effect upon the SAC either

alone or in combination with other abstractions

elsewhere.

very strong provision for the protection of

European Sites when bringing new sites

forward referencing the responsibilities under

the Habitats Regulations.

Development Policy 23: Retail restricts new

retail development to within the main built up

areas and the scale should be appropriate to

its setting.

Dwr Cymru’s Draft Water Resources Plan

identifies the Bala Zone as falling into water

resource deficit in 2010/11 reaching a

maximum deficit of 0.19 Ml/d in 2019/20. This

is as a combined result of lower deployable

output and an increase in demand forecast. To

resolve the deficit, the Water Resources Plan

proposes a programme of leakage detection

and improvement which would resolve this

deficit.

Furthermore, Dwr Cymru is obliged to apply for

abstraction licenses from the Environment

Agency who review these consents with

respect to impacts upon the integrity of

European Sites. If the Environment Agency

does not renew the consent, Dwr Cymru would

be required to obtain the water supply from

other areas. As such, the development

proposed in the LDP cannot result in an

adverse effect upon the SAC either alone or in

combination with other abstractions elsewhere.

Protecting, Enhancing & Managing the

Natural Environment

The policies within this group, and the

objectives behind their creation, support the

integrity of European Sites and the objectives

of nature conservation.

Strategic Policy D: Natural Environment states

that biodiversity resources will be protected

from inappropriate development. There is a

specific clause addressing the Habitats

Regulations and the need for all future

developments to meet their requirements.

Positive impacts upon the European site as a

result of measures to support nature

conservation within the planning process.

Positive impacts would be reinforced by the

ongoing management of the River Dee being

led by the Environment Agency with

contributions from other statutory and nonstatutory

organisations.

Protecting & Enhancing the Cultural &

Historic Environment

No relevant policies. No mitigation required. No effects on the SAC predicted. No effects predicted as a result of the LDP and

hence no in-combination effects are likely.

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Element of the LDP

Development and Land-Use Changes and

Potential Effects

Avoidance and Mitigation

Likely Significant Effects (In View of

Avoidance and Mitigation)

In-Combination Effects (including relevant

avoidance and mitigation measures)

Promoting Healthy & Sustainable

Communities

Strategic Policy Ng: Housing promotes the

development of new open market and

affordable housing in Y Bala. The

consequences of this policy for this European

Site are discussed under, ‘The Development

Strategy’ above.

Development Policy 11: Affordable Housing on

Exception Sites allows affordable housing on

exception sites outside but immediately

adjoining the housing development boundary.

These would be small-scale exception sites

although they may be close to or adjoining

European Sites and could therefore result in

adverse effects.

Development Policy 11: Affordable Housing on

Exception Sites also states that there should

be no adverse effects upon the integrity of

European Sites as a result of affordable

housing on exception sites.

The lakeshore remains protected from

development under the plan.

No effects on the SAC predicted.

No effects predicted as a result of the LDP and

hence no in-combination effects are likely.

Supporting a Sustainable Rural

Economy

The Y Bala employment site is identified under

The Development Strategy above.

Development Policy 19: New Employment and

Training Development restricts new

employment development to within or adjacent

to the main built up area, in existing buildings,

expansion of existing buildings or new

buildings only where there is no other suitable

accommodation in the locality.

Development Policy 23: Retail restricts new

retail development to within the main built up

areas and the scale should be appropriate to

its setting.

The consequences of this policy for this

European Site are discussed under, ‘The

Development Strategy’ above.

Tourism in the National Park is generally

promoted under Strategic Policy L: Tourism

and Recreation. Such activites could result in

water pollution effects upon SAC qualifying

interests.

The focus for tourism is on promoting the

understanding and enjoyment of the Special

Qualities of the National Park. Developments

casuing disturbance or generating noise or

light pollution will not be permitted.

New developments must comply with Strategic

Policy A: National Park Purposes and

Sustainable Development and Development

Policy 1: General Development Principles

which seek to protect European designated

sites as a priority. General Development Policy

1 also states that development will only be

permitted where: it will not have an

unacceptable impact through discharges or

emissions to air, soil, surface and ground

water; and, it does not cause significant harm

to the environment by way of noise, dust,

vibration, odour, light pollution, hazardous

matrials or waste production.

Leisure and recreation activities causing an

adverse impact upon the qualifying interest will

not be permitted under Strategic Policy L:

Tourism and Recreation, part ii.

No effects on the SAC predicted.

No effects predicted as a result of the LDP and

hence no in-combination effects are likely.

Promoting Accessibility & Inclusion

The LDP does not stipulate specific transport

development proposals and therefore is not

specific to effects upon individual European

sites.

Strategic Policy LI: Accessibility and Transport

states that development will be supported

where changes to the road network do not

damage or cause adverse effects to

environmental designations.

Strategic Policy D: Natural Environment

makes very strong provision for the protection

of European Sites when bringing new sites

forward referencing the responsibilities under

the Habitats Regulations.

No effects on the SAC predicted.

No effects predicted as a result of the LDP and

hence no in-combination effects are likely.

Appropriate Assessment Requirements

Appropriate Assessment not required

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Site Name Afon Eden, Cors Goch Trawsfynydd Type of Site SAC Size of Site 248.29ha

Site Description

Annex I Habitats present as a qualifying

interest but not a primary reason for site

selection

Annex II Species that are a primary

reason for site selection

Annex II Species present as a qualifying

interest but not a primary reason for site

selection

A tributary of the Afon Mawddach, the Afon Eden drains a little-modified catchment, containing meadow pools and naturally slow-moving waters north of Dolgellau.

Active raised bogs (Priority feature) [Status: Unfavourable due to low Sphagnum cover, high cover of bare peat and the presence of a large artificial drain on the northern dome]

Freshwater pearl mussel (Margaritifera margaritifera) [Status: Unfavourable due to a declining population now close to functional extinction]

Floating water-plantain (Luronium natans) [Status: Favourable]

Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar) [Status: Unfavourable as the river is artificially stocked with EA releases]

Otter (Lutra lutra) [Status: Unfavourable due to limited distribution of individuals]

Conservation Objectives To achieve the Favourable Conservation Status of the above Habitat and Species. Full details are given in Appendix D.

Vulnerability

The pearl mussel and salmonids are particularly vulnerable to water pollution e.g. sheep-dip, nitrate input, sediment input, and inappropriate river management. Any inputs to the river which affect

water chemistry need to be controlled, and river management must take account of the needs of the features. The mire features require appropriate grazing and control/cessation of burning,

currently being addressed through agri-environment scheme agreements (Tir Cymen/Tir Gofal). The high rainfall and acidic geology/pedology renders this area vulnerable to acidification.

Element of the LDP

Development and Land-Use Changes and

Potential Effects

Avoidance and Mitigation

Likely Significant Effects (In View of

Avoidance and Mitigation)

In-Combination Effects (including relevant

avoidance and mitigation measures)

The Development Strategy

Located approximately 450m from the SAC,

Trawsfynydd is classified as a Service

Settlement capable of absorbing developments

that serve a wider area, including small scale

affordable housing, retail and employment

sites.

110 houses are proposed across five Service

Settlements throughout the plan period. The

exact number of houses proposed for

Trawsfynydd is not stipulated.

Ganllywd (immediately adjacent to the SAC)

and Llanelltyd (less than 100m from the SAC)

are identified as Secondary Settlements. 380

houses are proposed across 39 Secondary

Settlements throughout the plan period. The

exact number of houses in each settlement is

not stipulated.

Small scale employment is also proposed in

these settlements.

No direct land-take within the SAC is proposed.

In the absence of mitigation, housing and

employment land development have the

potential to result in polluted run-off entering

the SAC and causing harm to qualifying

interests. However, the low levels of growth

proposed are not considered to have a

significant potential effect.

New developments to comply with Strategic

Policy A: National Park Purposes and

Sustainable Development and Development

Policy 1: General Development Principles

which seek to protect European designated

sites as a priority. General Development Policy

1 also states that development will only be

permitted where: it will not have an

unacceptable impact through discharges or

emissions to air, soil, surface and ground

water; and, it does not cause significant harm

to the environment by way of noise, dust,

vibration, odour, light pollution, hazardous

materials or waste production.

Strategic Policy D: Natural Environment

makes very strong provision for the protection

of European Sites when bringing new sites

forward referencing the responsibilities under

the Habitats Regulations.

Strategic Policy Ng: Housing restricts all new

build housing and conversion to within the

housing development boundary.

Development Policy 19: New Employment and

Training Development restricts new

employment development to within or adjacent

to the main built up area, in existing buildings,

expansion of existing buildings or new

buildings only where there is no other suitable

accommodation in the locality.

Development Policy 23: Retail restricts new

retail development to within the main built up

areas and the scale should be appropriate to

No effects on the SAC predicted.

No effects predicted as a result of the LDP and

hence no in-combination effects are likely.

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Element of the LDP

Development and Land-Use Changes and

Potential Effects

Avoidance and Mitigation

Likely Significant Effects (In View of

Avoidance and Mitigation)

In-Combination Effects (including relevant

avoidance and mitigation measures)

its setting.

Protecting, Enhancing & Managing the

Natural Environment

The policies within this group, and the

objectives behind their creation, support the

integrity of European Sites and the objectives

of nature conservation.

Strategic Policy D: Natural Environment states

that biodiversity resources will be protected

from inappropriate development. There is a

specific clause addressing the Habitats

Regulations and the need for all future

developments to meet their requirements.

Positive impacts upon the European site as a

result of measures to support nature

conservation within the planning process.

Positive impacts on the salmon population

would be reinforced by actions arising from the

Environment Agency’s Salmon Action Plan for

the Mawddach catchment.

Protecting & Enhancing the Cultural &

Historic Environment

No relevant policies. No mitigation required. No effects on the SAC predicted. No effects predicted as a result of the LDP and

hence no in-combination effects are likely.

Promoting Healthy & Sustainable

Communities

Strategic Policy Ng: Housing restricts all new

build housing and conversion to within the

housing development boundary.

The consequences of this policy for this

European Site are discussed under, ‘The

Development Strategy’ above.

Development Policy 11: Affordable Housing on

Exception Sites allows affordable housing on

exception sites outside but immediately

adjoining the housing development boundary.

These would be small-scale exception sites

although they may be close to or adjoining

European Sites and could therefore result in

adverse effects.

Development Policy 11 also states that there

should be no adverse effects upon the integrity

of European Sites as a result of affordable

housing on exception sites.

No effects on the SAC predicted.

No effects predicted as a result of the LDP and

hence no in-combination effects are likely.

Supporting a Sustainable Rural

Economy

Development Policy 19: New Employment and

Training Development restricts new

employment development to within or adjacent

to the main built up area, in existing buildings,

expansion of existing buildings or new

buildings only where there is no other suitable

accommodation in the locality.

Development Policy 23: Retail restricts new

retail development to within the main built up

areas and the scale should be appropriate to

its setting.

The consequences of this policy for this

European Site are discussed under, ‘The

Development Strategy’ above.

Potential improvements to tourism facilities at

Coed y Brenin Forest would be supported by

Strategic Policy L: Tourism and Recreation.

These may include new buildings, extended

car parking, and new walking or cycling trails.

If located adjacent to the Afon Eden they could

pose a threat to the SAC through compaction,

bank erosion and disturbance to wildlife.

Additional runoff and the introduction of

pollutants from new less permeable surface

materials may also have an adverse impact.

Coed y Brenin is managed by the Forestry

Commission along sustainable tourism

principles.

The focus for tourism is on promoting the

understanding and enjoyment of the Special

Qualities of the National Park. Developments

causing disturbance or generating noise or

light pollution will not be permitted.

New developments must comply with Strategic

Policy A: National Park Purposes and

Sustainable Development and Development

Policy 1: General Development Principles

which seek to protect European designated

sites as a priority. General Development Policy

1 also states that development will only be

permitted where: it will not have an

unacceptable impact through discharges or

emissions to air, soil, surface and ground

water; and, it does not cause significant harm

to the environment by way of noise, dust,

vibration, odour, light pollution, hazardous

materials or waste production.

Developments at Coed y Brenin are the

responsibility of the Forestry Commission and

the LDP has a limited influence.

Leisure and recreation activities causing an

adverse impact upon the qualifying interest will

not be permitted under Strategic Policy L:

Tourism and Recreation, part ii.

No effects on the SAC predicted.

Conserving and enhancing biodiversity is an

objective of WAG’s Woodlands for Wales

Strategy. This document provides additional

support for protecting the integrity of

designated conservation sites in or adjacent to

forested areas.

No effects predicted as a result of the LDP and

hence no in-combination effects are likely.

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Element of the LDP

Development and Land-Use Changes and

Potential Effects

Avoidance and Mitigation

Likely Significant Effects (In View of

Avoidance and Mitigation)

In-Combination Effects (including relevant

avoidance and mitigation measures)

Promoting Accessibility & Inclusion

The LDP does not stipulate specific transport

development proposals and therefore is not

specific to effects upon individual European

sites.

Strategic Policy LI: Accessibility and Transport

states that development will be supported

where changes to the road network do not

damage or cause adverse effects to

environmental designations.

Strategic Policy D: Natural Environment

makes very strong provision for the protection

of European Sites when bringing new sites

forward referencing the responsibilities under

the Habitats Regulations.

No effects on the SAC predicted.

No effects predicted as a result of the LDP and

hence no in-combination effects are likely.

Appropriate Assessment Requirements

Appropriate Assessment not required.

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Site Name Afon Gwyrfai a Llyn Cwellyn / River Gwyrfai and Llyn Cwellyn Type of Site SAC Size of Site 114.29ha

Site Description

Annex I Habitats that are the primary

reason for site selection

Annex II Species that are a primary

reason for site selection

Annex II Species present as a qualifying

interest but not a primary reason for site

selection

Glacial in origin, Llyn Cwellyn is a fine example of a Littorella-Lobelia-Isoetes oligotrophic lake. It is broadly representative of other oligotrophic lakes found across Snowdonia, though is relatively

large, and deep. Its outfall, the Afon Gwyrfai, meets the Menai Strait west of Caernarfon and provides notable river corridor habitat.

Oligotrophic to mesotrophic standing waters with vegetation of the Littorelletea uniflorae and/or the Isoeto-Nanojuncetea [Status: Unfavourable – recovering as a result of long term acidification,

though this may be reversing]

Water courses of plain to montane levels with the Ranunculion fluitantis and Callitricho-Batrachion vegetation [Status: Favourable]

Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) [Status: Unfavourable – unclassified as a result of precautionary assessments]

Floating water-plantain (Luronium natans) [Status: Favourable conditional upon deeper water survey of Llyn Cwellyn]

Otter (Lutra lutra) [Status: Unfavourable due to low numbers and poor distribution of actual and potential breeding sites]

Conservation Objectives To achieve the Favourable Conservation Status of the above Habitats and Species. Full details are given in Appendix D.

Vulnerability

The lake is utilised as a raw drinking water reservoir. The present abstraction regime is compatible with its nature conservation status. Recent investigations have revealed that Llyn Cwellyn has

acidified by 0.7 pH units since the late 1800s, due to increases in emissions of oxides of sulphur and nitrogen and subsequent acidic depositions in the form of 'acid rain'. The management of the

extensive block of coniferous plantation on the shores of Llyn Cwellyn is an important factor in safeguarding the conservation value of the lake. A management plan has been agreed upon between

CCW and Forest Enterprise. Negotiations are in progress to redesign the plantation to remove trees from around tributary streams, and hence reduce any further risk of acidification. The Afon

Gwyrfai is likely to be most vulnerable to cumulative impacts of small-scale changes along its length which may affect water quality and habitat structure.

Element of the LDP

Development and Land-Use Changes and

Potential Effects

Avoidance and Mitigation

Likely Significant Effects (In View of

Avoidance and Mitigation)

In-Combination Effects (including relevant

avoidance and mitigation measures)

The Development Strategy

Two small settlements immediately adjacent to

the SAC, Rhyd Ddu and Betws Garmon, are

both identified as Smaller Settlements and

would experience very little change as a result

of the LPD. 54 houses are proposed across 27

Smaller Settlements throughout the plan

period. The exact number of houses proposed

for each settlement is not stipulated.

Strategic Policy C: Spatial Strategy also allows

improvements to and new community facilities

to be provided to serve local residents only.

The very small scale of development in these

settlements is very unlikely to result in any form

of adverse impact upon the SAC.

New developments to comply with Strategic

Policy A: National Park Purposes and

Sustainable Development and Development

Policy 1: General Development Principles

which seek to protect European designated

sites as a priority. General Development Policy

1 also states that development will only be

permitted where: it will not have an

unacceptable impact through discharges or

emissions to air, soil, surface and ground

water; and, it does not cause significant harm

to the environment by way of noise, dust,

vibration, odour, light pollution, hazardous

materials or waste production.

Strategic Policy D: Natural Environment

makes very strong provision for the protection

of European Sites when bringing new sites

forward referencing the responsibilities under

the Habitats Regulations.

Strategic Policy Ng: Housing restricts all new

build housing and conversion to within the

housing development boundary.

Development Policy 19: New Employment and

Training Development restricts new

employment development to within or adjacent

to the main built up area, in existing buildings,

expansion of existing buildings or new

buildings only where there is no other suitable

accommodation in the locality.

No effects on the SAC predicted.

No effects predicted as a result of the LDP and

hence no in-combination effects are likely.

Furthermore:

Housing policies within the Gwynedd UDP

support additional dwellings in the countryside

and on exceptions sites bordering rural

villages, subject to Policy B14: Protection of

International Nature Conservation Sites. In

practice, this caveat would exclude any

potentially harmful development in the lower

reaches of the Afon Gwyrfai.

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Element of the LDP

Development and Land-Use Changes and

Potential Effects

Avoidance and Mitigation

Likely Significant Effects (In View of

Avoidance and Mitigation)

In-Combination Effects (including relevant

avoidance and mitigation measures)

Development Policy 23: Retail restricts new

retail development to within the main built up

areas and the scale should be appropriate to

its setting.

Protecting, Enhancing & Managing the

Natural Environment

The policies within this group, and the

objectives behind their creation, support the

integrity of European Sites and the objectives

of nature conservation.

Strategic Policy D: Natural Environment states

that biodiversity resources will be protected

from inappropriate development. There is a

specific clause addressing the Habitats

Regulations and the need for all future

developments to meet their requirements.

Positive impacts upon the European site as a

result of measures to support nature

conservation within the planning process.

Positive impacts on water quality would be

reinforced by actions arising from the joint

CCW/Forestry Commission management plan

for Beddgelert Forest.

Protecting & Enhancing the Cultural &

Historic Environment

No relevant policies. No mitigation required. No effects on the SAC predicted. No effects predicted as a result of the LDP and

hence no in-combination effects are likely.

Promoting Healthy & Sustainable

Communities

Development Policy Ng: Housing restricts all

new build housing and conversion to within the

housing development boundary.

The consequences of this policy for this

European Site are discussed under, ‘The

Development Strategy’ above.

Development Policy 11: Affordable Housing on

Exception Sites allows affordable housing on

exception sites outside but immediately

adjoining the housing development boundary.

These would be small-scale exception sites

although they may be close to or adjoining

European Sites and could therefore result in

adverse effects.

Development Policy 11: Affordable Housing on

Exception Sites also states that there should

be no adverse effects upon the integrity of

European Sites as a result of affordable

housing on exception sites.

No effects on the SAC predicted.

No effects predicted as a result of the LDP and

hence no in-combination effects are likely.

Furthermore:

Housing policies within the Gwynedd UDP

support additional dwellings in the countryside

and on exceptions sites bordering rural

villages, subject to Policy B14: Protection of

International Nature Conservation Sites. In

practice, this caveat would exclude any

potentially harmful development in the lower

reaches of the Afon Gwyrfai.

Supporting a Sustainable Rural

Economy

Development Policy 20: Agricultural

Diversification promotes non-farming uses of

agricultural land. Land use changes in the

catchment of the Afon Gwyrfai pose a threat to

the qualifying interests through changes to

water chemistry as a result of runoff and

discharges.

The policy requires any diversification

proposals to support National Park purposes.

When a conflict exists between the purposes,

the Sandford 3 Principle applies that prioritises

the conservation purpose.

Adverse impacts on the integrity of the SAC, as

a result of this policy will be highly unlikely.

The area of agricultural land in the upper parts

of the Gwyrfai catchment is small, and the

limited diversification possible under the policy

would cause imperceptible impacts to the

integrity of the SAC.

The river will be sensitive to agricultural

practices and land use changes lower down

the Gwyrfai valley and to operations by the

Forestry Commission in Beddgelert Forest.

These are tightly controlled by Policy B14 of

the Gwynedd UDP and the measures within

the CCW/Forestry Commission management

plan for the forest.

No in-combination effects predicted.

Promoting Accessibility & Inclusion

The LDP does not stipulate specific transport

development proposals and therefore is not

specific to effects upon individual European

sites.

Strategic Policy LI: Accessibility and Transport

states that development will be supported

where changes to the road network do not

damage or cause adverse effects to

environmental designations.

Strategic Policy D: Natural Environment

makes very strong provision for the protection

of European Sites when bringing new sites

forward referencing the responsibilities under

the Habitats Regulations.

No effects on the SAC predicted.

No effects predicted as a result of the LDP and

hence no in-combination effects are likely.

3 Section 62 of the Environment Act 1995 makes clear that if National Park purposes are in conflict then conservation must have priority. This is known as the ‘Sandford Principle’ and stems from the Sandford Committee’s recommendation, in 1974

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Appropriate Assessment Requirements

Appropriate Assessment not required.

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Site Names Berwyn Type of Site SPA Size of Site 24187.53ha

Site Description

Annex I Birds and regularly occurring

Migratory Birds not listed on Annex I:

Quality and Importance

Berwyn is located on the eastern side of Snowdonia. Its upland character contains the largest stands of upland European dry heath and tract of near-natural blanket bog in Wales. The site consists

mainly of bogs, marshes, fens, heath, scrub, phygrana and dry grassland.

During the breeding season the area regularly supports:

Hen Harrier (Circus cyaneus): 2.2% of the Great Britain (GB) breeding population (5 year mean, 1991-1995) [Status: Unfavourable as a result of nest predation, poor weather or unavailability of

food (circumstantial evidence) or nest abandonment due to unidentified reasons]

Merlin (Falco columbarius: 1.1% of the GB breeding population (5 year mean, 1991-1995) [Status: Unfavourable as a result of nest predation, poor weather or unavailability of food (circumstantial

evidence) or unidentified reasons such as nest abandonment due to possible disturbance]

Peregrine Falcon (Falco peregrinus): 1.5% of the GB breeding population (5 year mean, 1991-1995) [Status: Unfavourable as a result of nest predation, poor weather or unavailability of food

(circumstantial evidence) or unidentified reasons such as nest abandonment and in occasional cases nests theft]

Red Kite (Milvus milvus): 1.2% of the GB breeding population (5 year mean, 1991-1995) [Status: Unknown]

Conservation Objectives To achieve the Favourable Conservation Status of the above Species. Full details are given in Appendix D.

Vulnerability

The breeding habitats of the hen harrier, merlin, red kite and peregrine are threatened by inappropriate agricultural operations such as drainage and reseeding, application of fertilisers and the

adoption of damaging grazing regimes. These problems are being addressed successfully by means of management agreements with owners and occupiers and through joint agreement via the Tir

Cymen Scheme. The breeding productivity of the ground nesting hen harriers and merlins is vulnerable to high levels of predation by species such as fox and carrion crow. Landowners are

encouraged to use appropriate measures to control pest species. All the qualifying species are vulnerable to human persecution, by disturbance or destruction of nests, eggs or young; as well as

illegal killing of adult birds. Liaison with owners, the police and the RSPB, as well as improving public understanding is attempting to address this problem.

Element of the LDP

Development and Land-Use Changes and

Potential Effects

Avoidance and Mitigation

Likely Significant Effects (In View of

Avoidance and Mitigation)

In-Combination Effects (including relevant

avoidance and mitigation measures)

The Development Strategy

The Plan directs development to existing

settlements. The small area of the SPA within

the National Park is high, remote and forested

with no settlements and, therefore there will be

no land use changes either within or adjacent

to the European SIte.

Outside of existing settlements new

development must conform to Development

Policy 1: General Development Principles,

which require good access and environmental

safeguards. There are also a series of

avoidance measures in Section 3 of the LDP;

‘Protecting, Enhancing and Managing the

Natural Environment’ and the plan is intended

to be read as a whole.

The LDP would have no impact upon the

agricultural practices that pose the greatest

threat to the qualifying interests.

No land use changes are foreseen and

therefore no impacts are predicted.

The SPA extends far beyond the boundaries of

the National Park into Powys, Denbighshire,

Flintshire and Wrexham, and will also be liable

to impacts from spatial plans for these areas.

The UDPs of the four identified local authorities

all contain policies to protect the integrity of

European Sites.

As no impacts are predicted as a result of the

LDP, there can be no in-combination effects

with even minor impacts caused by these

plans.

Protecting, Enhancing & Managing the

Natural Environment

The policies within this group, and the

objectives behind their creation, support the

integrity of European Sites and the objectives

of nature conservation.

Strategic Policy D: Natural Environment states

that biodiversity resources will be protected

from inappropriate development. There is a

specific clause addressing the Habitats

Regulations and the need for all future

developments to meet their requirements.

Positive impacts upon the European site as a

result of measures to support nature

conservation within the planning process.

No significant in-combination effects have been

identified from a review of relevant plans and

projects.

Protecting & Enhancing the Cultural &

Historic Environment

No relevant policies. No mitigation required. No effects on the SPA predicted. No effects predicted as a result of the LDP and

hence no in-combination effects are likely.

Promoting Healthy & Sustainable

Communities

No communities are present within the area of

the SPA and so there will be no land use

changes that could affect the site.

No mitigation required. No effects on the SPA predicted. No effects predicted as a result of the LDP and

hence no in-combination effects are likely.

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Element of the LDP

Development and Land-Use Changes and

Potential Effects

Avoidance and Mitigation

Likely Significant Effects (In View of

Avoidance and Mitigation)

In-Combination Effects (including relevant

avoidance and mitigation measures)

Supporting a Sustainable Rural

Economy

Development Policy 20: Agricultural

Diversification promotes non-farming uses of

agricultural land. Land uses changes near the

SPA may impact upon the abundance of

suitable prey for the raptors that comprise the

qualifying interests.

The promotion of tourism by Strategic Policy L:

Tourism and Recreation may lead to increased

visitor pressure in upland areas. Disturbance

to ground nesting birds may result.

The policy requires any diversification

proposals to support National Park purposes.

When a conflict exists between the purposes,

the Sandford Principle applies that prioritises

the conservation purpose.

Tourism development will only be supported in

accessible, sustainable locations and not

where the Special Qualities of the National

Park may be affected. Berwyn is an isolated

and remote part of the National Park not

subject to tourist pressure and does not meet

this criterion.

New developments must comply with Strategic

Policy A: National Park Purposes and

Sustainable Development and Development

Policy 1: General Development Principles

which seek to protect European designated

sites as a priority. General Development Policy

1 also states that development will only be

permitted where: it will not have an

unacceptable impact through discharges or

emissions to air, soil, surface and ground

water; and, it does not cause significant harm

to the environment by way of noise, dust,

vibration, odour, light pollution, hazardous

materials or waste production.

Changes to the use of land and the

development of new buildings on agricultural

holdings sanctioned by Development Policy 20:

Agricultural Diversification would have no effect

upon the qualifying interests. Any changes are

likely to be imperceptible in the context of the

range and behaviour of the species concerned.

Leisure and recreation activities causing an

adverse impact upon the qualifying interest will

not be permitted under Strategic Policy L:

Tourism and Recreation, part ii.

No effects on the SPA predicted.

The site will be sensitive to operations by the

Forestry Commission in Penllyn Forest.

Conserving and enhancing biodiversity is an

objective of WAG’s Woodlands for Wales

Strategy. This document provides additional

support for protecting the integrity of

designated conservation sites in or adjacent to

forested areas.

The UDPs of the four previously identified local

authorities all contain policies to protect the

integrity of European Sites.

No effects predicted as a result of the LDP and

hence no in-combination effects are likely.

Promoting Accessibility & Inclusion

The LDP does not stipulate specific transport

development proposals and, therefore, is not

specific to effects upon individual European

sites.

Strategic Policy LI: Accessibility and Transport

states that development will be supported

where changes to the road network do not

damage or cause adverse effects to

environmental designations.

Strategic Policy D: Natural Environment

makes very strong provision for the protection

of European Sites when bringing new sites

forward referencing the responsibilities under

the Habitats Regulations.

No effects on the SPA predicted.

No effects predicted as a result of the LDP and

hence no in-combination effects are likely.

Appropriate Assessment Requirements

Appropriate Assessment not required.

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Site Names Berwyn a Mynyddoedd de Clwyd / Berwyn and the South Clwyd Mountains Type of Site SAC Size of Site 27221.21ha

Site Description

Annex I Habitats that are the primary

reason for site selection

Annex I Habitats present as a qualifying

interest but not a primary reason for site

selection

Berwyn is located on the eastern side of Snowdonia. Its upland character contains the largest stands of upland European dry heath and tract of near-natural blanket bog in Wales. The site consists

mainly of bogs, marshes, fens, heath, scrub, phygrana and dry grassland.

European dry heaths [Status: Unfavourable – declining due to a lack of species diversity as a result of fragmentation and overgrazing]

Blanket bogs (Priority feature) [Status: Unfavourable – declining due to inappropriate grazing, burning and drainage]

Semi-natural dry grasslands and scrubland facies: on calcerous substrates (Festuco-Brometalia) [Status: Unfavourable due to the presence of nettles and thistles as a result of intensive grazing]

Calcareous and calchist screes of the montane to alpine levels (Thlaspietea rotundifolii) [Status: Unfavourable due to grazing pressure]

Transition mires and quaking bogs [Status: Unfavourable as inferred by an absence of positive indicator species]

Calcareous rocky slopes with chasmophytic vegetation [Status: Unfavourable due to poor species diversity]

Conservation Objectives To achieve the Favourable Conservation Status of the above Habitats. Full details are given in Appendix D.

Vulnerability

The blanket bog, heaths, fens, and grasslands have been threatened by inappropriate agricultural development including drainage, reseeding, the application of fertilisers, burning, track

construction and the adoption of damaging grazing regimes. Some areas of grassland and heath are also threatened by the encroachment of bracken. These problems are being addressed

successfully by means of management agreements with owners and occupiers and through joint agreements with the Tir Gofal scheme. Local tourist pressure and damage by recreational vehicles

can cause erosion problems. This is being addressed by visitor management and wardening as well as positive management works of vegetation reinstatement on eroded areas.

Element of the LDP

Development and Land-Use Changes and

Potential Effects

Avoidance and Mitigation

Likely Significant Effects (In View of

Avoidance and Mitigation)

In-Combination Effects (including relevant

avoidance and mitigation measures)

The Development Strategy

The LDP directs development to existing

settlements. The small area of the SAC within

the National Park is high, remote and forested

with no settlements and, therefore there will be

no land use changes either within or adjacent

to the European SIte.

Outside of existing settlements new

development must conform to Development

Policy 1: General Development Principles,

which require good access and environmental

safeguards. There are also a series of

avoidance measures in Section 3 of the LDP;

‘Protecting, Enhancing and Managing the

Natural Environment’ and the LDP is intended

to be read as a whole.

The LDP would have no impact upon the

agricultural practices that pose the greatest

threat to the qualifying interests.

No land use changes are foreseen and

therefore no impacts are predicted.

The SAC extends far beyond the boundaries of

the National Park into Powys, Denbighshire,

Flintshire and Wrexham, and will also be liable

to impacts from spatial plans for these areas.

The UDPs of the four identified local authorities

all contain policies to protect the integrity of

European Sites.

As no impacts are predicted as a result of the

LDP, there can be no in-combination effects

with even minor impacts caused by these

plans.

Protecting, Enhancing & Managing the

Natural Environment

The policies within this group, and the

objectives behind their creation, support the

integrity of European Sites and the objectives

of nature conservation.

Strategic Policy D: Natural Environment states

that biodiversity resources will be protected

from inappropriate development. There is a

specific clause addressing the Habitats

Regulations and the need for all future

developments to meet their requirements.

Positive impacts upon the European site as a

result of measures to support nature

conservation within the planning process.

Positive impacts on qualifying interests would

be reinforced by the management agreements

already in place.

Protecting & Enhancing the Cultural &

Historic Environment

No relevant policies. No mitigation required. No effects on the SAC predicted. No effects predicted as a result of the LDP and

hence no in-combination effects are likely.

Promoting Healthy & Sustainable

Communities

No communities are present within the area of

the SAC and so there will be no land use

changes that could affect the site.

No mitigation required. No effects on the SAC predicted. No effects predicted as a result of the LDP and

hence no in-combination effects are likely.

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Element of the LDP

Development and Land-Use Changes and

Potential Effects

Avoidance and Mitigation

Likely Significant Effects (In View of

Avoidance and Mitigation)

In-Combination Effects (including relevant

avoidance and mitigation measures)

Supporting a Sustainable Rural

Economy

Development Policy 20: Agricultural

Diversification promotes non-farming uses of

agricultural land. Changes in land use or

management may impact upon the health and

extent of vegetation in the SAC.

The promotion of tourism by Strategic Policy L:

Tourism and Recreation may lead to increased

visitor pressure in upland areas. Greater

numbers of walkers on footpaths in the SAC

may cause compaction, loss of vegetation and

erosion of vulnerable soils.

Off-road vehicles are a direct threat to the

integrity of the site.

The policy requires any diversification

proposals to support National Park purposes.

When a conflict exists between the purposes,

the Sandford Principle applies that prioritises

the conservation purpose.

Tourism development will only be supported in

accessible, sustainable locations and not

where the Special Qualities of the National

Park may be affected. Berwyn is an isolated

and remote part of the National Park not

subject to tourist pressure and does not meet

this criterion.

New developments must comply with Strategic

Policy A: National Park Purposes and

Sustainable Development and Development

Policy 1: General Development Principles

which seek to protect European designated

sites as a priority. General Development Policy

1 also states that development will only be

permitted where: it will not have an

unacceptable impact through discharges or

emissions to air, soil, surface and ground

water; and, it does not cause significant harm

to the environment by way of noise, dust,

vibration, odour, light pollution, hazardous

materials or waste production.

Changes to the use of land and the

development of new buildings on agricultural

holdings sanctioned by Development Policy 20:

Agricultural Diversification would have no

significant impact upon the qualifying interests.

Any changes are likely to be imperceptible in

the context of the range and behaviour of the

species concerned.

Leisure and recreation activities causing an

adverse impact upon the qualifying interest will

not be permitted under Strategic Policy L:

Tourism and Recreation, part ii.

No effects on the SAC predicted.

The site will be sensitive to operations by the

Forestry Commission in Penllyn Forest.

Conserving and enhancing biodiversity is an

objective of WAG’s Woodlands for Wales

Strategy. This document provides additional

support for protecting the integrity of

designated conservation sites in or adjacent to

forested areas.

The UDPs of the four previously identified local

authorities all contain policies to protect the

integrity of European Sites.

No effects predicted as a result of the LDP and

hence no in-combination effects are likely.

Promoting Accessibility & Inclusion

The LDP does not stipulate specific transport

development proposals and therefore is not

specific to effects upon individual European

sites.

Strategic Policy LI: Accessibility and Transport

states that development will be supported

where changes to the road network do not

damage or cause adverse effects to

environmental designations.

Strategic Policy D: Natural Environment makes

very strong provision for the protection of

European Sites when bringing new sites

forward referencing the responsibilities under

the Habitats Regulations.

No effects on the SAC predicted.

No effects predicted as a result of the LDP and

hence no in-combination effects are likely.

Appropriate Assessment Requirements

Appropriate Assessment not required.

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Site Name Cadair Idris Type of Site SAC Size of Site 3785.05ha

Site Description

Annex I Habitats that are the primary

reason for site selection

Annex I Habitats present as a qualifying

interest but not a primary reason for site

selection

Annex II Species present as a qualifying

interest but not a primary reason for site

selection

Located in the south-western corner of the National Park, this area is a mountainous range with lakes located in upland cwms and well-distributed vegetation on boulder scree.

Oligotrophic to mesotrophic standing waters with vegetation of the Littorelletea uniflorae and/or of the Isoeto-Nanojuncetea [Condition: Favourable – unclassified]

Siliceous scree of the montane to snow level (Androsacetalia alpinae and Galeopsietalia ladani) [Condition: Favourable – maintained]

Calcareous rocky slopes with chasmophytic vegetation [Condition: Favourable – maintained]

Siliceous rocky slopes with chasmophytic vegetation [Condition: Favourable – maintained]

Northern Atlantic wet heaths with Erica tetralix [Condition: Unfavourable – declining due to invasion by Molinia and Jancus squarrosus, overgrazing, burning and subsequent erosion]

Molinia meadows on calcareous, peaty or clayey-silt laden soils (Molinion caeruleae) [Condition: Unfavourable – declining as sward too high or scrub, trees or bracken present]

Hydrophilous tall herb fringe communities of plains and of the montane to alpine levels [Condition: Favourable – maintained]

Blanket bogs [Condition: Unfavourable – declining due to invasion by Eriophorum vaginatum and Jancus squarrosus]

Alkaline fens [Condition: Favourable – maintained]

European dry heaths [Condition: Unfavourable – declining due to low ericoid cover as a result of overgrazing]

Old sessile oak woods with Ilex and Blechnum in the British Isles [Condition: Unfavourable – recovering due to the presence of conifers]

Marsh fritillary butterfly (Euphydryas (Eurodryas, Hypodryas) aurinia) [Condition: Unfavourable – declining as under-grazing failing to provide good quality habitat]

Slender green feather-moss (Hamatocaulis vernicosus) [Condition: Favourable – maintained]

Conservation Objectives To achieve the Favourable Conservation Status of the above Habitats and Species. Full details are given in Appendix D.

Vulnerability

The area is very popular for walking, with heavy visitor pressure causing localised damage to the vegetation. However this problem is being addressed by the Snowdonia Upland Path Partnership

(CCW/SNPA/NT). The moorland has been grazed and burnt heavily in some areas leading to an increase in the grassland component. However CCW is discussing management agreements with

owners on the site in order to reduce the grazing levels to an appropriate level, and to restrict heather burning. The National Nature Reserve section of the site is managed according to a CCW

management plan, but suffers from the fact that CCW does not own the grazing rights. The high rainfall renders the site vulnerable to acidification.

Element of the LDP

Development and Land-Use Changes and

Potential Effects

Avoidance and Mitigation

Likely Significant Effects (In View of

Avoidance and Mitigation)

In-Combination Effects (including relevant

avoidance and mitigation measures)

The Development Strategy

No settlements listed in the LDP hierarchy are

located within or adjacent to the SAC.

To the north, Dolgellau’s status as a Local

Service Centre identifies it as a more

sustainable location for new economic

development, including retail, tourist and other

employment sites.

Conversion of rural buildings and the

construction of new housing to serve an

essential need to live in the countryside are

sanctioned under Strategic Policy C: Spatial

Strategy. Localised impacts on the SAC may

be possible.

Outside of existing settlements new

development must conform to Development

Policy 1: General Development Principles,

which require good access and environmental

safeguards. There are also a series of

avoidance measures in Section 3 of the LDP;

‘Protecting, Enhancing and Managing the

Natural Environment’ and the plan is intended

to be read as a whole.

Dolgellau lies too far to the north for

development within its boundary to impact

upon the qualifying interests of the SAC.

Any development in or adjacent to the SAC

would not be permitted under Section 3 of the

LDP.

No effects on the SAC predicted.

No effects predicted as a result of the LDP and

hence no in-combination effects are likely.

Protecting, Enhancing & Managing the

Natural Environment

The policies within this group, and the

objectives behind their creation, support the

integrity of European Sites and the objectives

of nature conservation.

Strategic Policy D: Natural Environment states

that biodiversity resources will be protected

from inappropriate development. There is a

specific clause addressing the Habitats

Regulations and the need for all future

developments to meet their requirements.

Positive impacts upon the European site as a

result of measures to support nature

conservation within the planning process.

Positive impacts on qualifying interests would

be reinforced by the planned and existing

management agreements.

Protecting & Enhancing the Cultural &

Historic Environment

No relevant policies. No mitigation required. No effects on the SAC predicted. No effects predicted as a result of the LDP and

hence no in-combination effects are likely.

Promoting Healthy & Sustainable

Communities

No communities are present within the area of

the SAC and so there will be no land use

changes that could affect the site.

No mitigation required. No effects on the SAC predicted. No effects predicted as a result of the LDP and

hence no in-combination effects are likely.

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Element of the LDP

Development and Land-Use Changes and

Potential Effects

Avoidance and Mitigation

Likely Significant Effects (In View of

Avoidance and Mitigation)

In-Combination Effects (including relevant

avoidance and mitigation measures)

Supporting a Sustainable Rural

Economy

The promotion of tourism by Strategic Policy L:

Tourism and Recreation may see increases in

the numbers of people accessing parts of the

SAC. Walkers in particular may contribute to

ground compaction, loss of vegetation and

erosion of vulnerable soils that support the

qualifying interests.

Several campsites adjoin the SAC whose

potential expansion is sanctioned under

Development Policy 22: Touring and Camping

Sites.

The focus of Strategic Policy L: Tourism and

Recreation is on promoting sustainable tourism

that enables appreciation of the Special

Qualities of the National Park. The policy

specifically excludes developments that

adversely impact upon European Sites.

Strategic Policy D: Natural Environment would

also apply and would eliminate the risk of

campsite expansion to the SAC.

There would be no effects on the SAC as a

consequence of policies in the LDP.

Strategic Policies D: Natural Environment and

L: Tourism and Recreation provide sufficient

protection to the SAC against indirect effects of

minor development.

No effects predicted as a result of the LDP and

hence no in-combination effects are likely.

Promoting Accessibility & Inclusion

The LDP does not stipulate specific transport

development proposals and therefore is not

specific to effects upon individual European

sites.

Strategic Policy LI: Accessibility and Transport

states that development will be supported

where changes to the road network do not

damage or cause adverse effects to

environmental designations.

Strategic Policy D: Natural Environment

makes very strong provision for the protection

of European Sites when bringing new sites

forward referencing the responsibilities under

the Habitats Regulations.

No effects on the SAC predicted.

No effects predicted as a result of the LDP and

hence no in-combination effects are likely.

Appropriate Assessment Requirements

Appropriate Assessment not required

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Site Name Coedydd Aber Type of Site SAC Size of Site 346.20ha

Site Description

Annex I Habitats that are the primary

reason for site selection

Annex I Habitats present as a qualifying

interest but not a primary reason for site

selection

The site is the largest continuous area of old sessile oak wood along the North Wales coast, and gives geographic representation of the habitat between the large examples further south in Wales,

and those to the north in Cumbria. The main woodland extends along a valley, rising steeply from near sea level. The site is also important for its breeding bird assemblage.

Old sessile oak woods with Ilex and Blechnum in the British Isles [Status: Unfavourable due to unsuitable grazing practices]

Alluvial forests with Alnus glutinosa and Fraxinus excelsior (Alno-Padion, Alnion incanae, Salicion albae) (Priority feature) [Status: Unfavourable due to a lack of native seedlings and high

proportion of young Sycamore (awaiting results of 2007/8 monitoring)]

Conservation Objectives To achieve the Favourable Conservation Status of the above Habitats. Full details are given in Appendix D.

Vulnerability

The woodland habitat is relatively robust, but there is scope for its enhancement through removal of conifers and other invasive species. Part of the site has recently been entered into a Tir Gofal

agreement. The involvement of Forest Enterprise is necessary to ensure improved conservation management and better integration of existing and restored woodland on the higher slopes above

the Aber valley and to ensure the current integrity of the site is maintained.

Element of the LDP

Development and Land-Use Changes and

Potential Effects

Avoidance and Mitigation

Likely Significant Effects (In View of

Avoidance and Mitigation)

In-Combination Effects (including relevant

avoidance and mitigation measures)

The Development Strategy

Located less than 100m from the SAC,

Abergwyngregyn is classified as a Secondary

Settlement with the potential for providing new

small-scale housing, employment and

community facilities.

380 houses are proposed across 39

Secondary Settlements throughout the plan

period. The exact number of houses proposed

for Abergwyngregyn is not stipulated.

No direct land-take within the SAC is proposed.

Housing has the potential to affect woodland

habitat by increasing recreationa pressure.

However, development of this scale is

extremely unlikely to adversely affect the

adjacent oak woodlands.

New developments to comply with Strategic

Policy A: National Park Purposes and

Sustainable Development and Development

Policy 1: General Development Principles

which seek to protect European designated

sites as a priority. Development Policy 1 also

states that development will only be permitted

where: it will not have an unacceptable impact

through discharges or emissions to air, soil,

surface and ground water; and, it does not

cause significant harm to the environment by

way of noise, dust, vibration, odour, light

pollution, hazardous materials or waste

production.

Strategic Policy D: Natural Environment

makes very strong provision for the protection

of European Sites when bringing new sites

forward referencing the responsibilities under

the Habitats Regulations.

Strategic Policy Ng: Housing restricts all new

build housing and conversion to within the

housing development boundary.

Development Policy 19: New Employment and

Training Development restricts new

employment development to within or adjacent

to the main built up area, in existing buildings,

expansion of existing buildings or new

buildings only where there is no other suitable

accommodation in the locality.

Development Policy 23: Retail restricts new

retail development to within the main built up

areas and the scale should be appropriate to

its setting.

No effects on the SAC predicted.

The SAC lies wholly within Snowdonia National

Park. No neighbouring spatial plans are

relevant.

No effects predicted as a result of the LDP and

hence no in-combination effects are likely.

Protecting, Enhancing & Managing the The policies within this group, and the Strategic Policy D: Natural Environment states Positive impacts upon the European site as a No effects predicted as a result of the LDP and

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Element of the LDP

Development and Land-Use Changes and

Potential Effects

Avoidance and Mitigation

Likely Significant Effects (In View of

Avoidance and Mitigation)

In-Combination Effects (including relevant

avoidance and mitigation measures)

Natural Environment

objectives behind their creation, support the

integrity of European Sites and the objectives

of nature conservation.

that biodiversity resources will be protected

from inappropriate development. There is a

specific clause addressing the Habitats

Regulations and the need for all future

developments to meet their requirements.

result of measures to support nature

conservation within the planning process.

hence no in-combination effects are likely.

Protecting & Enhancing the Cultural &

Historic Environment

No relevant policies. No mitigation required. No effects on the SAC predicted. No effects predicted as a result of the LDP and

hence no in-combination effects are likely.

Promoting Healthy & Sustainable

Communities

Strategic Policy Ng: Housing restricts all new

build housing and conversion to within the

housing development boundary.

The consequences of this policy for this

European Site are discussed under, ‘The

Development Strategy’ above.

Development Policy 11: Affordable Housing on

Exception Sites allows affordable housing on

exception sites outside but immediately

adjoining the housing development boundary.

These would be small-scale exception sites

although they may be close to or adjoining

European Sites and could therefore result in

adverse effects.

Development Policy 11: Affordable Housing on

Exception Sites also states that there should

be no adverse effects upon the integrity of

European Sites as a result of affordable

housing on exception sites.

No effects on the SAC predicted.

No effects predicted as a result of the LDP and

hence no in-combination effects are likely.

Supporting a Sustainable Rural

Economy

Development Policy 19: New Employment and

Training Development restricts new

employment development to within or adjacent

to the main built up area, in existing buildings,

expansion of existing buildings or new

buildings only where there is no other suitable

accommodation in the locality.

Development Policy 23: Retail restricts new

retail development to within the main built up

areas and the scale should be appropriate to

its setting.

The consequences of this policy for this

European Site are discussed under, ‘The

Development Strategy’ above.

Potential improvements to tourism facilities

would be supported by Strategic Policy L:

Tourism and Recreation. These may include

new buildings, extended car parking, and new

walking or cycling trails. If located in the SAC

woodland they could pose a threat to the SAC

through compaction and erosion of qualifying

interests.

The focus for tourism is on promoting the

understanding and enjoyment of the Special

Qualities of the National Park. Developments

causing disturbance or generating noise or

light pollution will not be permitted.

New developments must comply with Strategic

Policy A: National Park Purposes and

Sustainable Development and Development

Policy 1 which seek to protect European

designated sites as a priority. Development

Policy 1 also states that development will only

be permitted where: it will not have an

unacceptable impact through discharges or

emissions to air, soil, surface and ground

water; and, it does not cause significant harm

to the environment by way of noise, dust,

vibration, odour, light pollution, hazardous

materials or waste production.

Leisure and recreation activities causing an

adverse impact upon the qualifying interest will

not be permitted under Strategic Policy L:

Tourism and Recreation, part ii.

No effects on the SAC predicted.

Conserving and enhancing biodiversity is an

objective of WAG’s Woodlands for Wales

Strategy. This document provides additional

support for protecting the integrity of

designated conservation sites in or adjacent to

forested areas.

No effects predicted as a result of the LDP and

hence no in-combination effects are likely.

Promoting Accessibility & Inclusion

The LDP does not stipulate specific transport

development proposals and therefore is not

specific to effects upon individual European

sites.

Strategic Policy LI: Accessibility and Transport

states that development will be supported

Strategic Policy D: Natural Environment

makes very strong provision for the protection

of European Sites when bringing new sites

forward referencing the responsibilities under

the Habitats Regulations.

No effects on the SAC predicted.

No effects predicted as a result of the LDP and

hence no in-combination effects are likely.

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Element of the LDP

Development and Land-Use Changes and

Potential Effects

where changes to the road network do not

damage or cause adverse effects to

environmental designations.

Avoidance and Mitigation

Likely Significant Effects (In View of

Avoidance and Mitigation)

In-Combination Effects (including relevant

avoidance and mitigation measures)

Appropriate Assessment Requirements

Appropriate Assessment not required

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Site Name Coedydd Darw a Safloedd Ystlumod Meirion / Meirionnydd Oakwoods and Bat Sites Type of Site SAC / cSAC Size of Site 2813.02ha

Site Description

Annex I Habitats that are a primary

reason for site selection

Annex I Habitats present as a qualifying

interest but not a primary reason for site

selection

Annex II Species that are a primary

reason for site selection

The Meirionnydd Oakwoods are centred on the Ffestiniog area but comprise a large number of individual habitat units. They are a significant example of old sessile oakwoods. They stretch along a

series of inter-connected valleys with a wide variety of slopes and aspects including many narrow ravines and gorges, and extend into the Rhinog SAC.

Old sessile oak woods with Ilex and Blechnum in the British Isles [Condition: Unfavourable – recovering due to lack of dead wood]

Alluvial forests with Alnus glutinosa and Fraxinus excelsior (Alno-Padion, Alnion incanae, Salicion albae) [Condition: Unfavourable – unclassified due to lack of dead wood (questionable)]

Watercourses of plain to montane levels with the Ranunculion fluitantis and Callitricho-Batrachion vegetation [Condition: Not assessed]

European dry heaths [Condition: Unfavourable due to scrub, tree & bracken encroachment and tall. Bushy nature of heather]

Bog woodland [Condition: Unfavourable – unclassified due to presence of invasive and non-native species]

Northern Atlantic wet heaths with Erica tetralix [Condition: Not assessed]

Tilio-Acerion forests of slopes, screes and ravines [Condition: Favourable maintained]

Lesser horseshoe bat (Rhinolophus hipposideros) [Condition: Favourable]

Conservation Objectives To achieve the Favourable Conservation Status of the above Habitats and Species. Full details are given in Appendix D.

Vulnerability

Management of the key features of these woodlands i.e. the Atlantic bryophyte and lichen assemblages requires light grazing of the field layer vegetation, usually by sheep. This must be balanced

against the requirements to allow natural regeneration of trees. There are CCW management plans for the areas declared as National Nature Reserves. In other areas there are S15 management

agreements with landowners and occupiers where appropriate grazing regimes have been implemented. Within the NNRs, fencing is maintained to allow grazing regimes ranging from total

exclusion to relatively heavy periodic grazing. Mosses and liverworts in gorges where recreational activities such as gorge-walking and extreme canoeing take place are threatened by over-use. A

Code of Conduct is being drawn up, combined with restrictions on use. Feral goats present within some of the sites require careful control to prevent bark-stripping and browsing damage to sapling

and seedling trees. CCW undertakes annual monitoring of the herds throughout the SAC and implements control measures when numbers exceed set limits. Due to the very acid nature of the soils

throughout the woodlands, they are vulnerable to acidification. In the past the heathland has been threatened by inappropriate burning/grazing and afforestation. These issues are being addressed

through agri-environment schemes (Tir Cymen/Tir Gofal) and S15 Management Agreements. The populations of lesser horseshoe bats are most vulnerable in their summer and winter roosts. They

are also affected by a reduction in the availability of insect prey due to changes in agricultural practices and pesticide use. Roosts are most often protected through the planning system, by

incorporating the bats’ requirements into the plans at an early stage. Also many roosts in mine adits have now been grilled to prevent disturbance to hibernating bats.

Element of the LDP

Development and Land-Use Changes and

Potential Effects

Avoidance and Mitigation

Likely Significant Effects (In View of

Avoidance and Mitigation)

In-Combination Effects (including relevant

avoidance and mitigation measures)

The Development Strategy

Strategic Policy C: Spatial Strategy establishes

a settlement hierarchy to distribute

development across the National Park.

The following settlements are identified for

development which lie either adjacent to or in

close proximity to this widely spread

SAC/cSAC.

Local Service Centre (225 houses spread

across two settlements) employment land

allocated, new or improved local facilities and

retail development: Dolgellau. The allocated

employment land lies within the existing built

up area and is already developed land.

Service Settlement (110 houses across five

settlements) employment development, new or

improved local facilities and retail development:

Harlech.

Secondary Settlements (380 houses spread

across 39 settlements) employment

development and new or improved local

facilities: 11 settlements identified.

New developments to comply with Strategic

Policy A: National Park Purposes and

Development Policy 1: General Development

Principles which seek to protect European

designated sites as a priority. General

Development Policy 1 also states that

development will only be permitted where: it

will not have an unacceptable impact through

discharges or emissions to air, soil, surface

and ground water; and, it does not cause

significant harm to the environment by way of

noise, dust, vibration, odour, light pollution,

hazardous materials or waste production.

Strategic Policy D makes very strong provision

for the protection of European Sites when

bringing new sites forward referencing the

responsibilities under the Habitats Regulations.

Strategic Policy Ng: Housing restricts all new

build housing and conversion to within the

housing development boundary.

Development Policy 19: New Employment and

No effects on the SAC/cSAC predicted.

The SAC/cSAC lies wholly within Snowdonia

National Park. No neighbouring spatial plans

are relevant.

A number of proposed road schemes have the

potential to adversely affect the SAC/cSAC.

These include: improvements to the A470 (T)

at Gelligemlyn (two schemes) and Cross Foxes

and also the Porthmadog bypass.

However, no effects are predicted as a result of

the LDP and hence no in-combination effects

with these projects are likely.

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Element of the LDP

Development and Land-Use Changes and

Potential Effects

Smaller Settlements (54 houses spread across

27 settlements) new or improved local facilities.

No direct land-take within the SAC/cSAC would

occur so it is not considered that such

development would result in adverse effects

upon the Annex I habitats identified as

qualifying interests. However, taking a

precautionary approach, increased levels of

polluted surface run-off may occur which could

find there way into the SAC/cSAC in some

areas where proposals are immediately

adjacent to the SAC/cSAC boundary. It is

considered very unlikely that this would have a

significant effect.

Strategic Policy C: Spatial Strategy also allows

conversions of rural buildings in the open

countryside. This is further supported by

Development Policies 7: Listed and Traditional

Buildings and 9: Conversion and Change of

Use of Rural Buildings. Locations of buildings

are not specified but could viably be within the

SAC/cSAC and may contain lesser horseshoe

bat roosts. Conversions of these buildings

have the potential to adversely affect these

roosts and consequently bat populations.

Avoidance and Mitigation

Likely Significant Effects (In View of

Avoidance and Mitigation)

In-Combination Effects (including relevant

avoidance and mitigation measures)

Training Development restricts new

employment development to within or adjacent

to the main built up area, in existing buildings,

expansion of existing buildings or new

buildings only where there is no other suitable

accommodation in the locality.

Development Policy 23: Retail restricts new

retail development to within the main built up

areas and the scale should be appropriate to

its setting.

Furthermore, Development Policies7: Listed

and Traditional Buildings and 9: Conversion

and Change of Use of Rural Buildings would

not allow such conversions if they were to

result in significant adverse effects upon

protected species or if significant adverse

effects upon the integrity of a European Site

were likely.

Protecting, Enhancing & Managing the

Natural Environment

The policies within this group, and the

objectives behind their creation, support the

integrity of European Sites and the objectives

of nature conservation.

‘Green wedges’ along the Ardudwy coast

should aid foraging for bats in nearby units.

Strategic Policy D: Natural Environment states

that biodiversity resources will be protected

from inappropriate development. There is a

specific clause addressing the Habitats

Regulations and the need for all future

developments to meet their requirements.

No effects on the SAC/cSAC predicted.

No effects predicted as a result of the LDP and

hence no in-combination effects are likely.

Protecting & Enhancing the Cultural &

Historic Environment

Development Policy 9: Conversion and

Change of Use of Rural Buildings supports the

conversion of redundant rural buildings, which

may be used as roosting sites by lesser

horseshoe bats. Conversions of these

buildings have the potential to adversely affect

these roosts and consequently bat populations.

Development Policy 7: Listed and Traditional

Buildings also allows conversions and changes

under exceptional circumstances. Such

buildings, if within the SAC/cSAC may also

house lesser horseshoe bat roosts which may

be affected by conversions.

In addition to the stringent requirements of

Strategic Policy D, Development Policies 7 and

9 would not allow conversions if they were to

result in significant adverse effects upon

protected species or if significant adverse

effects upon the integrity of a European Site

were likely.

No effects on the SAC/cSAC predicted.

No effects predicted as a result of the LDP and

hence no in-combination effects are likely.

Promoting Healthy & Sustainable

Communities

Strategic Policy Ng: Housing restricts all new

build housing and conversion to within the

housing development boundary.

The consequences of this policy for this

European Site are discussed under, ‘The

Development Strategy’ above.

Development Policy 11: Affordable Housing on

Development Policy 11: Affordable Housing on

Exception Sites also states that there should

be no adverse effects upon the integrity of

European Sites as a result of affordable

housing on exception sites.

No effects on the SAC/cSAC predicted.

No effects predicted as a result of the LDP and

hence no in-combination effects are likely.

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Element of the LDP

Development and Land-Use Changes and

Potential Effects

Exception Sites allows affordable housing on

exception sites outside but immediately

adjoining the housing development boundary.

These would be small-scale exceptional sites

although they may be close to or adjoining

European Sites and could therefore result in

adverse effects.

Avoidance and Mitigation

Likely Significant Effects (In View of

Avoidance and Mitigation)

In-Combination Effects (including relevant

avoidance and mitigation measures)

Supporting a Sustainable Rural

Economy

Development Policy 9: Conversion and

Change of Use of Rural Buildings supports the

conversion of rural buildings for employment

uses in certain circumstances.

The consequences of this policy for this

European Site are discussed above.

See above. No effects on the SAC/cSAC predicted. No effects predicted as a result of the LDP and

hence no in-combination effects are likely.

Promoting Accessibility & Inclusion

The LDP does not stipulate specific transport

development proposals and therefore is not

specific to effects upon individual European

sites.

Strategic Policy LI: Accessibility and Transport

states that development will be supported

where changes to the road network do not

damage or cause adverse effects to

environmental designations.

Strategic Policy D: Natural Environment makes

very strong provision for the protection of

European Sites when bringing new sites

forward referencing the responsibilities under

the Habitats Regulations.

No effects on the SAC predicted.

A number of proposed road schemes have the

potential to adversely affect the SAC/cSAC.

These include: improvements to the A470 (T)

at Gelligemlyn (two schemes) and Cross Foxes

and also the Porthmadog bypass.

However, no effects are predicted as a result of

the LDP and hence no in-combination effects

with these projects are likely.

Appropriate Assessment Requirements

Appropriate Assessment not required

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Site Names Cors Fochno and Dyfi Type of Site Ramsar Size of Site 2492.24ha

Site Description

Justification for the application of each

Criterion

Conservation Objectives

Vulnerability

A bar-built estuarine complex, comprising the Dyfi estuary, two calcareous dune systems, and a large raised mire. The Dyfi is one of the best examples in north-west Europe of a small, drying,

nutrient-poor estuary, which has been relatively unaffected by industrial development. A wide range of estuarine habitats are present, including rare transitions to peatland. Cors Fochno is of

international importance being the type locality for estuarine raised mire and one of the largest active raised mires in the United Kingdom. The site is designated as Wales’ only UNESCO Biosphere

Reserve.

Ramsar Criterion 1: The site contains the largest expanse of primary raised mire in lowland Britain; the largest estuarine raised mire, and third-largest ‘active’ raised mire in Britain.

Maintain the existing extent and quality of grazing marsh

Rehabilitate areas which have become too dry or intensively managed

Create grazing marsh from arable land in targeted areas

The Conservation Objectives for the Cors Fochno SAC and Aber Dyfi SPA are also relevant to this site, and are presented in Appendix D.

Despite covering a much larger area, the qualifying interest for the Ramsar site is restricted to the area of the raised mire at Cors Fochno. Threats to the integrity of the Aber Dyfi SPA are described

in the relevant table above, though are not directly relevant to the Ramsar site.

Element of the LDP

Development and Land-Use Changes and

Potential Effects

Avoidance and Mitigation

Likely Significant Effects (In View of

Avoidance and Mitigation)

In-Combination Effects (including relevant

avoidance and mitigation measures)

The Development Strategy

Located on the north bank of the estuary,

Aberdyfi is classified as a Service Settlement

capable of absorbing developments that serve

a wider area, including small scale affordable

housing, retail and employment sites.

110 houses are proposed across five Service

Settlements throughout the plan period. The

exact number of houses proposed for Aberdyfi

is not stipulated.

Only a small part of the European site lies

within the LDP jurisdiction – the north bank of

the Dyfi and part of the channel itself.

No land use changes are proposed higher up

the Dyfi Valley.

No direct land-take within the Ramsar site is

proposed.

Given that no development would take place

on the foreshore of the estuary and the scale of

development proposed is very small, it is not

considered that any adverse effects upon the

sensitive features of the Ramsar site are

possible.

New developments to comply with Strategic

Policy A: National Park Purposes and

Sustainable Development and Development

Policy 1: General Development Principles

which seek to protect European designated

sites as a priority. Development Policy 1 also

states that development will only be permitted

where: it will not have an unacceptable impact

through discharges or emissions to air, soil,

surface and ground water; and, it does not

cause significant harm to the environment by

way of noise, dust, vibration, odour, light

pollution, hazardous materials or waste

production.

Strategic Policy D: Natural Environment

makes very strong provision for the protection

of European Sites when bringing new sites

forward referencing the responsibilities under

the Habitats Regulations.

Strategic Policy Ng restricts all new build

housing and conversion to within the housing

development boundary.

Development Policy 19: New Employment and

Training Development restricts new

employment development to within or adjacent

to the main built up area, in existing buildings,

expansion of existing buildings or new

buildings only where there is no other suitable

accommodation in the locality.

Development Policy 23: Retail restricts new

retail development to within the main built up

areas and the scale should be appropriate to

No effects on the Ramsar site predicted.

The Afon Dyfi drains an area partly outside the

National Park which is subject to the planning

policies of Gwynedd Council and Ceredigion

Council.

No effects predicted as a result of the LDP and

hence no in-combination effects are likely.

Furthermore:

Policy B14 of the Gwynedd UDP provides

strong protection for internationally designated

sites of nature conservation. Proposals likely

to have a significantly adverse impact, either in

isolation or in combination with other plans, will

be refused unless there is no alternative, an

overriding public interest and a threat to public

health and safety. The UDP then requires

compensatory measures and enhancement of

remaining features.

The southern part of the estuary is subject to

Policy ENV1.2 of the Ceredigion UDP which

affords protection to international conservation

sites similar to that outlined above.

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Element of the LDP

Development and Land-Use Changes and

Potential Effects

Avoidance and Mitigation

Likely Significant Effects (In View of

Avoidance and Mitigation)

In-Combination Effects (including relevant

avoidance and mitigation measures)

its setting.

Protecting, Enhancing & Managing the

Natural Environment

The policies within this group, and the

objectives behind their creation, support the

integrity of European Sites and the objectives

of nature conservation.

Strategic Policy D: Natural Environment states

that biodiversity resources will be protected

from inappropriate development. There is a

specific clause addressing the Habitats

Regulations and the need for all future

developments to meet their requirements.

Positive impacts upon the European site as a

result of measures to support nature

conservation within the planning process.

No significant in-combination effects have been

identified from a review of relevant plans and

projects.

Protecting & Enhancing the Cultural &

Historic Environment

No relevant policies. No additional mitigation required. No effects on the Ramsar site predicted. No significant in-combination effects have been

identified from a review of relevant plans and

projects.

Promoting Healthy & Sustainable

Communities

Strategic Policy Ng: Housing restricts all new

build housing and conversion to within the

housing development boundary.

The consequences of this policy for this

European Site are discussed under, ‘The

Development Strategy’ above.

Development Policy 11: Affordable Housing on

Exception Sites allows affordable housing on

exception sites outside but immediately

adjoining the housing development boundary.

These would be small-scale exception sites

although they may be close to or adjoining

European Sites and could therefore result in

adverse effects.

Development Policy 11: Affordable Housing on

Exception Sites also states that there should

be no adverse effects upon the integrity of

European Sites as a result of affordable

housing on exception sites.

No effects on the Ramsar site predicted.

No effects predicted as a result of the LDP and

hence no in-combination effects are likely.

Supporting a Sustainable Rural

Economy

Development Policy 19: New Employment and

Training Development restricts new

employment development to within or adjacent

to the main built up area, in existing buildings,

expansion of existing buildings or new

buildings only where there is no other suitable

accommodation in the locality.

Development Policy 23: Retail restricts new

retail development to within the main built up

areas and the scale should be appropriate to

its setting.

The consequences of this policy for this

European Site are discussed under, ‘The

Development Strategy’ above.

Tourism in the National Park is generally

promoted under Strategic Policy L: Tourism

and Recreation. Such activities could result in

direct physical harm to sensitive features of the

Ramsar site

The focus for tourism is on promoting the

understanding and enjoyment of the Special

Qualities of the National Park.

New developments to comply with Strategic

Policy A: National Park Purposes and

Sustainable Development and Development

Policy 1: General Development Principles

which seek to protect European designated

sites as a priority. Development Policy 1 also

states that development will only be permitted

where: it will not have an unacceptable impact

through discharges or emissions to air, soil,

surface and ground water; and, it does not

cause significant harm to the environment by

way of noise, dust, vibration, odour, light

pollution, hazardous materials or waste

production.

Strategic Policy D: Natural Environment

makes very strong provision for the protection

of European Sites when bringing new sites

forward referencing the responsibilities under

the Habitats Regulations.

Leisure and recreation activities causing an

adverse impact upon the qualifying interest will

not be permitted under Strategic Policy L:

Tourism and Recreation, part ii.

No effects on the Ramsar site predicted.

No effects predicted as a result of the LDP and

hence no in-combination effects are likely.

Leisure impacts are monitored by on-site

wardens as part of the RSPB/CCW

management arrangements.

Promoting Accessibility & Inclusion

The LDP does not stipulate specific transport

development proposals and therefore is not

specific to effects upon individual European

sites.

Strategic Policy D: Natural Environment makes

very strong provision for the protection of

European Sites when bringing new sites

forward referencing the responsibilities under

No effects on the Ramsar site predicted.

No effects predicted as a result of the LDP and

hence no in-combination effects are likely.

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Element of the LDP

Development and Land-Use Changes and

Potential Effects

Strategic Policy LI: Accessibility and Transport

states that development will be supported

where changes to the road network do not

damage or cause adverse effects to

environmental designations.

Avoidance and Mitigation

the Habitats Regulations.

Likely Significant Effects (In View of

Avoidance and Mitigation)

In-Combination Effects (including relevant

avoidance and mitigation measures)

Appropriate Assessment Requirements

Appropriate Assessment not required

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Site Name Corsydd Eifionydd Type of Site SAC Size of Site 144.32ha

Site Description

Annex I Habitats that are the primary

reason for site selection

Annex II Species that are a primary

reason for site selection

The site embraces four isolated topogeneous peatlands situated within the upland fringe transition between Snowdonia and the Lleyn Peninsula.

Transition mires and quaking bogs [Status: Unfavourable – declining due to under-grazing, scrub encroachment and uncontrolled burning]

Marsh fritillary butterfly (Euphydryas (Eurodryas, Hypodryas) aurinia) [Condition: Unfavourable – declining due to limited good quality habitat]

Slender green feather-moss (Drepanocladus vernicosus) [Status: Unfavourable – declining due to under-grazing and scrub encroachment]

Conservation Objectives To achieve the Favourable Conservation Status of the above Habitat and Species. Full details are given in Appendix D.

Vulnerability

The site is under one principal threat - scrub encroachment due to a lack of grazing, which is a reflection of the inaccessible, boggy nature of the terrain. Drainage and pollution are additional

threats.

Element of the LDP

Development and Land-Use Changes and

Potential Effects

Avoidance and Mitigation

Likely Significant Effects (In View of

Avoidance and Mitigation)

In-Combination Effects (including relevant

avoidance and mitigation measures)

The Development Strategy

The majority of the SAC lies outside the

National Park and is not, therefore, directly

affected by the LDP. The one unit within the

National Park is not adjacent to any

settlements or land use designations.

Strategic Policy C: Spatial Strategy allows

some housing or community facilities in the

open countryside where there is an essential

need. If such housing or facilities were

proposed within the SAC then it may result in

adverse effects upon the qualifying interests.

New developments to comply with Strategic

Policy A: National Park Purposes and

Sustainable Development and Development

Policy 1: General Development Principles

which seek to protect European designated

sites as a priority. Development Policy 1 also

states that development will only be permitted

where: it will not have an unacceptable impact

through discharges or emissions to air, soil,

surface and ground water; and, it does not

cause significant harm to the environment by

way of noise, dust, vibration, odour, light

pollution, hazardous materials or waste

production.

Strategic Policy D: Natural Environment

makes very strong provision for the protection

of European Sites when bringing new sites

forward referencing the responsibilities under

the Habitats Regulations.

No effects on the SAC predicted.

The remaining three units of the SAC are

subject to planning policies within the Gwynedd

UDP.

No effects predicted as a result of the LDP and

hence no in-combination effects are likely.

Furthermore:

A review of the Gwynedd UDP has not raised

any concerns for this European Site. Policy

B14 of the Gwynedd UDP provides strong

protection for internationally designated sites of

nature conservation. Proposals likely to have a

significantly adverse impact, either in isolation

or in combination with other plans, will be

refused unless there is no alternative, an

overriding public interest and a threat to public

health and safety. The UDP then requires

compensatory measures and enhancement of

remaining features.

Protecting, Enhancing & Managing the

Natural Environment

The policies within this group, and the

objectives behind their creation, support the

integrity of European Sites and the objectives

of nature conservation.

Strategic Policy D: Natural Environment states

that biodiversity resources will be protected

from inappropriate development. There is a

specific clause addressing the Habitats

Regulations and the need for all future

developments to meet their requirements.

Positive impacts upon the European site as a

result of measures to support nature

conservation within the planning process.

No effects predicted as a result of the LDP and

hence no in-combination effects are likely.

Protecting & Enhancing the Cultural &

Historic Environment

No relevant policies. No additional mitigation required. No effects on the SAC predicted. No significant in-combination effects have been

identified from a review of relevant plans and

projects.

Promoting Healthy & Sustainable

Communities

In addition to the effects of Strategic Policy C,

Development Policy 11: Affordable Housing on

Exception Sites allows affordable housing on

exception sites outside but immediately

adjoining the housing development boundary.

These would be small-scale exceptional sites

although they may be close to or adjoining

European Sites and could therefore result in

Development Policy 11 also states that there

should be no adverse effects upon the integrity

of European Sites as a result of affordable

housing on exception sites.

No effects on the SAC predicted.

No effects predicted as a result of the LDP and

hence no in-combination effects are likely.

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Element of the LDP

Development and Land-Use Changes and

Potential Effects

adverse effects.

Avoidance and Mitigation

Likely Significant Effects (In View of

Avoidance and Mitigation)

In-Combination Effects (including relevant

avoidance and mitigation measures)

Supporting a Sustainable Rural

Economy

Development Policy 20: Agricultural

Diversification allows non-farming uses of

agricultural land. Land use changes near the

SAC may affect the quality of mire and bog

habitat and grazing intensity and consequently

some of the qualifying species which are

dependent upon it.

The policy requires any diversification

proposals to support National Park purposes.

When a conflict exists between the purposes,

the Sandford Principle applies that prioritises

the conservation purpose.

Strategic Policy D: Natural Environment

makes very strong provision for the protection

of European Sites when bringing new sites

forward referencing the responsibilities under

the Habitats Regulations.

No effects on the SAC predicted.

No effects predicted as a result of the LDP and

hence no in-combination effects are likely.

Promoting Accessibility & Inclusion

The LDP does not stipulate specific transport

development proposals and therefore is not

specific to effects upon individual European

sites.

Strategic Policy LI: Accessibility and Transport

states that development will be supported

where changes to the road network do not

damage or cause adverse effects to

environmental designations.

Strategic Policy D: Natural Environment

makes very strong provision for the protection

of European Sites when bringing new sites

forward referencing the responsibilities under

the Habitats Regulations.

No effects on the SAC predicted.

No effects predicted as a result of the LDP and

hence no in-combination effects are likely.

Appropriate Assessment Requirements

Appropriate Assessment not required

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Site Name Craig yr Aderyn / Bird’s Rock Type of Site SPA Size of Site 89.26ha

Site Description

Annex I Birds and regularly occurring

Migratory Birds not listed on Annex I:

Quality and Importance

A small site consisting mainly of dry grassland and inland rocks, screes, sands and permanent snow and ice.

During the breeding season the area regularly supports: Chough (Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax): 1.8% of the GB breeding population (1999). This increases to 8% of the GB population (1996) in winter

months [Status: Favourable – maintained]

Conservation Objectives To achieve the Favourable Conservation Status of the above Species. Full details are given in Appendix D.

Vulnerability

The chough and Wales’ only inland cormorant breeding colony are each vulnerable to disturbance, as the crags are a well known climbing site. This is being addressed by imposing restrictions on

when the activity can take place. The grazing pressure is regulated by a Tir Cymen management agreement at the moment, to produce favourable chough feeding habitat.

Element of the LDP

Development and Land-Use Changes and

Potential Effects

Avoidance and Mitigation

Likely Significant Effects (In View of

Avoidance and Mitigation)

In-Combination Effects (including relevant

avoidance and mitigation measures)

The Development Strategy

The site is a considerable distance from any

identified settlements or land use designations.

None required No effects on the SPA predicted. The SPA lies wholly within the LDP boundary.

No effects predicted as a result of the LDP and

hence no in-combination effects are likely.

Protecting, Enhancing & Managing the

Natural Environment

The policies within this group, and the

objectives behind their creation, support the

integrity of European Sites and the objectives

of nature conservation.

Strategic Policy D: Natural Environment states

that biodiversity resources will be protected

from inappropriate development. There is a

specific clause addressing the Habitats

Regulations and the need for all future

developments to meet their requirements.

No effects on the SPA predicted.

No effects predicted as a result of the LDP and

hence no in-combination effects are likely.

Protecting & Enhancing the Cultural &

Historic Environment

No relevant policies None required No effects on the SPA predicted. No effects predicted as a result of the LDP and

hence no in-combination effects are likely.

Promoting Healthy & Sustainable

Communities

No relevant policies None required No effects on the SPA predicted. No effects predicted as a result of the LDP and

hence no in-combination effects are likely.

Supporting a Sustainable Rural

Economy

No relevant policies None required No effects on the SPA predicted. No effects predicted as a result of the LDP and

hence no in-combination effects are likely.

Promoting Accessibility & Inclusion No relevant policies None required No effects on the SPA predicted. No effects predicted as a result of the LDP and

hence no in-combination effects are likely.

Appropriate Assessment Requirements

Appropriate Assessment not required

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Site Names Eryri / Snowdonia Type of Site SAC Size of Site 19737.60ha

Site Description

Annex I Habitats that are the primary

reason for site selection

Annex I Habitats present as a qualifying

interest but not a primary reason for site

selection

Annex II Species that are a primary

reason for site selection

Snowdonia is a vast and ranging area comprising grassland, rock outcrops, screes, heath, scrub, marshes, bogs and water bodies including upland corries.

Oligotrophic to mesotrophic standing waters with vegetation of the Littorelletea uniflorae and/or of the Isoeto-Nanojuncetea [Status: Unfavourable – recovering]

Siliceous scree of the montane to snow levels (Androsacetalia alpinae and Galeopsietalia ladani) [Status: Unfavourable due to disturbance by sheep, goats and humans]

Siliceous alpine and boreal grasslands [Status: Unfavourable – declining due to low cover of dwarf shrubs, decline of Racomitrium and excessive grass cover

Calcareous rocky slopes with chasmophytic vegetation [Status: Unfavourable due to grazing and presence of invasive species]

Hydrophilous tall herb fringe communities of plains and of the montane to alpine levels [Status: Unfavourable as a result of grazing pressure]

Siliceous rocky slopes with chasmophytic vegetation [Status: Unfavourable / Unclassified due to overgrazing and inappropriate recreational pressure. Further research required]

Alpine and subalpine calcareous grasslands [Status: Unfavourable due to Epilobium brunnescens cover and lack of flowering plants]

Northern Atlantic wet heaths with Erica tetralix [Status: Unfavourable]

Alpine and Boreal heaths [Status: Unfavourable due to patchy and discontinuous extent]

Alkaline fens [Status: Favourable – maintained]

Species-rich Nardus grassland, on siliceous substrates in mountain areas (and submountain areas in continental Europe) (Priority feature) [Status: Unfavourable as a result of grazing]

Alpine pioneer formations of the Caricion bicoloris-atrofuscae (Priority feature) [Status: Unfavourable – declined due to dispersed and remote pockets]

Blanket bogs (Priority feature) [Status: Unfavourable due to past grazing, burning and drainage]

Depressions on peat substrates with tufa formation (Cratoneurion) [Status: Favourable – maintained]

Old sessile oak woods with Ilex and Blechnum in the British Isles [Status: Unfavourable – recovering as the effects of past grazing diminish]

European dry heaths [Status: Unfavourable for varied reasons including over- and under-grazing]

Slender green feather-moss Drepanocladus (Hamatocaulis) vernicosus [Status: Favourable – maintained] • Floating water-plantain Luronium natans [Status: Unclassified]

Conservation Objectives To achieve the Favourable Conservation Status of the above Habitats and Species. Full details are given in Appendix D.

Vulnerability

The area is extensively grazed by sheep. In many areas, overgrazing takes place, ericaceous species are being suppressed, grass species are dominating and montane communities such as moss

heath are being damaged and reduced in area. Resolution of this problem is complex, due to the breakdown of traditional shepherding, other changes in livestock management on these open

mountain areas, and the economics of upland farming. This is being actively tackled by the CCW by the negotiation of management agreements. Snowdonia, which contains the highest peaks in

Wales, has long been used for rock-climbing and fellwalking. It is subject to intense recreational pressures and where these are concentrated, particularly on paths and summit areas, there are

severe erosion problems, despite management. However, these rarely impinge upon the special features of the area. Remedial work by SNPA, National Trust and CCW is tackling this problem. The

high rainfall and extensive acidic geology/pedology renders this area, especially its watercourses and lakes, vulnerable to acidification.

Element of the LDP

Development and Land-Use Changes and

Potential Effects

Avoidance and Mitigation

Likely Significant Effects (In View of

Avoidance and Mitigation)

In-Combination Effects (including relevant

avoidance and mitigation measures)

The Development Strategy

Nant Peris (less than 200m from the SAC) and

Capel Curig (less than 500m from the SAC)

are identified as Smaller Settlements. 54

houses are proposed across 27 Smaller

Settlements throughout the plan period. The

exact number of houses in each settlement is

not stipulated. New or improved community

facilities are also enabled by Strategic Policy

C: Spatial Strategy.

No direct land-take within the SAC is proposed.

Given the very small scale of development

proposed and the distance from the SAC, no

adverse effects are considered likely.

Strategic Policy C: Spatial Strategy allows

some housing or community facilities in the

open countryside where there is an essential

New developments to comply with Strategic

Policy A: National Park Purposes and

Sustainable Development and Development

Policy 1: General Development Principles

which seek to protect European designated

sites as a priority. General Development Policy

1 also states that development will only be

permitted where: it will not have an

unacceptable impact through discharges or

emissions to air, soil, surface and ground

water; and, it does not cause significant harm

to the environment by way of noise, dust,

vibration, odour, light pollution, hazardous

materials or waste production.

Strategic Policy D: Natural Environment

makes very strong provision for the protection

of European Sites when bringing new sites

No effects on the SAC predicted.

No effects predicted as a result of the LDP and

hence no in-combination effects are likely.

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Element of the LDP

Development and Land-Use Changes and

Potential Effects

need. If such housing or facilities were

proposed within the SAC then it may result in

adverse effects upon the qualifying interests.

Avoidance and Mitigation

Likely Significant Effects (In View of

Avoidance and Mitigation)

In-Combination Effects (including relevant

avoidance and mitigation measures)

forward referencing the responsibilities under

the Habitats Regulations.

Protecting, Enhancing & Managing the

Natural Environment

The policies within this group, and the

objectives behind their creation, support the

integrity of European Sites and the objectives

of nature conservation.

Strategic Policy D: Natural Environment states

that biodiversity resources will be protected

from inappropriate development. There is a

specific clause addressing the Habitats

Regulations and the need for all future

developments to meet their requirements.

No effects on the SAC predicted.

No effects predicted as a result of the LDP and

hence no in-combination effects are likely.

Protecting & Enhancing the Cultural &

Historic Environment

No relevant policies None required No effects on the SAC predicted. No effects predicted as a result of the LDP and

hence no in-combination effects are likely.

Promoting Healthy & Sustainable

Communities

In addition to the effects of Strategic Policy C,

Development Policy 11: Affordable Housing on

Exception Sites allows affordable housing on

exception sites outside but immediately

adjoining the housing development boundary.

These would be small-scale exception sites

although they may be close to or adjoining

European Sites and could therefore result in

adverse effects.

Development Policy 11: Affordable Housing on

Exception Sites also states that there should

be no adverse effects upon the integrity of

European Sites as a result of affordable

housing on exception sites.

No effects on the SAC predicted.

No effects predicted as a result of the LDP and

hence no in-combination effects are likely.

Supporting a Sustainable Rural

Economy

Development Policy 20: Agricultural

Diversification allows non-farming uses of

agricultural land. Land uses changes near the

SAC may affect the quality of mire and bog

habitat and grazing intensity and consequently

some of the qualifying species which are

dependent upon it.

Potential improvements to tourism facilities

would be supported by Strategic Policy L:

Tourism and Recreation. These may include

new buildings, extended car parking, and new

walking or cycling trails. If located within the

SAC they could pose a threat through erosion.

However, it is unlikely that increased

recreational pressure would impinge on the

qualifying interests as identified in the

vulnerability section of the Natura 2000 Data

Form.

The policy requires any diversification

proposals to support National Park purposes.

When a conflict exists between the purposes,

the Sandford Principle applies that prioritises

the conservation purpose.

Strategic Policy D: Natural Environment makes

very strong provision for the protection of

European Sites when bringing new sites

forward referencing the responsibilities under

the Habitats Regulations.

The focus for tourism is on promoting the

understanding and enjoyment of the Special

Qualities of the National Park. Developments

causing disturbance or generating noise or

light pollution will not be permitted.

New developments must comply with Strategic

Policy A: National Park Purposes and

Sustainable Development and Development

Policy 1: General Development Principles

which seek to protect European designated

sites as a priority. Development Policy 1 also

states that development will only be permitted

where: it will not have an unacceptable impact

through discharges or emissions to air, soil,

surface and ground water; and, it does not

cause significant harm to the environment by

way of noise, dust, vibration, odour, light

pollution, hazardous materials or waste

production.

No effects on the SAC predicted.

No effects predicted as a result of the LDP and

hence no in-combination effects are likely.

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Element of the LDP

Development and Land-Use Changes and

Potential Effects

Avoidance and Mitigation

Likely Significant Effects (In View of

Avoidance and Mitigation)

In-Combination Effects (including relevant

avoidance and mitigation measures)

Promoting Accessibility & Inclusion

The LDP does not stipulate specific transport

development proposals and therefore is not

specific to effects upon individual European

sites.

Strategic Policy LI: Accessibility and Transport

states that development will be supported

where changes to the road network do not

damage or cause adverse effects to

environmental designations.

Strategic Policy D: Natural Environment

makes very strong provision for the protection

of European Sites when bringing new sites

forward referencing the responsibilities under

the Habitats Regulations.

No effects on the SAC predicted.

No effects predicted as a result of the LDP and

hence no in-combination effects are likely.

Appropriate Assessment Requirements

Appropriate Assessment not required

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Site Name Glynllifon Type of Site SAC Size of Site 189.27ha

Site Description

Annex II Species that are a primary

reason for site selection

Located just outside the north-western boundary of Snowdonia National Park, this largely wooded area is both a maternity and hibernation site for a large population of lesser horseshoe bat

(Rhinolophus hipposideros) comprising about 6% of the UK population.

Lesser horseshoe bat (Rhinolophus hipposideros) [Status: Unfavourable given the management requirements of the five roosts]

Conservation Objectives To achieve the Favourable Conservation Status of the above Species. Full details are given in Appendix D.

Vulnerability

The site includes the bat roost and adjacent feeding areas. The building in which the roost is located is currently on sale [June 2006], and the management of the estate grounds, including the

woodlands, is being revised. A recent road improvement scheme, which has interfered with a key flightpath out of the estate and which has failed to incorporate adequate mitigation for the bats, also

illustrates the pressure on this site. A management agreement exists with the current owners of the roost building but this does not extend to the feeding areas, currently excluded from the SAC.

There is some scope for improving management of the site as a whole for the bats, through management agreement, agri-environment schemes and other partnership initiatives.

Element of the LDP

Development and Land-Use Changes and

Potential Effects

Avoidance and Mitigation

Likely Significant Effects (In View of

Avoidance and Mitigation)

In-Combination Effects (including relevant

avoidance and mitigation measures)

The Development Strategy

The SAC is located outside of the National

Park and is therefore not directly affected by its

Development Strategy.

However, Strategic Policy C: Spatial Strategy

allows conversions of rural buildings in the

open countryside. This is further supported by

Development Policies 7: Listed and Traditional

Buildings and 9: Conversion and Change of

Use of Rural Buildings. Locations of buildings

are not specified but could viably contain lesser

horseshoe bat roosts which relate to

populations within the Glynllifon SAC even

though it would be outside the Park.

Conversions of these buildings has the

potential to adversely affect these roosts and

consequently bat populations.

Development Policies 7 and 9 which relate to

listed and traditional buildings and conversion

of rural buildings would not allow such

conversions if they were to result in significant

adverse effects upon protected species or if

significant adverse effects upon the integrity of

a European Site were likely.

No effects on the SAC predicted.

No effects predicted as a result of the LDP and

hence no in-combination effects are likely.

Protecting, Enhancing & Managing the

Natural Environment

The policies within this group, and the

objectives behind their creation, support the

integrity of European Sites and the objectives

of nature conservation.

Strategic Policy D: Natural Environment states

that biodiversity resources will be protected

from inappropriate development. There is a

specific clause addressing the Habitats

Regulations and the need for all future

developments to meet their requirements.

No effects on the SAC predicted.

No effects predicted as a result of the LDP and

hence no in-combination effects are likely.

Protecting & Enhancing the Cultural &

Historic Environment

Issues associated with Development Policies 7

and 9 are discussed above.

Conversions or changes of use of rural

buildings will not be permitted within European

Sites or where they may have a significant

adverse impact upon protected species.

No effects on the SAC predicted.

No effects predicted as a result of the LDP and

hence no in-combination effects are likely.

Promoting Healthy & Sustainable

Communities

No relevant policies in addition to those

identified above.

None required No effects on the SAC predicted. No effects predicted as a result of the LDP and

hence no in-combination effects are likely.

Supporting a Sustainable Rural

Economy

The LDP supports the conversion of rural

buildings for employment uses.

Conversions or changes of use of rural

buildings will not be permitted within European

Sites or where they may have a significant

adverse impact upon protected species.

No effects on the SAC predicted.

No effects predicted as a result of the LDP and

hence no in-combination effects are likely.

Promoting Accessibility & Inclusion The LDP does not stipulate specific transport Strategic Policy D: Natural Environment No effects on the SAC predicted. No effects predicted as a result of the LDP and

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Element of the LDP

Development and Land-Use Changes and

Potential Effects

Avoidance and Mitigation

Likely Significant Effects (In View of

Avoidance and Mitigation)

In-Combination Effects (including relevant

avoidance and mitigation measures)

development proposals and therefore is not

specific to effects upon individual European

sites.

Strategic Policy LI: Accessibility and Transport

states that development will be supported

where changes to the road network do not

damage or cause adverse effects to

environmental designations.

makes very strong provision for the protection

of European Sites when bringing new sites

forward referencing the responsibilities under

the Habitats Regulations.

hence no in-combination effects are likely.

Appropriate Assessment Requirements

Appropriate Assessment not required

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Site Names Llyn Idwal Type of Site Ramsar Size of Site 13.51ha

Site Description

Justification for the application of each

Criterion

Conservation Objectives

Vulnerability

Wholly contained within the Eryri SAC, Llyn Idwal is a small glacial lake lying above the Nant Ffrancon valley on the northern slopes of the Glydderau massif.

Ramsar Criterion 1: A small, shallow, oligotrophic cwm lake. The semi-circular rock basin (or cwm) containing the lake is one of the finest examples in Snowdonia.

Ramsar Criterion 2: Species-rich plant community, including all of the species typical of oligotrophic waters in Britain. Notable species include Elatine hexandra and Subularia aquatica (both

nationally scarce) and Pilularia globulifera (vulnerable at a European level).

No specific Conservation Objectives have been compiled for this site. The following are management objectives for all mesotrophic and oligotrophic lakes in Snowdonia National Park:

• Maintain diversity of flora and fauna

• Identify and implement effective remedial action to address nutrient enrichment

• Set limits of acceptable change when the trophic status is determined

A specific description of the vulnerability of this site has not been produced. A number of generic threats to mesotrophic and oligotrophic waters in Snowdonia National Park have been identified by

the SNPA: eutrophication and associated toxic blue green algal blooms; atmospheric acid and nutrient deposition; recreational impacts; land use changes in lake catchment areas that can alter the

water table, change the pollution load and degrade or remove valuable adjacent habitat; pesticide usage including sheep dip; water resources schemes; hydro-electric power schemes; climate

change.

Element of the LDP

Development and Land-Use Changes and

Potential Effects

Avoidance and Mitigation

Likely Significant Effects (In View of

Avoidance and Mitigation)

In-Combination Effects (including relevant

avoidance and mitigation measures)

The Development Strategy

The Ramsar site is located within a

mountainous area remote from any potential

development proposals identified in the

Development Strategy.

None required No effects on the Ramsar site predicted. No effects predicted as a result of the LDP and

hence no in-combination effects are likely.

Protecting, Enhancing & Managing the

Natural Environment

The policies within this group, and the

objectives behind their creation, support the

integrity of European Sites and the objectives

of nature conservation.

Strategic Policy D: Natural Environment states

that biodiversity resources will be protected

from inappropriate development. There is a

specific clause addressing the Habitats

Regulations and the need for all future

developments to meet their requirements.

No effects on the Ramsar site predicted.

No effects predicted as a result of the LDP and

hence no in-combination effects are likely.

Protecting & Enhancing the Cultural &

Historic Environment

No relevant policies None required No effects on the Ramsar site predicted. No effects predicted as a result of the LDP and

hence no in-combination effects are likely.

Promoting Healthy & Sustainable

Communities

No relevant policies None required No effects on the Ramsar site predicted. No effects predicted as a result of the LDP and

hence no in-combination effects are likely.

Supporting a Sustainable Rural

Economy

The area is popular with tourists. Potential

improvements to tourism facilities would be

supported by Strategic Policy L: Tourism and

Recreation. These may include new buildings

and extended car parking in the area which

could lead to greater numbers of tourists

visiting the lake. However, it is unlikely that

increased recreational pressure would impinge

on the qualifying interests.

Strategic Policy D: Natural Environment makes

very strong provision for the protection of

European Sites when bringing new sites

forward referencing the responsibilities under

the Habitats Regulations.

The focus for tourism is on promoting the

understanding and enjoyment of the Special

Qualities of the National Park.

No effects on the Ramsar site predicted.

No effects predicted as a result of the LDP and

hence no in-combination effects are likely.

Promoting Accessibility & Inclusion

The LDP does not stipulate specific transport

development proposals and therefore is not

specific to effects upon individual European

sites.

Strategic Policy LI: Accessibility and Transport

Strategic Policy D: Natural Environment

makes very strong provision for the protection

of European Sites when bringing new sites

forward referencing the responsibilities under

the Habitats Regulations.

No effects on the Ramsar site predicted.

No effects predicted as a result of the LDP and

hence no in-combination effects are likely.

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Element of the LDP

Development and Land-Use Changes and

Potential Effects

states that development will be supported

where changes to the road network do not

damage or cause adverse effects to

environmental designations.

Avoidance and Mitigation

Likely Significant Effects (In View of

Avoidance and Mitigation)

In-Combination Effects (including relevant

avoidance and mitigation measures)

Appropriate Assessment Requirements

Appropriate Assessment not required

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Site Name Llyn Tegid Type of Site Ramsar Size of Site 478.08ha

Site Description

Justification for the application of each

Criterion

Conservation Objectives

Vulnerability

A large oligotrophic lake adjacent to the town of Y Bala, Llyn Tegid is the source of the River Dee.

• Ramsar Criterion 1: Largest natural lake in Wales, lying deep in formerly glaciated trough.

• Ramsar Criterion 2: Plant species growing in or beside the lake are mudwort (Limosa aquatica), six-stamened waterwort (Elatine hexandra), water sedge, (Carex aquatilis) and floating water

plantain (Luronium natans), all of which are scarce in Britain. The latter species is regarded as vulnerable on a global scale. This site is also one of only six sites in Britain for whitefish

(Gwyniad Coregonus lavaretus), though the Welsh population of this fish is genetically distinct. Llyn Tegid is also an unusual habitat for the normally riverine fish grayling (Thymallus thymallus).

The nationally rare glutinous snail (Myxas glutinosa) has been rediscovered in the shallow gravels of the lake shore.

No specific Conservation Objectives have been compiled for this site. The following are management objectives for all mesotrophic and oligotrophic lakes in Snowdonia National Park:

• Maintain diversity of flora and fauna

• Identify and implement effective remedial action to address nutrient enrichment

• Set limits of acceptable change when the trophic status is determined

A specific description of the vulnerability of this site has not been produced. A number of generic threats to mesotrophic and oligotrophic waters in Snowdonia National Park have been identified by

the SNPA: eutrophication and associated toxic blue green algal blooms; atmospheric acid and nutrient deposition; recreational impacts; land use changes in lake catchment areas that can alter the

water table, change the pollution load and degrade or remove valuable adjacent habitat; pesticide usage including sheep dip; water resources schemes; hydro-electric power schemes; climate

change.

Element of the LDP

Development and Land-Use Changes and

Potential Effects

Avoidance and Mitigation

Likely Significant Effects (In View of

Avoidance and Mitigation)

In-Combination Effects (including relevant

avoidance and mitigation measures)

The Development Strategy

Strategic Policy C: Spatial Strategy designates

Y Bala as one of two Local Service Centres in

the National Park where most housing and

employment development will occur.

225 houses are proposed to be spread

between Y Bala and Dolgellau throughout the

plan period. The exact number of houses

proposed for Y Bala is not stipulated. There are

two housing allocations in Y Bala. However,

both sites are small and neither is situated in

close proximity to the European Site. One site

lies within the existing development boundary,

and the other lies immediately adjacent to it.

Employment sites would be supported on land

allocated in the proposals map. The site

identified already contains significant

employment development. The site lies within

100m of the European Site.

Retail would be allowed close to the existing

commercial areas.

No direct land-take within the Ramsar site is

proposed.

In the absence of mitigation, effects from

housing, employment and retail development

of this scale is likely to be limited to an

increase in surface water run-off which may

contain pollutants (such as road run-off or

construction materials) which could find their

way into the Ramsar site. This is only likely to

be of concern for the employment site where

some of the site is greenfield land and is

The two housing allocations in Y Bala are very

small and neither is situated in close proximity

to the Ramsar site. One site lies within the

existing development boundary, and the other

lies immediately adjacent to it.

New developments must comply with Strategic

Policy A: National Park Purposes and

Sustainable Development and Development

Policy 1: General Development Principles

which seek to protect European designated

sites as a priority. Development Policy 1 also

states that development will only be permitted

where: it will not have an unacceptable impact

through discharges or emissions to air, soil,

surface and ground water; and, it does not

cause significant harm to the environment by

way of noise, dust, vibration, odour, light

pollution, hazardous materials or waste

production. As such, it is considered that if

polluted run-off or discharges are predicted to

occur, then appropriate mitigation measures

would need to be provided as part of the

design in order to comply with this LDP policy.

Strategic Policy D: Natural Environment

makes very strong provision for the protection

of European Sites when bringing new sites

forward referencing the responsibilities under

the Habitats Regulations.

Development Policy 23: Retail restricts new

retail development to within the main built up

areas and the scale should be appropriate to

No effects on the Ramsar site predicted.

Indirect impacts resulting from increased runoff

or polluted discharges would be mitigated to

negligible levels by the range of policy

measures proposed.

No effects predicted as a result of the LDP and

hence no in-combination effects are likely with

respect to effects upon water quality or flow.

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Element of the LDP

Development and Land-Use Changes and

Potential Effects

located nearest to the boundary of the Ramsar

site.

Avoidance and Mitigation

Likely Significant Effects (In View of

Avoidance and Mitigation)

In-Combination Effects (including relevant

avoidance and mitigation measures)

its setting.

Protecting, Enhancing & Managing the

Natural Environment

The policies within this group, and the

objectives behind their creation, support the

integrity of European Sites and the objectives

of nature conservation.

Strategic Policy D: Natural Environment states

that biodiversity resources will be protected

from inappropriate development. There is a

specific clause addressing the Habitats

Regulations and the need for all future

developments to meet their requirements.

No effects on the Ramsar site predicted.

No effects predicted as a result of the LDP and

hence no in-combination effects are likely.

Protecting & Enhancing the Cultural &

Historic Environment

No relevant policies. No mitigation required. No effects on the Ramsar site predicted. No effects predicted as a result of the LDP and

hence no in-combination effects are likely.

Promoting Healthy & Sustainable

Communities

Strategic Policy Ng: Housing promotes the

development of new open market and

affordable housing in Y Bala. The

consequences of this policy for this European

Site are discussed under, ‘The Development

Strategy’ above.

Development Policy 11: Affordable Housing on

Exception Sites allows affordable housing on

exception sites outside but immediately

adjoining the housing development boundary.

These would be small-scale exception sites

although they may be close to or adjoining

European Sites and could therefore result in

adverse effects.

Development Policy 11: Affordable Housing on

Exception Sites also states that there should

be no adverse effects upon the integrity of

European Sites as a result of affordable

housing on exception sites.

The lakeshore remains protected from

development under the plan.

No effects on the Ramsar site predicted.

No effects predicted as a result of the LDP and

hence no in-combination effects are likely.

Supporting a Sustainable Rural

Economy

The Y Bala employment site is identified under

The Development Strategy above.

Development Policy 19: New Employment and

Training Development restricts new

employment development to within or adjacent

to the main built up area, in existing buildings,

expansion of existing buildings or new

buildings only where there is no other suitable

accommodation in the locality.

Development Policy 23: Retail restricts new

retail development to within the main built up

areas and the scale should be appropriate to

its setting.

The consequences of this policy for this

European Site are discussed under, ‘The

Development Strategy’ above.

Tourism in the National Park is generally

promoted under Strategic Policy L: Tourism

and Recreation. Such activities could result in

water pollution effects upon Ramsar site

qualifying interests.

The focus for tourism is on promoting the

understanding and enjoyment of the Special

Qualities of the National Park. Developments

causing disturbance or generating noise or

light pollution will not be permitted.

New developments must comply with Strategic

Policy A: National Park Purposes and

Sustainable Development and Development

Policy 1: General Development Principles

which seek to protect European designated

sites as a priority. Development Policy 1 also

states that development will only be permitted

where: it will not have an unacceptable impact

through discharges or emissions to air, soil,

surface and ground water; and, it does not

cause significant harm to the environment by

way of noise, dust, vibration, odour, light

pollution, hazardous materials or waste

production.

Leisure and recreation activities causing an

adverse impact upon the qualifying interest will

not be permitted under Strategic Policy L:

Tourism and Recreation, part ii.

No effects on the Ramsar site predicted.

No effects predicted as a result of the LDP and

hence no in-combination effects are likely.

Promoting Accessibility & Inclusion

The LDP does not stipulate specific transport

development proposals and therefore is not

Strategic Policy D: Natural Environment

makes very strong provision for the protection

No effects on the Ramsar site predicted.

No effects predicted as a result of the LDP and

hence no in-combination effects are likely.

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Element of the LDP

Development and Land-Use Changes and

Potential Effects

Avoidance and Mitigation

Likely Significant Effects (In View of

Avoidance and Mitigation)

In-Combination Effects (including relevant

avoidance and mitigation measures)

specific to effects upon individual European

sites.

Strategic Policy LI: Accessibility and Transport

states that development will be supported

where changes to the road network do not

damage or cause adverse effects to

environmental designations.

of European Sites when bringing new sites

forward referencing the responsibilities under

the Habitats Regulations.

Appropriate Assessment Requirements

Appropriate Assessment not required

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Site Names Migneint-Arenig-Dduallt Type of Site SAC Size of Site 19968.23ha

Site Description

Annex I Habitats that are the primary

reason for site selection

Annex I Habitats present as a qualifying

interest but not a primary reason for site

selection

Migneint and Dduallt mark the limits of a large upland block located along the eastern fringe of Snowdonia National Park. The site supports the largest area of blanket bog in north Wales after

Berwyn and is particularly significant for the extent and quality of comparatively Sphagnum-rich M19 Calluna vulgaris – Eriophorum vaginatum blanket mire

European dry heaths [Status: Unfavourable as a result of inappropriate grazing, burning and presence of conifers]

Blanket bogs [Status: Unfavourable due to extent of Eriophorum vaginatum, drainage, erosion of peat and presence of trees]

Oligotrophic to mesotrophic standing waters with vegetation of the Littorelletea uniflorae and/or of the Isoeto-Nanojuncetea [Status: Unfavourable – recovering due to overgrazing]

Northern Atlantic wet heaths with Erica tetralix [Status: Unfavourable due to grazing, burning and drainage]

Old sessile oak woods with Ilex and Blechnum in the British Isles [Status: Unfavourable due to a lack of mature tress, lack of dead wood and concerns over grazing pressure and lack of

regeneration]

Natural dystrophic lakes and ponds [Status: Unfavourable – unclassified based on failures regarding water quality and forestry]

Conservation Objectives To achieve the Favourable Conservation Status of the above Habitats and Species. Full details are given in Appendix D.

Vulnerability

The main threats to the vegetation features of this site are from inappropriate grazing/burning/drainage and consequent degradation of blanket bog and heath. Afforestation of mire and heath has

also been a problem in the past. These problems are being addressed through a number of agri-environment scheme agreements (Tir Cymen/Tir Gofal) and several S15 management agreements.

A joint RSPB/Forest Enterprise/CCW black grouse project has also helped restore blanket bog and heath in some areas which had previously been planted with conifers. The vegetation and lake

features are vulnerable to acidification due to atmospheric pollution, which is compounded by the high rainfall and acidic geology/pedology of the site. Artificial liming of the catchment is an

additional threat. In the past this site has been significantly affected by quarrying, resulting in habitat destruction.

Element of the LDP Issues & Challenges Development and Land-Use Changes and

Potential Effects

Avoidance and Mitigation

Likely Significant Effects (In View of

Avoidance and Mitigation)

The Development Strategy

No development is proposed within or adjacent

to this SAC through the Development Strategy.

No effects are therefore likely.

Strategic Policy D: Natural Environment

makes very strong provision for the protection

of European Sites when bringing new sites

forward referencing the responsibilities under

the Habitats Regulations.

No effects on the SAC predicted.

No effects predicted as a result of the LDP and

hence no in-combination effects are likely.

Protecting, Enhancing & Managing the

Natural Environment

The policies within this group, and the

objectives behind their creation, support the

integrity of European Sites and the objectives

of nature conservation.

Strategic Policy D: Natural Environment states

that biodiversity resources will be protected

from inappropriate development. There is a

specific clause addressing the Habitats

Regulations and the need for all future

developments to meet their requirements.

No effects on the SAC predicted.

No effects predicted as a result of the LDP and

hence no in-combination effects are likely.

Protecting & Enhancing the Cultural &

Historic Environment

No relevant policies. No mitigation required. No effects on the SAC predicted. No effects predicted as a result of the LDP and

hence no in-combination effects are likely.

Promoting Healthy & Sustainable

Communities

Development Policy 11: Affordable Housing on

Exception Sites allows affordable housing on

exception sites outside but immediately

adjoining the housing development boundary.

These would be small-scale exceptional sites

although they may be close to or adjoining

European Sites and could therefore result in

adverse effects.

Development Policy 11 also states that there

should be no adverse effects upon the integrity

of European Sites as a result of affordable

housing on exception sites.

No effects on the SAC predicted.

No effects predicted as a result of the LDP and

hence no in-combination effects are likely.

Supporting a Sustainable Rural

Economy

Development Policy 20: Agricultural

Diversification allows non-farming uses of

agricultural land. Land uses changes near the

The policy requires any diversification

proposals to support National Park purposes.

When a conflict exists between the purposes,

No effects on the SAC predicted.

No effects predicted as a result of the LDP and

hence no in-combination effects are likely.

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Element of the LDP Issues & Challenges Development and Land-Use Changes and

Potential Effects

SAC may affect the quality of heath and bog

habitat and grazing intensity and consequently

some of the qualifying species which are

dependent upon it.

Potential improvements to tourism facilities

would be supported by Strategic Policy L:

Tourism and Recreation. These may include

new buildings, extended car parking, and new

walking or cycling trails. If located within the

SAC they could pose a threat through erosion.

However, it is unlikely that increased

recreational pressure would impinge on the

qualifying interests as identified in the

vulnerability section of the Natura 2000 Data

Form.

the Sandford Principle applies that prioritises

the conservation purpose.

Strategic Policy D: Natural Environment

makes very strong provision for the protection

of European Sites when bringing new sites

forward referencing the responsibilities under

the Habitats Regulations.

The focus for tourism is on promoting the

understanding and enjoyment of the Special

Qualities of the National Park. Developments

causing disturbance or generating noise or

light pollution will not be permitted.

New developments must comply with Strategic

Policy A: National Park Purposes and

Sustainable Development and Development

Policy 1: General Development Principles

which seek to protect European designated

sites as a priority. Development Policy 1 also

states that development will only be permitted

where: it will not have an unacceptable impact

through discharges or emissions to air, soil,

surface and ground water; and, it does not

cause significant harm to the environment by

way of noise, dust, vibration, odour, light

pollution, hazardous materials or waste

production.

Avoidance and Mitigation

Likely Significant Effects (In View of

Avoidance and Mitigation)

Promoting Accessibility & Inclusion

The LDP does not stipulate specific transport

development proposals and therefore is not

specific to effects upon individual European

sites.

Strategic Policy LI: Accessibility and Transport

states that development will be supported

where changes to the road network do not

damage or cause adverse effects to

environmental designations.

Strategic Policy D: Natural Environment

makes very strong provision for the protection

of European Sites when bringing new sites

forward referencing the responsibilities under

the Habitats Regulations.

No effects on the SAC predicted.

No effects predicted as a result of the LDP and

hence no in-combination effects are likely.

Appropriate Assessment Requirements

Appropriate Assessment not required

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Site Names Migneint-Arenig-Dduallt Type of Site SPA Size of Site 19968.23ha

Site Description

Annex I Birds and regularly occurring

Migratory Birds not listed on Annex I:

Quality and Importance

Migneint and Dduallt mark the limits of a large upland block located along the eastern fringe of Snowdonia National Park. The site supports the largest area of blanket bog in north Wales after

Berwyn and is particularly significant for the extent and quality of comparatively Sphagnum-rich M19 Calluna vulgaris – Eriophorum vaginatum blanket mire

During the breeding season the area regularly supports:

• Hen Harrier (Circus cyaneus): At least 2.1% of the GB breeding population (5 year peak mean for 1993/94 – 1997/98) [Status: Favourable]

• Merlin (Falco columbarius): At least 0.7% of the population in Great Britain (5 year peak mean for 1993/94 – 1997/98) [Status: Favourable]

• Peregrine Falcon (Falco peregrinus): At least 1% of the population in Great Britain (5 year peak mean for 1993/94 – 1997/98) [Status: Unfavourable with low numbers of birds recorded for

reasons unknown]

Conservation Objectives To achieve the Favourable Conservation Status of the above Species. Full details are given in Appendix D.

Vulnerability

Inappropriate grazing/burning/drainage management has damaged the feeding/breeding habitat of hen harrier and merlin, and damaged the feeding habitat of peregrine falcon. This is being

addressed in some areas through S15 Management Agreements and Tir Cymen/Tir Gofal agreements. Afforestation of blanket bog has also reduced breeding/feeding habitat in the past, but this is

being addressed to some extent by a joint RSPB/Forestry Commission/CCW habitat restoration project. The feeding/breeding habitats of all three species are also vulnerable to acidification due to

atmospheric pollution being compounded by the high rainfall and acidic geology/pedology of the site. This site has also been significantly affected in the past by quarrying operations which have

resulted in the destruction of habitats used by breeding birds, including the three SPA species. The recreational pressure from walkers is currently fairly low and diffused across the site, but the SPA

features could be affected if usage were to increase significantly close to breeding sites, for example following the implementation of the CROW Act or increased publicity through guidebooks.

Persecution has been a problem in the recent past, with birds being shot at the nest. It is hoped that this threat will be reduced by greater vigilance and by raising public awareness.

Element of the LDP Issues & Challenges Development and Land-Use Changes and

Potential Effects

Avoidance and Mitigation

Likely Significant Effects (In View of

Avoidance and Mitigation)

The Development Strategy

No development is proposed within or adjacent

to this SPA through the Development Strategy.

No effects are therefore likely.

Strategic Policy D: Natural Environment

makes very strong provision for the protection

of European Sites when bringing new sites

forward referencing the responsibilities under

the Habitats Regulations.

No effects on the SPA predicted.

No effects predicted as a result of the LDP and

hence no in-combination effects are likely.

Protecting, Enhancing & Managing the

Natural Environment

The policies within this group, and the

objectives behind their creation, support the

integrity of European Sites and the objectives

of nature conservation.

Strategic Policy D: Natural Environment states

that biodiversity resources will be protected

from inappropriate development. There is a

specific clause addressing the Habitats

Regulations and the need for all future

developments to meet their requirements.

No effects on the SPA predicted.

No effects predicted as a result of the LDP and

hence no in-combination effects are likely.

Protecting & Enhancing the Cultural &

Historic Environment

No relevant policies. No mitigation required. No effects on the SPA predicted. No effects predicted as a result of the LDP and

hence no in-combination effects are likely.

Promoting Healthy & Sustainable

Communities

Development Policy 11: Affordable Housing on

Exception Sites allows affordable housing on

exception sites outside but immediately

adjoining the housing development boundary.

These would be small-scale exceptional sites

although they may be close to or adjoining

European Sites and could therefore result in

adverse effects.

Development Policy 11: Affordable Housing on

Exception Sites also states that there should

be no adverse effects upon the integrity of

European Sites as a result of affordable

housing on exception sites.

No effects on the SPA predicted.

No effects predicted as a result of the LDP and

hence no in-combination effects are likely.

Supporting a Sustainable Rural

Economy

Development Policy 20: Agricultural

Diversification allows non-farming uses of

agricultural land. Land uses changes near the

SPA may cause disturbance to qualifying bird

interest or cause changes to habitat quality

through different land management practices.

Potential improvements to tourism facilities

The policy requires any diversification

proposals to support National Park purposes.

When a conflict exists between the purposes,

the Sandford Principle applies that prioritises

the conservation purpose.

Strategic Policy D: Natural Environment

makes very strong provision for the protection

No effects on the SPA predicted.

No effects predicted as a result of the LDP and

hence no in-combination effects are likely.

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Element of the LDP Issues & Challenges Development and Land-Use Changes and

Potential Effects

would be supported by Strategic Policy L:

Tourism and Recreation. These may include

new buildings, extended car parking, and new

walking or cycling trails. If located within the

SPA they could pose a threat through erosion.

However, it is unlikely that increased

recreational pressure would impinge on the

qualifying interests as identified in the

vulnerability section of the Natura 2000 Data

Form.

of European Sites when bringing new sites

forward referencing the responsibilities under

the Habitats Regulations.

The focus for tourism is on promoting the

understanding and enjoyment of the Special

Qualities of the National Park. Developments

causing disturbance or generating noise or

light pollution will not be permitted.

New developments must comply with Strategic

Policy A: National Park Purposes and

Sustainable Development and Development

Policy 1: General Development Principles

which seek to protect European designated

sites as a priority. General Development Policy

1 also states that development will only be

permitted where: it will not have an

unacceptable impact through discharges or

emissions to air, soil, surface and ground

water; and, it does not cause significant harm

to the environment by way of noise, dust,

vibration, odour, light pollution, hazardous

materials or waste production.

Avoidance and Mitigation

Likely Significant Effects (In View of

Avoidance and Mitigation)

Promoting Accessibility & Inclusion

The LDP does not stipulate specific transport

development proposals and therefore is not

specific to effects upon individual European

sites.

Strategic Policy LI: Accessibility and Tourism

states that development will be supported

where changes to the road network do not

damage or cause adverse effects to

environmental designations.

Strategic Policy D: Natural Environment

makes very strong provision for the protection

of European Sites when bringing new sites

forward referencing the responsibilities under

the Habitats Regulations.

No effects on the SPA predicted.

No effects predicted as a result of the LDP and

hence no in-combination effects are likely.

Appropriate Assessment Requirements

Appropriate Assessment not required

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Site Name Morfa Harlech a Morfa Dyffryn Type of Site SAC Size of Site 1062.57ha

Site Description

Annex I Habitats that are the primary

reason for site selection

Annex II Species that are a primary

reason for site selection

The site consists of two reserves located on the northern coast of Cardigan Bay and separated by the town of Harlech. The site is a National Nature Reserve characterised mainly by shifting dunes

along the shoreline and areas of salt marsh further inland.

Embryonic shifting dunes [Condition: Favourable – maintained]

Dunes with Salix repens ssp. Argentea (Salicion arenariae) [Condition: Unfavourable – declining due to cattle grazing, human disturbance and scrub encroachment]

Shifting dunes along the shoreline with Ammophila arenaria (‘white dunes’) [Condition: Favourable – maintained]

Humid dune slacks [Condition: Unfavourable – declining due to cattle grazing, human disturbance and scrub encroachment]

Petalwort (Petalophyllum ralfsil) has been recorded in dune slacks in the two dune systems at this site; it is most frequent at Morfa Dyffyrn. [Condition: Favourable – maintained]

Conservation Objectives To achieve the Favourable Conservation Status of the above Habitats and Species. Full details are given in Appendix D.

Vulnerability

The beaches adjacent to both dune systems are subject to heavy recreational pressure, particularly in the summer months. Access points through the dunes are actively managed to minimise dune

destabilisation by visitors. Morfa Dyffryn is especially vulnerable as it is actively mobile and has a limited external sand supply.

Element of the LDP Issues & Challenges Development and Land-Use Changes and

Potential Effects

Avoidance and Mitigation

Likely Significant Effects (In View of

Avoidance and Mitigation)

The Development Strategy

Located immediately adjacent to the SAC,

Harlech is classified as a Service Settlement

capable of absorbing developments that serve

a wider area, including small scale affordable

housing, retail and employment sites.

110 houses are proposed across five Service

Settlements throughout the plan period. The

exact number of houses proposed for Harlech

is not stipulated.

Whilst no housing, employment or retail sites

would directly affect the SAC, the associated

population growth may contribute to increased

recreational pressure on the SAC causing, for

example, additional erosion of dune features or

access points. However, the levels of growth

proposed are so small, it is not considered to

be likely to result in a perceptible effect upon

the site.

No mitigation required.

Strategic Policy D: Natural Environment makes

very strong provision for the protection of

European Sites when bringing new sites

forward referencing the responsibilities under

the Habitats Regulations.

No effects on the SAC predicted.

No effects predicted as a result of the LDP and

hence no in-combination effects are likely.

Furthermore:

The Draft Final Wales Coastal Tourism

Strategy (WAG, 2007) does not contain any

proposals which could adversely affect this

area.

The North Cardigan Bay Shoreline

Management Plan (Gwynedd Council,

Highways and Engineering Department, Coast

Protection Unit, January 2002) divides the

coast between Dyfi railway bridge and

Aberdaron at the tip of the Lleyn Peninsula into

13 management units, with each further

subdivided according to local topography and

land use. It sets the preferred management

option for each sub-unit - Hold the Line,

Advance the Line, Retreat or Do Nothing.

• There are no Advance the Line options

within the National Park.

• Retreat is the chosen option between

Aberdyfi golf course and the outskirts of

Tywyn and at Llwyngwril.

• Hold the Line is selected at built up areas

(Aberdyfi, Fairbourne, Barmouth, Tywyn,

Llandanwg, Porthmadog), at Rola where

the railway line runs close to the coast and

on the south side of the Mawddach

estuary.

• Do Nothing is selected everywhere else.

As such, no adverse effects upon the SAC are

predicted.

Protecting, Enhancing & Managing the The policies within this group, and the Strategic Policy D: Natural Environment states No effects on the SAC predicted. No effects predicted as a result of the LDP and

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Element of the LDP Issues & Challenges Development and Land-Use Changes and

Potential Effects

Natural Environment

objectives behind their creation, support the

integrity of European Sites and the objectives

of nature conservation.

that biodiversity resources will be protected

from inappropriate development. There is a

specific clause addressing the Habitats

Regulations and the need for all future

developments to meet their requirements.

Avoidance and Mitigation

Likely Significant Effects (In View of

Avoidance and Mitigation)

hence no in-combination effects are likely.

Protecting & Enhancing the Cultural &

Historic Environment

No relevant policies None required No effects on the SAC predicted. No effects predicted as a result of the LDP and

hence no in-combination effects are likely.

Promoting Healthy & Sustainable

Communities

Strategic Policy Ng: Housing restricts all new

build housing and conversion to within the

housing development boundary.

The consequences of this policy for this

European Site are discussed under, ‘The

Development Strategy’ above.

Development Policy 11: Affordable Housing on

Exception Sites allows affordable housing on

exception sites outside but immediately

adjoining the housing development boundary.

These would be small-scale exceptional sites

although they may be close to or adjoining

European Sites and could therefore result in

adverse effects.

Development Policy 11: Affordable Housing on

Exception Sites also states that there should

be no adverse effects upon the integrity of

European Sites as a result of affordable

housing on exception sites.

No effects on the SAC predicted.

No effects predicted as a result of the LDP and

hence no in-combination effects are likely.

Supporting a Sustainable Rural

Economy

Expansion of neighbouring camping and

caravan sites is supported within Development

Policy 22: Touring and Camping Sites.

The associated growth in visitor numbers may

contribute to increased recreational pressure

on the SAC causing, for example, additional

erosion of dune features or access points.

However, the levels of growth proposed are so

small, it is not considered to be likely to result

in a perceptible effect upon the site.

It is unlikely that these small increases in visitor

numbers would have a noticeable effect upon

the SAC. However, Strategic Policy D would

also need to be considered which makes very

strong provision for the protection of European

Sites when bringing new sites forward

referencing the responsibilities under the

Habitats Regulations.

No effects on the SAC predicted.

No effects predicted as a result of the LDP and

hence no in-combination effects are likely.

See comments regarding the Coastal Tourism

Strategy and Shoreline Management Plan

above.

Promoting Accessibility & Inclusion

The LDP does not stipulate specific transport

development proposals and therefore is not

specific to effects upon individual European

sites.

Strategic Policy LI: Accessibility and Transport

states that development will be supported

where changes to the road network do not

damage or cause adverse effects to

environmental designations.

Strategic Policy D: Natural Environment

makes very strong provision for the protection

of European Sites when bringing new sites

forward referencing the responsibilities under

the Habitats Regulations.

No effects on the SPA predicted.

No effects predicted as a result of the LDP and

hence no in-combination effects are likely.

Appropriate Assessment Requirements

Appropriate Assessment not required

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Site Name Mwyngloddiau Fforest Gwydir / Gwydyr Forest Mines Type of Site SAC Size of Site 39.75ha

Site Description

Annex I Habitats that are the primary

reason for site selection

Annex II Species present as a qualifying

interest but not a primary reason for site

selection

This site consists of a large number of small habitat units within a largely coniferous forested area between the towns of Betws-y-Coed and Llanrwst.

Calaminarian grasslands of the Violetalia calaminariae [Status: Unfavourable due to encroachment from higher plants, smothering by conifer needles, removal of mine spoil, recreation]

Lesser horseshoe bat (Rhinolophus hipposideros) [Status: Unfavourable as entrances are unsecured leading to the potential for disturbance from either natural or anthropogenic sources]

Conservation Objectives To achieve the Favourable Conservation Status of the above Habitat and Species. Full details are given in Appendix D.

Vulnerability

The component grassland sites are generally unmanaged and are not used recreationally. The SAC will require continued monitoring for purposes such as the assessment of conifer encroachment,

as well as an agreement with the site owners to effect positive management.

Element of the LDP Issues & Challenges Development and Land-Use Changes and

Potential Effects

Avoidance and Mitigation

Likely Significant Effects (In View of

Avoidance and Mitigation)

The Development Strategy

Located approximately 500m to the south of

one unit of the SAC, Betws-y-Coed is classified

as a Service Settlement capable of absorbing

developments that serve a wider area,

including small scale affordable housing, retail

and employment sites.

110 houses are proposed across five Service

Settlements throughout the plan period. The

exact number of houses proposed for Aberdyfi

is not stipulated.

No direct land-take within the SAC is proposed

and the distance from the site suggests that

indirect impacts upon Calaminarian grasslands

is very unlikely.

Strategic Policy C: Spatial Strategy also allows

conversions of rural buildings in the open

countryside. This is further supported by

Development Policies 7: Listed and Traditional

Buildings and 9: Conversion and Change of

Use of Rural Buildings. Locations of buildings

are not specified but could viably be within the

SAC and may contain lesser horseshoe bat

roosts. Conversions of these buildings have

the potential to adversely affect these roosts

and consequently bat populations.

New developments to comply with Strategic

Policy A: National Park Purposes and

Sustainable Development and Development

Policy 1: General Development Principles

which seek to protect European designated

sites as a priority. Development Policy 1 also

states that development will only be permitted

where: it will not have an unacceptable impact

through discharges or emissions to air, soil,

surface and ground water; and, it does not

cause significant harm to the environment by

way of noise, dust, vibration, odour, light

pollution, hazardous materials or waste

production.

Strategic Policy D: Natural Environment

makes very strong provision for the protection

of European Sites when bringing new sites

forward referencing the responsibilities under

the Habitats Regulations.

Strategic Policy Ng: Housing restricts all new

build housing and conversion to within the

housing development boundary.

Development Policy 19: New Employment and

Training Development restricts new

employment development to within or adjacent

to the main built up area, in existing buildings,

expansion of existing buildings or new

buildings only where there is no other suitable

accommodation in the locality.

Development Policy 23: Retail restricts new

retail development to within the main built up

areas and the scale should be appropriate to

its setting.

Furthermore, Development Policies 7 and 9

which relate to listed and traditional buildings

and conversion of rural buildings would not

No effects on the SAC predicted.

Gwydyr Forest lies in the far north-east of the

National Park.

No effects predicted as a result of the LDP and

hence no in-combination effects are likely.

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Element of the LDP Issues & Challenges Development and Land-Use Changes and

Potential Effects

allow such conversions if they were to result in

significant adverse effects upon protected

species or if significant adverse effects upon

the integrity of a European Site were likely.

Avoidance and Mitigation

Likely Significant Effects (In View of

Avoidance and Mitigation)

Protecting, Enhancing & Managing the

Natural Environment

The policies within this group, and the

objectives behind their creation, support the

integrity of European Sites and the objectives

of nature conservation.

Strategic Policy D: Natural Environment states

that biodiversity resources will be protected

from inappropriate development. There is a

specific clause addressing the Habitats

Regulations and the need for all future

developments to meet their requirements.

No effects on the SAC predicted.

No effects predicted as a result of the LDP and

hence no in-combination effects are likely.

Protecting & Enhancing the Cultural &

Historic Environment

Development Policy 9: Conversion and

Change of Use of Rural Buildings supports the

conversion of redundant rural buildings, which

may be used as roosting sites by lesser

horseshoe bats. Conversions of these

buildings have the potential to adversely affect

these roosts and consequently bat populations.

Development Policy 7: Listed and Traditional

Buildings also allows conversions and changes

under exceptional circumstances. Such

buildings, if within the SAC may also house

lesser horseshoe bat roosts which may be

affected by conversions.

In addition to the stringent requirements of

Strategic Policy D, Development Policies 7 and

9 would not allow conversions if they were to

result in significant adverse effects upon

protected species or if significant adverse

effects upon the integrity of a European Site

were likely.

No effects on the SAC predicted.

No effects predicted as a result of the LDP and

hence no in-combination effects are likely.

Promoting Healthy & Sustainable

Communities

Strategic Policy Ng: Housing restricts all new

build housing and conversion to within the

housing development boundary.

The consequences of this policy for this

European Site are discussed under, ‘The

Development Strategy’ above.

Development Policy 11: Affordable Housing on

Exception Sites allows affordable housing on

exception sites outside but immediately

adjoining the housing development boundary.

These would be small-scale exception sites

although they may be close to or adjoining

European Sites and could therefore result in

adverse effects.

Development Policy 11: Affordable Housing on

Exception Sites also states that there should

be no adverse effects upon the integrity of

European Sites as a result of affordable

housing on exception sites.

No effects on the SAC predicted.

No effects predicted as a result of the LDP and

hence no in-combination effects are likely.

Supporting a Sustainable Rural

Economy

Development Policy 9 supports the conversion

of rural buildings for employment uses in

certain circumstances.

The consequences of this policy for this

European Site are discussed above.

See above. No effects on the SAC predicted. No effects predicted as a result of the LDP and

hence no in-combination effects are likely.

Promoting Accessibility & Inclusion

The LDP does not stipulate specific transport

development proposals and therefore is not

specific to effects upon individual European

sites.

Strategic Policy LI: Accessibility and Transport

states that development will be supported

where changes to the road network do not

damage or cause adverse effects to

Strategic Policy D: Natural Environment

makes very strong provision for the protection

of European Sites when bringing new sites

forward referencing the responsibilities under

the Habitats Regulations.

No effects on the SAC predicted.

No effects predicted as a result of the LDP and

hence no in-combination effects are likely.

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Element of the LDP Issues & Challenges Development and Land-Use Changes and

Potential Effects

environmental designations.

Avoidance and Mitigation

Likely Significant Effects (In View of

Avoidance and Mitigation)

Appropriate Assessment Requirements

Appropriate Assessment not required

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Site Name Pen Llyn a’r Sarnau / Lleyn Peninsula and the Sarnau Type of Site SAC Size of Site 146,023.48ha

Site Description

A large marine area extending from Penrhyn Nefyn on the northern shore of the Lleyn Peninsula to just north of Aberystwyth in mid-Wales. It includes the shores of Bardsey Island (Ynys Enlli), the

Sarnau reefs in Cardigan Bay and the Glaslyn-Dwyryd, Mawddach and Dyfi estuaries.

Annex I Habitats that are the primary

reason for site selection

Large shallow inlets and bays

Estuaries

Coastal lagoons

Reefs

Sandbanks which are slightly covered by sea water all the time

Annex II Species that are a primary

reason for site selection

Annex II Species present as a qualifying

interest but not a primary reason for site

selection

Mud-flats and sand-flats not covered by seawater at low tide

Atlantic salt meadows (Glauco-Puccinellietalia maritimae)

Salicornia and other annuals colonising mud and sand

Submerged or partially submerged sea caves

Bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncates)

Grey seal (Halichoerus grypus)

Otter (Lutra lutra)

Conservation Objectives To achieve the Favourable Conservation Status of the above Habitats and Species. Full details are given in Appendix D.

Vulnerability

Construction, e.g. of slipways, coastal defence and marinas/harbours could cause disturbance to the estuarine, intertidal mudflat and sandflat, and reef habitats and disrupt physical processes

essential for maintenance of these habitats. There is an increasing demand for additional facilities and/or upgrading existing facilities. Certain reef communities are vulnerable to disturbance from

specific fishing methods, in particular heavy bottom-fishing gear. The potential impacts of heavy bottom-fishing gear on the subtidal sandbank and shallow inlet and bay habitats will need to be

assessed. There is the possibility of future drilling for oil and gas in Cardigan Bay and the Irish Sea as well as the possibility of offshore wind power developments – CCW is advising the on potential

impacts and possible ways of minimising these. Many of the marine wildlife communities in the SAC are sensitive to oil pollution. The development of oilwells and boat traffic in the Irish Sea present

potential pollution sources. The North Wales Standing Environment Group is preparing a regional contingency plan to help coordinate response to try and minimise environmental impacts in the

event of a pollution incident.

Element of the LDP Issues & Challenges Development and Land-Use Changes and

Potential Effects

The Development Strategy

Strategic Policy C: Spatial Strategy establishes

a settlement hierarchy to distribute

development across the National Park.

The following settlements are identified for

development which lie either adjacent to or in

close proximity to the SAC.

Service Settlement (110 houses across five

settlements) employment development, new or

improved local facilities and retail development:

Aberdyfi – adjacent to the SAC. All proposals

are within or adjacent to existing built-up areas

away from the foreshore.

Secondary Settlements (380 houses spread

across 39 settlements) employment

development and new or improved local

facilities: Llanelltyd (adjacent to SAC) and

New developments to comply with Strategic

Policy A: National Park Purposes and

Sustainable Development and Development

Policy 1: General Development Principles

which seek to protect European designated

sites as a priority. Development Policy 1 also

states that development will only be permitted

where: it will not have an unacceptable impact

through discharges or emissions to air, soil,

surface and ground water; and, it does not

cause significant harm to the environment by

way of noise, dust, vibration, odour, light

pollution, hazardous materials or waste

production.

Strategic Policy D: Natural Environment

makes very strong provision for the protection

Avoidance and Mitigation

No effects on the SAC predicted.

Likely Significant Effects (In View of

Avoidance and Mitigation)

No effects predicted as a result of the LDP and

hence no in-combination effects are likely.

The Draft Final Wales Coastal Tourism

Strategy (WAG 2007) does not contain any

proposals which could adversely affect this

area.

The North Cardigan Bay Shoreline

Management Plan (Gwynedd Council,

Highways and Engineering Department, Coast

Protection Unit, January 2002) divides the

coast between Dyfi railway bridge and

Aberdaron at the tip of the Lleyn Peninsula into

13 management units, with each further

subdivided according to local topography and

land use. It sets the preferred management

option for each sub-unit - Hold the Line,

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Element of the LDP Issues & Challenges Development and Land-Use Changes and

Potential Effects

Bont-Ddu (within 100m of the SAC). All

proposals are within or adjacent to existing

built-up areas away from the foreshore.

Smaller Settlements (54 houses spread across

27 settlements) new or improved local facilities:

Penmaenpool (adjacent to the SAC).

No direct land-take within the SAC would occur

and the development proposed would not be

adjacent to the SAC so it is not considered that

such development would result in adverse

effects upon the qualifying interests.

No indirect effects are considered likely.

of European Sites when bringing new sites

forward referencing the responsibilities under

the Habitats Regulations.

Strategic Policy Ng restricts all new build

housing and conversion to within the housing

development boundary.

Development Policy 19: New Employment and

Training Development restricts new

employment development to within or adjacent

to the main built up area, in existing buildings,

expansion of existing buildings or new

buildings only where there is no other suitable

accommodation in the locality.

Development Policy 23: Retail restricts new

retail development to within the main built up

areas and the scale should be appropriate to

its setting.

Avoidance and Mitigation

Likely Significant Effects (In View of

Avoidance and Mitigation)

Advance the Line, Retreat or Do Nothing.

• There are no Advance the Line options

within the National Park.

• Retreat is the chosen option between

Aberdyfi golf course and the outskirts of

Tywyn and at Llwyngwril.

• Hold the Line is selected at built up areas

(Aberdyfi, Fairbourne, Barmouth, Tywyn,

Llandanwg, Porthmadog), at Rola where

the railway line runs close to the coast and

on the south side of the Mawddach

estuary.

• Do Nothing is selected everywhere else.

As such, no adverse effects upon the SAC are

predicted.

Protecting, Enhancing & Managing the

Natural Environment

The policies within this group, and the

objectives behind their creation, support the

integrity of European Sites and the objectives

of nature conservation.

Strategic Policy E: Climate Change also

requires that coastal and protection works must

have no adverse effects or that they can be

satisfactorily mitigated.

Strategic Policy D: Natural Environment states

that biodiversity resources will be protected

from inappropriate development. There is a

specific clause addressing the Habitats

Regulations and the need for all future

developments to meet their requirements.

Positive impacts upon the European site as a

result of measures to support nature

conservation within the planning process.

North Cardigan Bay Shoreline Management

Plan reinforces the conservation objectives of

the SAC against inappropriate development.

Protecting & Enhancing the Cultural &

Historic Environment

No relevant policies None required No effects on the SAC predicted. No effects predicted as a result of the LDP and

hence no in-combination effects are likely.

Promoting Healthy & Sustainable

Communities

Strategic Policy Ng: Housing restricts all new

build housing and conversion to within the

housing development boundary.

The consequences of this policy for this

European Site are discussed under, ‘The

Development Strategy’ above.

Development Policy 11: Affordable Housing on

Exception Sites allows affordable housing on

exception sites outside but immediately

adjoining the housing development boundary.

These would be small-scale exceptional sites

although they may be close to or adjoining

European Sites and could therefore result in

adverse effects.

Development Policy 11: Affordable Housing on

Exception Sites also states that there should

be no adverse effects upon the integrity of

European Sites as a result of affordable

housing on exception sites.

No effects on the SAC predicted.

No effects predicted as a result of the LDP and

hence no in-combination effects are likely.

North Cardigan Bay Shoreline Management

Plan reinforces the conservation objectives of

the SAC against inappropriate development.

Supporting a Sustainable Rural

Economy

No relevant policies None required No effects on the SAC predicted. No effects predicted as a result of the LDP and

hence no in-combination effects are likely.

Promoting Accessibility & Inclusion No relevant policies None required No effects on the SAC predicted. No effects predicted as a result of the LDP and

hence no in-combination effects are likely.

Appropriate Assessment Requirements

Appropriate Assessment not required

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Site Name Rhinog Type of Site SAC Size of Site 3144.53ha

Site Description

Annex I Habitats that are the primary

reason for site selection

Annex I Habitats present as a qualifying

interest but not a primary reason for site

selection

Annex II Species present as a qualifying

interest but not a primary reason for site

selection

A rugged upland massif, Rhinog is located between Morfa Harlech and Llyn Trawsfynydd. It consists of upland dry heaths on shady slopes and contains some of the best high-quality examples of

old sessile oak woods in the British Isles.

European dry heaths [Condition: Favourable – maintained]

Old sessile oak woods with Ilex and Blechnum in the British Isles [Condition: Favourable – maintained]

Oligotrophic to mesotrophic standing waters with vegetation of the Littorelletea uniflorae and/or of the Isoeto-Nanojuncetea [Condition:

Unfavourable – recovering due to poor water quality]

Depressions on peat substrates of the Rhynchosporion [Condition: Favourable]

Northern Atlantic wet heaths with Erica tetralix [Condition: Favourable – maintained]

Blanket bog (Priority feature) [Condition: Favourable – maintained]

Alpine and Boreal heaths [Condition: Favourable – maintained]

Floating water plantain (Luronium natans) [Condition: Favourable – maintained]

Conservation Objectives To achieve the Favourable Conservation Status of the above Habitats and Species. Full details are given in Appendix D.

Vulnerability

The area is popular for walking; however, due to the rough terrain, recreational pressures are largely confined to public rights of way and car parks, with minimal impact upon the special features.

The high rainfall and extensive acidic geology/pedology renders this area, especially its watercourses and lakes, vulnerable to acidification. The lichen-rich and bryophyte-rich oceanic heathland is

vulnerable to burning and over-grazing. Current general policy is to continue the traditionally low levels of sheep/feral goat grazing and to discourage burning. In the woodland areas, the vegetation

requires careful management by manipulation of grazing to achieve appropriate light and humidity levels for the exceptionally rich lichen and bryophyte assemblages while ensuring adequate

regeneration of the woodland. These issues are being addressed through the use of agri-environment schemes (Tir Cymen/Tir Gofal) and S15 management agreements.

Element of the LDP Issues & Challenges Development and Land-Use Changes and

Potential Effects

The Development Strategy

Protecting, Enhancing & Managing the

Natural Environment

Protecting & Enhancing the Cultural &

Historic Environment

Promoting Healthy & Sustainable

Communities

Supporting a Sustainable Rural

Economy

No settlements listed in the LDP hierarchy are

located within or adjacent to the SAC.

Conversion of rural buildings and the

construction of new housing to serve an

essential need to live in the countryside are

sanctioned under Strategic Policy C: Spatial

Strategy. Localised impacts on the SAC may

be possible.

The policies within this group, and the

objectives behind their creation, support the

integrity of European Sites and the objectives

of nature conservation.

Outside of existing settlements new

development must conform to Development

Policy 1: General Development Principles,

which require good access and environmental

safeguards. There are also a series of

avoidance measures in Section 3 of the LDP;

‘Protecting, Enhancing and Managing the

Natural Environment’ and the plan is intended

to be read as a whole.

Strategic Policy D: Natural Environment states

that biodiversity resources will be protected

from inappropriate development. There is a

specific clause addressing the Habitats

Regulations and the need for all future

developments to meet their requirements.

Avoidance and Mitigation

Dolgellau lies too far to the north for

development within its boundary to impact

upon the qualifying interests of the SAC.

Any development in or adjacent to the SAC

would not be permitted under Section 3 of the

LDP.

No effects on the SAC predicted.

Positive impacts upon the European site as a

result of measures to support nature

conservation within the planning process.

Likely Significant Effects (In View of

Avoidance and Mitigation)

No effects predicted as a result of the LDP and

hence no in-combination effects are likely.

Positive impacts on qualifying interests would

be reinforced by the planned and existing

management agreements.

No relevant policies. No mitigation required. No effects on the SAC predicted. No effects predicted as a result of the LDP and

hence no in-combination effects are likely.

No communities are present within the area of

the SAC and so there will be no land use

changes that could affect the site.

The promotion of tourism by Strategic Policy L:

Tourism and Recreation may see increases in

the numbers of people accessing parts of the

SAC. Walkers in particular may contribute to

No mitigation required. No effects on the SAC predicted. No effects predicted as a result of the LDP and

hence no in-combination effects are likely.

The focus of Strategic Policy L: Tourism and

Recreation is on promoting sustainable tourism

that enables appreciation of the Special

Qualities of the National Park. The policy

There would be no effects on the SAC as a

consequence of policies in the LDP.

Strategic Policies D: Natural Environment and

L: Tourism and Recreation provide sufficient

No effects predicted as a result of the LDP and

hence no in-combination effects are likely.

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Element of the LDP Issues & Challenges Development and Land-Use Changes and

Potential Effects

ground compaction, loss of vegetation and

erosion of vulnerable soils that support the

qualifying interests.

Several campsites adjoin the SAC whose

potential expansion is sanctioned under

Development Policy 22: Touring and Camping

Sites.

specifically excludes developments that

adversely impact upon European Sites.

Strategic Policy D: Natural Environment would

also apply and would eliminate the risk of

campsite expansion to the SAC.

Avoidance and Mitigation

protection to the SAC against indirect effects of

minor development.

Likely Significant Effects (In View of

Avoidance and Mitigation)

Promoting Accessibility & Inclusion

The LDP does not stipulate specific transport

development proposals and therefore is not

specific to effects upon individual European

sites.

Strategic Policy LI: Accessibility and Transport

states that development will be supported

where changes to the road network do not

damage or cause adverse effects to

environmental designations.

Strategic Policy D: Natural Environment

makes very strong provision for the protection

of European Sites when bringing new sites

forward referencing the responsibilities under

the Habitats Regulations.

No effects on the SAC predicted.

No effects predicted as a result of the LDP and

hence no in-combination effects are likely.

Appropriate Assessment Requirements

Appropriate Assessment not required

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5.4 Summary of Key Findings

The assessment exercise highlighted a number of areas of potential concern that

could affect the European Sites. However, in each case it has been determined

that the avoidance and mitigation provisions within the LDP would be sufficient to

eliminate the possibility of significant adverse impacts upon European Sites. The

areas of concern are broadly similar to those identified in the Options Screening

Report, but have now been addressed during the production of the Deposit Version

LDP. The following summarises how this has been achieved.

Overall Level of Development

The LDP plans for very modest levels of development, in keeping with National

Park status requiring the highest levels of statutory protection. The requirement for

new housing development during the plan period has been calculated at

approximately 770-830 dwellings (around 51-55 dwellings epr year). No major

developments will be permitted in the National Park e.g quarries, large industrial

development, large power generating schemes, without a proven national need,

and regional growth targets will be mainly accommodated in larger settlements

outside the park such as Bangor, Caernarfon and Aberystwyth. The levels of

growth and the identified locations for it make impacts upon European Sites

unlikely. Furthermore, the LDP has to be read as a whole and Strategic Policy D:

Natural Environment states that biodiversity resources will be protected from

inappropriate development and it cites the requirements of the Habitats

Regulations. Specific mitigation is laso included within those policies where

potential risks have been identified.

Housing Growth

The provision of more affordable housing is a key aim of the LDP. A settlement

hierarchy is established to distribute new housing within existing settlements, and

concentrates growth in the two Local Service Centres of Y Bala and Dolgellau

where higher level services are already provided. Although small-scale extensions

to existing settlements for affordable housing are possible within Development

Policy 11: Affordable Housing on Exception Sites, Strategic Policy D: Natural

Environment ensures that inappropriate development will be unable to take place

on or close to European Sites. Furthermore, Development Policy 11 includes a

specific mitigationclause. Collectively, these measures would ensure that

significant development that could potentially harm the integrity of European Sites

is not possible under the Plan.

Conversion of Rural Buildings

As part of the overall aim of accommodating limited growth with minimum impact

upon the landscape, Development Policy 9: Conversion and Change of Use of

Rural Buildings supports the conversion of existing but redundant rural buildings for

housing or employment uses. Such structures may by bats as temporary and

permanent roosts, and as the Lesser Horseshoe Bat is a qualifying interest of

some of the European Sites, there is the potential for adverse impacts as a result

of the change of use. Following recommendations from the SA process, this policy

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has been amended to ensure that there would be no significant adverse imapcts

on protected species, as a .result of conversions.

Promotion of Tourism

Tourism a key economic activity within the National Park and the LDP supports the

growth of sustainable tourist developments. An amendment to Strategic Policy L:

Tourism and Recreation specifically requires that designated conservation sites be

protected. Indirect impacts of this policy may relate to increasing tourist numbers

placing additional strain upon the infrastructure of the National Park, notably roads

and footpaths. However, tourist numbers are influenced by a wide range of socioeconomic

factors and management strategies over which the LDP has no control.

However, there is likely to be a role for the National Park Management Plan in

helping to control tourist activities in the National Park.

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6 Conclusions and Recommendations

The Snowdonia National Park’s planning framework confers the highest level of

statutory protection in the UK. As the planning authority, the SNPA is obliged to

have full regard to the intrinsic qualities of the National Park at both the strategic

planning and development control levels. The National Park’s biodiversity is one of

these qualities and as such, the SNPA is committed to protecting the biodiversity

within and around its borders. In addition, the SNPA is required by legislation to

protect sites of international significance, of which there are many in the National

Park.

The LDP identifies a growth strategy and broad locations and approaches for

implementing this growth. Many of the European Sites are located near to existing

settlements but the levels of growth are very low and considered to be negligible in

terms of potentially affecting any European Sites. Whilst the locations of all

developments are unknown and will be dependent upon the submission of

individual planning applications, Strategic Policy D: Natural Environment provides

clear guidance that the integrity of European Sites will be protected from potentially

harmful development.

In the development of the Deposit Version LDP, the SNPA has included provisions

to protect European Sites within individual policies. It has also included within

Strategic Policy D: Natural Environment, the overarching aim to protect the integrity

of European Sites against potentially harmful development. The LDP must be read

as a whole, and it is considered that this strong provision will ensure that no

significant environmental effects would be likely and that there is no need to

undertake an Appropriate Assessment of the LDP.

Furthermore, in addition to considering the impacts of the LDP in isolation, it is

necessary to determine whether it would have significant effects in combination

with other plans. The Consultation Draft Annex to TAN5 states that if a plan has no

effects in isolation then the planning authority can determine that there would be no

significant effects in combination with any other plan.

In light of the results of this Screening Report, it can be concluded that the

LDP will not have any significant effects upon the integrity of any of the

European Sites within the National Park or in adjacent areas, either alone or

in combination with other plans or projects and will, therefore, not require

Appropriate Assessment.

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Appendix A

Preferred Strategy Options

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Landscape

L1c

L1e

Continue to develop programmes aimed at improving the current

landscape through practical interventions, e.g. Rhaglen Tir Eryri,

control of invasive weeds

Designate ‘green wedges’ between settlements to avoid

coalescence of settlements

Biodiversity

B1a

B1b

B1c

Pursue targets for individual species in accordance with the Eryri

Local Biodiversity Plan. Develop policies and programmes to

increase levels of biodiversity significantly through Snowdonia, to

reduce the negative impact of invasive weeds and to encourage

community involvement in relevant programmes.

Give the highest priority to the conservation and enhancement of the

characteristic biodiversity of Snowdonia. This gives specific, yet not

exclusive protection to habitats and species designated under

European legislation and as such affords protection to the integrity of

those sites listed within the Natura 2000 network

Progress improvements to water, soil and air quality with partner

organisations and identify any future changes that may occur

through climate change (recognising the vital role of all three

elements in reduction and mitigation)

Land Management

LM 1a

Support agricultural and forestry diversification only where this is

consistent with National Park purposes, allowing sensitively

designed and sited development, and encouraging development

which helps to conserve the National Park’s Special Qualities or

provides for their understanding or enjoyment

Cultural Heritage

CH1a

CH1b

CH1c

CH1d

CH1e

Take into account the desirability of conserving the cultural

traditions, practices and artefacts of Snowdonia in determining

planning applications and formulating programmes.

Treat vernacular barns and other buildings as important features in

their own right, and encourage sensitive re-use of redundant

traditional farm and other buildings to ensure their conservation.

Preserve the historic environment of Snowdonia and protect it from

intrusion or dilution by change and development, primarily because

Snowdonia’s cultural heritage is a cornerstone of its identity.

In conserving the historic environment and the landscape of

Snowdonia recognise that new innovative high quality design,

drawing on traditional or locally sourced materials may be

appropriate.

Take a pro-active approach to the conservation of the historic

environment of Snowdonia through:

• Encouraging appreciation of its value and particular

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qualities

• Strict control of development which may affect it having

regard to its quality, rarity and contribution to

Snowdonia’s character

• Promoting programmes and encouraging development

which secures its future and complements it. Lobby for

additional funding to support the effective application of

Conservation Area status and regeneration initiatives

founded on cultural heritage

• Identify and promote sensitive techniques for the

adaptation of buildings and settlements to meet

contemporary needs

Levels of Growth

G1a

The apportionment of the Welsh Assembly Government’s North

Wales regional household projections proposed an annual dwelling

requirement for the Snowdonia National Park of 40 dwellings per

year.

A total of 600 dwellings will be required over the 15 year plan period.

(85 net 4 )

Affordable Housing

AH1b

Settlement Strategy

SS1b

Provide an authority wide target based on results form the Local

Housing Market Assessment (LHMA).

Re-examine settlement selection based on criteria such as services,

facilities, accessibility to public transport, education and population.

• Local Service Centres:

• Local Service Villages

• Smaller Villages

• Hamlets

Housing Development Boundary

HDB1a

Keep the housing development boundaries predominantly the same

as those in the Eryri Local Plan.

Review after 4 years

Housing Development Criteria

HC1d

Local Service Centres

Windfall sites: Open Market allowed within development boundaries.

Where evidence of need is shown a proportion of such development

shall be Affordable Housing for Local Needs (AHLN).

Allocated Strategic Site: Y Bala: Land to be released in phases (see

plan 4). A proportion of the development shall be AHLN.

4 Taking into account estimates of 5 year housing land availability at April 2007 – 515 units

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Local Service Villages and Smaller Villages:

Where evidence of need is shown AHLN only (mix of intermediate

and social rented). Adjoining village boundary: 100% small scale

affordable housing for local needs

Hamlets: No settlement boundary. Single units for AHLN. 2/ 3

across 15 year plan period

HCC 1a

Consider the conversion of suitable traditional buildings outside the

housing development boundary for residential purposes for AHLN.

Include a set of stringent development control criteria.

If agricultural workers dwelling is no longer required, dwelling should

be changed to AHLN.

If holiday accommodation is no longer required unit should be

changed to affordable housing for local needs.

Housing Size and Type

HS1b

HS1d

Restrict the size of all new build AHLN in accordance with a sliding

scale for different dwelling types (with e.g. a maximum of 100

square metres for a three bedroomed house)

Negotiate the appropriate mix of dwelling types for new mixed

development i.e. intermediate and social rented.

Partnership Delivery Options

HPD1a

HPD1b

Continue to work with neighbouring local housing authorities,

housing associations and relevant organisations to help identify local

needs and help deliver to meet the needs, including support for the

Gwynedd Rural Housing Enabler and the Conwy & Denbighshire

RHE. Working in partnership with partners such as Forestry

Commission

Encourage Community Land Trusts and co-operative self-build to

address local affordability issues.

Community and Language

CL1b

CL1c

Prioritise consideration of the language as a material consideration

in decision making throughout the National Park.

Focus on positive measures to maintain sustainable Welsh speaking

communities by:

• Providing housing and employment for local people,

• Ensuring that there is adequate provision of Welsh

medium education,

• Supporting linguistic integration initiatives for incomers.

Economy

E1a

Support business development consistent with National Park

purposes, therefore encouraging:

• sensitively designed and sited development,

• development which helps conserve the National Park’s

Special Qualities or provides for their understanding or

enjoyment,

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• retention of existing jobs and premises

• growth of new jobs through development of existing

businesses

• upskilling

E1b

E1d

Seek to designate appropriate employment land for commerce only

within local service centres (Dolgellau, Y Bala)

Seek partner commitment to develop proven mechanisms to support

the local economy in the long-term, giving full consideration to the

emerging Convergence Funding Programme

Tourism Development

TD1a

TD1b

TD1d

TD1e

Motorised Sport

RA1a

Secure a spatial approach to the development of small scale,

sustainable tourism, identifying locations where development might

be encouraged and locations where landscape, wildlife or cultural

considerations require constraint

Foster small-scale tourism based projects with added value, founded

on ‘National Park’ assets and sympathetic to National Park

purposes

Encourage relatively large scale high quality developments to

locations outside the National Park, where public transport

infrastructure is or can be made available, developing strong links to

the local economy

Seek to develop appropriately sized, innovative short term and nonpermanent

accommodation based on the principles of sustainable

tourism in selected locations

Restrict all motorised sports due to their effects on the National

Park’s tranquillity and environment

Harnessing Renewable Energy Generation in Buildings

Ey2a

Ey2b

Ey2d

All buildings are designed to enable retrofitting of integrated

renewables or 10% of the development’s energy needs are provided

through renewable energy

All developments over 60m² will required to incorporate renewable

energy technologies to provide at least 10% of predicted

requirements

Encourage micro-generation from renewable energy sources, but

retain firm control over siting and design to minimise effects on the

landscape

Coast and Marine

CM1a

Continue to protect Undeveloped Coastline from inappropriate

development

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CM1b

CM1c

CM1d

CM1e

Ensure that any development on the coastline is adaptable to, or can

mitigate rising sea levels and increase in the frequency of storms

Work with partner organisations to ensure that the coastline is

managed in an holistic and sustainable manner through Integrated

Coastal Zone Management

Work in partnership with other organisations to improve access to

the coastline

Prepare to undertake any additional requirements following the

introduction of the Marine Bill, for example the preparation of a

Marine Spatial Plan

Transport and Communications

TC1e

Support sympathetic road improvements only where they meet

environmental and landscape constraints, contribute significantly to

economic and / or safety objectives and include mitigation measures

to ensure high quality environmental design

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Appendix B

Assessment of the Preferred Strategy Options

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Introduction

This section constitutes the assessment of whether or not significant effects on any

of the European Sites are likely as a result of the LDP Preferred Strategy alone

and/or in combination with other plans.

This section is divided into two stages:

• Firstly, an initial screening is undertaken to rule out those elements of the

strategy that are clearly unlikely to have any form of adverse affect on a

European site.

• Secondly, following on from the initial screening, those remaining elements

of the strategy are looked at in more detail. The purpose of this is to

establish whether or not these elements are indeed likely to have significant

effects on a European site or sites and hence would require Appropriate

Assessment.

Initial Screening of the Components of the Preferred

Strategy

The currently preferred strategy comprises a number of different options within a

range of option groups. Many of these options will clearly have no adverse effect

upon the European Sites and some may have potential to have an effect. Table

AB-1 identifies those options which clearly will have no effect and those which are

to be taken forward for further consideration (in Table AB-2) to determine whether

or not they may result in likely significant effects.

Option Group

Preferred

Option

To be considered further?

Landscape L1c, L1e No

The options relate to landscape improvement programmes

(including, for example, invasive weed control) and green

wedge designation. Both are expected to benefit biodiversity

and conform to the principles of European site protection.

Biodiversity

Land

management

B1a, B1b,

B1c

LM1a

No

All aspects of these options are designed to protect and

enhance biodiversity. B1b specifically affords the highest levels

of protection to European Sites.

No

This option is heavily focused upon being consistent with

National Park purposes and conserving its Special Qualities.

Maintaining the Park’s European Sites is central to these

themes.

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Option Group

Cultural Heritage

Preferred

Option

CH1a,

CH1b,

CH1d,

CH1e,

To be considered further?

CH1a and CH1d – No

CH1b and CH1e - Yes

On the whole, these options are focussed upon the sensitive

conservation of the Park’s historic environment. However,

elements of CH1b and CH1e relate to sensitive conversions of

buildings such as vernacular barns. Such structures may

house bats which may be qualifying interests of some

European Sites.

Levels of Growth G1a Yes

This is a low growth option although it proposes 600 dwellings

over the next 15 years. Depending upon their location these

may affect European Sites.

Affordable

Housing

Settlement

Strategy

Housing

Development

Boundary

Housing

Development

Criteria

Housing Size and

Type

Partnership

Delivery Options

AH1b

SS1b

HDB1a

HC1d,

HCC1a

HS1b,

HS1d

HPD1a,

HPD1b

No

Affordable housing is a sub-set of the other housing options.

Whether dwellings are affordable or not will not affect

European Sites.

Yes

The strategy guides locations for development relating to

settlements. This relates to G1a and, depending upon the

locations for development, these may affect European Sites.

Yes

The option retains existing settlement boundaries for four

years, but after that they would be reviewed. Allocated sites

may also need to be larger or more numerous to meet housing

targets. Depending upon location of these sites, there may be

adverse effects on European Sites.

HC1d and HCC1a - Yes

HC1d allocates a strategic site at Y Bala – River Dee and Llyn

Tegid SAC is within this locality. It may also result in more

greenfield land being taken up on the edge of towns and

villages which, depending upon location, may affect European

Sites.

HCC1a relates to conversions of buildings such as vernacular

barns. Such structures may house bats which may be

qualifying interests of some European Sites.

No

This is a sub-set of other housing options. Individual dwelling

size and mix will not affect European Sites.

No

These delivery options are unlikely to have specific, adverse

consequences for European Sites.

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Option Group

Community and

Language

Preferred

Option

CL1b,

CL1c

Economic Options E1a,

E1b,

E1d

Tourism

Development

Options

TD1a,

TD1b.

TD1d,

TD1e

To be considered further?

No

Promotion of the Welsh language will not affect European

Sites. The housing elements of CL1c are covered within the

overall housing and growth options. Whether or not they are for

local people will not affect European Sites.

E1a and E1d – No

E1b – Yes

E1a specifically refers to business development that is

consistent with National Park purposes, and as such this is

assumed to include protection of European Sites. E1d relates

to partner commitment and is not likely to result in specific

adverse effects.

E1b seeks to designate employment land. Depending upon

location, these may affect European Sites.

TD1a, TD1b and TD1e – No

TD1d – Yes

On the whole, these options relate to sustainable tourism that

respects the environment and National Park purposes.

However, TD1d encourages relatively large scale development

which, depending upon location, may affect European Sites.

Motorised Sport RA1a No

The option restricts motorised sport in order to protect the

environment.

Harnessing

renewable energy

generation in

buildings

Ey2a,

Ey2b,

Ey2d

Coast and marine CM1a,

CM1b,

CM1c,

CM1d,

CM1e

Transport and

Communications

TC1e

No

Energy generation devices will only relate to existing dwellings

or those already covered within the housing options. As

devices are expected to be small scale, they are unlikely to

have adverse effects on European Sites.

CM1a, CM1b, CM1c and CM1e – No

CM1d - Yes

On the whole, these options relate to protecting undeveloped

coastline from inappropriate development. However, CM1d

promotes access to the coastline which has the potential to put

pressure on coastal European Sites.

No

The option specifically refers to only supporting road

improvements where environmental constraints are met.

Table AB-1

Initial Screening of Options

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Assessing the Likelihood of Significant Effects

This second stage of the screening looks at those options that are deemed to have

some potential to affect European Sites and determines whether or not there is a

likelihood of significant effects occurring which would require Appropriate

Assessment. Note that it is considered that options G1a, SS1b, HDB1a and HC1d

should be considered together as they each relate to the size and distribution of

new housing with respect to settlements. Option HCC1a relates to housing outside

new settlements and consequently may have different effects upon European

Sites.

This process is reported in Table AB-2.

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Elements of

Preferred

Strategy that

are of Potential

Concern

European Sites Which Could be

Affected

Reason for Concern

Are Potential Effects Considered Likely to

be Significant and Why?

Is Appropriate

Assessment

Required?

CH1b

CH1e

Meirionydd Oakwoods and Bat Sites

SAC

Glynllifon SAC

Gwydyr Forest Mines SAC

CH1b encourages sensitive re-use of

redundant traditional and other buildings.

There is concern that where these redevelopments

may occur either in or near to

these SACs, this may damage or disturb the

roosts of lesser horseshoe bats Rhinolophus

hipposideros which may exist in the

buildings. Lesser horseshoe bats are

qualifying interests of each of these SACs

and therefore adversely affecting roosts

could conflict with objectives for Favourable

Conservation Status.

CH1e includes for the identification and

promotion of sensitive techniques for the

adaptation of buildings to meet contemporary

needs. The same concerns surround this as

with CH1b.

Options CH1b and CH1e promote sensitive

re-use and adaptation which can be

interpreted as meaning sensitive to

ecological features as well as heritage

features.

Furthermore, the strategy must be read as a

whole and it is considered that the provisions

of option B1b provide sufficient overarching

protection to all European Sites to ensure

that other elements of the strategy which

may have some potential to adversely affect

the integrity of a European site would not be

allowed if a risk was shown to exist on a

case-by-case basis.

It is recommended that a policy is written

in the deposit LDP to reaffirm this

principle.

No

G1a

SS1b

HDB1a

HC1d

A number of European Sites are

located in close proximity to some of

the settlements identified within the

settlement categories. These are

detailed for each settlement in Table

5-3. The European Sites include:

Meirionnydd Oakwoods and Bat Sites

SAC

Berwyn and South Clwyd Mountains

These options provide for the development

of 40 new dwellings per year over 15 years.

New dwellings are likely to be developed

largely in existing settlements and are guided

by the Settlement Strategy (SS1b), Housing

Development Boundary option (HDB1a) and

Housing Development Criteria (HC1d).

These propose that the settlement hierarchy

is as presented in Table 5-3. Settlements in

The level of new housing growth in

Snowdonia is proposed to be very low with

many new dwellings likely to be developed in

existing settlements as guided by the

Settlement Strategy, Housing Development

Boundary option and Housing Development

Criteria (see Table 5-3).

It is anticipated that the levels of growth

would be negligible in terms of physical

No

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Elements of

Preferred

Strategy that

are of Potential

Concern

European Sites Which Could be

Affected

SAC

Berwyn SPA

Llyn Tegid and River Dee SAC

Snowdonia SAC

Lleyn Peninsula and the Sarnau SAC

River Gwyrfai and Llyn Cwellyn SAC

Coedydd Aber SAC

Afon Eden, Cors Goch – Trawsfynydd

SAC

Menai Straight and Conwy Bay SAC

Morfa Harlech and Morfa Dyffryn SAC

Afon Eden, Cors Goch – Trawsfynydd

SAC

Dyfi Estuary SPA

Cors Fochno & Dyfi Ramsar site

Llyn Tegid and River Dee SAC

Llyn Tegid Ramsar site

Reason for Concern

each tier are located adjacent to the

European Sites in the adjacent column.

The Housing Development Boundary option

proposes that current housing development

boundaries will remain the same for four

years after which they will be reviewed.

Allocated sites may also need to be larger or

more numerous to meet housing targets.

Depending upon location, these may affect

any of these European Sites.

The Housing Development Criteria allocates

a strategic site at Y Bala – Llyn Tegid and

River Dee SAC and Ramsar site are within

this locality. Option HC1d may also result in

more greenfield land being taken up on the

edge of towns and villages which, depending

upon location, may affect any of these

European Sites.

There is concern that if inappropriately

developed, new dwellings may be

constructed in a way that could damage the

integrity of any of the European Sites,

potentially in the following ways:

New housing development would increase

the local population and could result in

increased recreational activity which could

have direct physical impacts on the

qualifying interests of the European Sites

Are Potential Effects Considered Likely to

be Significant and Why?

disturbance, toxic contamination and nonphysical

disturbance to qualifying interests in

the European Sites.

It is also anticipated that the quantities of

water abstraction from surface and

groundwater sources that are either

designated European Sites themselves or

are hydraulically linked to European Sites

would be negligible with this growth scenario.

Most towns/villages get their supply from

small, local reservoirs – with small scale

associated treatment works.

Housing development boundaries will be

reviewed after four years under option

HDB1a and HC1d may result in the edges of

settlements being redefined. It is not

considered that the review or re-definitions

would affect European Sites, as changes are

likely to be very small and localised and, in

line with option B1b and the SNPA’s

obligations, they would not be allowed to

result in adverse impacts upon any

European Sites.

The strategy must be read as a whole and

the provisions of option B1b provide

sufficient overarching protection to all

European Sites to ensure that any new

dwellings or settlement boundary changes

Is Appropriate

Assessment

Required?

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Elements of

Preferred

Strategy that

are of Potential

Concern

HCC1a

European Sites Which Could be

Affected

Meirionydd Oakwoods and Bat Sites

SAC

Glynllifon SAC

Gwydyr Forest Mines SAC

Reason for Concern

through abrasion and compaction.

Accidental spillages during the construction

process could cause toxic contamination to

qualifying habitats and species. These

developments could also place increasing

pressure on water treatment works and there

may be changes to domestic effluent outfalls

which could reach habitats within the

European Sites.

There may also be increased requirement for

ground and surface water abstractions

which could directly or indirectly affect

European Sites.

Non-physical disturbance to qualifying

species could increase as a result of noise

and light pollution.

HCC1a promotes the consideration of

converting suitable traditional buildings for

residential purposes outside the

development boundary.

There is concern that where these redevelopments

may occur either in or near to

these SACs, this may damage or disturb the

roosts of lesser horseshoe bats Rhinolophus

hipposideros which may exist in the

buildings. Lesser horseshoe bats are

Are Potential Effects Considered Likely to

be Significant and Why?

would not be allowed where they would put

the integrity of a European site at risk.

The same overarching protection applies

with respect to option HC1d where a new

strategic housing development is proposed

at Y Bala, adjacent to the Llyn Tegid and

River Dee SAC, and the Llyn Tegid Ramsar

site. It is considered that the increased levels

of water abstraction and human activity as a

result of these 40 dwellings would have a

negligible impact upon the qualifying habitats

and species within the river and lake which

are located some 300m away.

It is recommended that policies are

written in the Deposit LDP which affirm

that no housing development would be

allowed in locations that would lead to

adverse effects on European Sites.

If inappropriately developed, these rural

conversions may have potential to adversely

affect a European site. However, the strategy

must be read as a whole and it is considered

that the provisions of option B1b provide

sufficient overarching protection to all

European Sites to ensure that conversion of

traditional buildings would not be allowed if a

risk was shown to exist to the integrity of a

European Site on a case-by-case basis.

Is Appropriate

Assessment

Required?

No

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Elements of

Preferred

Strategy that

are of Potential

Concern

E1b

TD1d

European Sites Which Could be

Affected

Llyn Tegid and River Dee SAC

Llyn Tegid Ramsar site

Meirionydd Oakwoods and Bat Sites

SAC

Morfa Harlech and Morfa Dyffryn SAC

Potentially any or all European Sites

located outside but near to, or near

Reason for Concern

qualifying interests of each of these SACs

and therefore adversely affecting roosts

could conflict with objectives for Favourable

Conservation Status.

The option seeks to designate appropriate

employment land for commerce only within Y

Bala and Dolgellau. Employment

opportunities may exist at Llanbedr airfield.

The principle concerns here relate to:

accidental/construction spillages, effluent

outfalls leading to watercourse pollution and

construction activity causing toxic

contamination of protected habitats and

species.

Non physical disturbance to habitats and

species caused by noise (including during

construction) which could adversely affect

qualifying fauna associated with the

European Sites.

The option promotes relatively large scale

tourism developments outside the National

Are Potential Effects Considered Likely to

be Significant and Why?

It is recommended that policies are

written in the Deposit LDP which affirm

that no housing conversions would be

allowed in locations that would lead to

adverse effects on European Sites.

The scale of employment land creation is not

considered to be significant enough to result

in any adverse effects on the European

Sites. The types of employment activities are

also considered to be low impact commercial

developments and not industrial.

Furthermore, brownfield sites will be

favoured and so direct land take in European

Sites will not be allowed.

The provisions of option B1b are overarching

and comprehensive. It will provide sufficient

protection to all European Sites to ensure

that commercial land will not be allocated if

there is a risk of an adverse impact on the

integrity of a European site.

It is recommended that policies are

written in the Deposit LDP which affirm

that no commercial development would

be allowed in locations that would lead to

adverse effects on European Sites.

If inappropriately developed, these tourism

sites may have potential to adversely affect a

Is Appropriate

Assessment

Required?

No

No

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Elements of

Preferred

Strategy that

are of Potential

Concern

CM1d

European Sites Which Could be

Affected

the internal borders of the National

Park. These include:

Llyn Peninsula and the Sarnau SAC

Meirionnydd Oakwoods and Bat Sites

SAC

Coedydd Aber SAC

Berwyn and South Clwyd Mountains

SAC & Berwyn SPA

River Gwyrfai and Llyn Cwellyn SAC

Migneint-Arenig-Dduallt SAC &SPA

River Dee and Llyn Tegid SAC

Snowdonia SAC

Corsydd Eifionydd SAC

Glynllifon SAC

Gwydyr Forest Mines SAC

Menai Strait and Conwy Bay SAC

Traeth Lafan / Lavan Sands, Conwy

Bay SPA

Llyn Tegid Ramsar site

Cors Fochno & Dyfi Ramsar site

Menai Strait and Conwy Bay SAC

Lleyn Peninsula and the Sarnau SAC

Morfa Harlech and Morfa Dyffryn SAC

Dyfi Estuary SPA

Reason for Concern

Park where infrastructure linkages can be

made to the local Snowdonia economy.

The concern is that generic tourism projects

could have a variety of impacts upon the

qualifying interests of any of the European

Sites. As the locations of the projects are not

known, these impacts could potentially affect

any aspect of any of the European Sites. In

general terms, these impacts could include:

Increased recreational activity within the

European Sites which could have direct

physical impacts through abrasion and

compaction.

Effluent/contaminated runoff from such

facilities could cause toxic contamination to

habitats and species within the European

Sites.

Non physical disturbance to habitats and

species caused by noise (including during

construction) which could adversely affect

qualifying interests.

This option aims to improve access to the

coastline and there are concerns over the

potential impacts that may be caused by

increased recreational pressure on coastal

European Sites.

Are Potential Effects Considered Likely to

be Significant and Why?

European site. However, the strategy must

be read as a whole and it is considered that

the provisions of option B1b provide

sufficient overarching protection to all

European Sites to ensure that other

elements of the strategy which may have

some potential to adversely affect the

integrity of a European site would not be

allowed if a risk was shown to exist on a

case-by-case basis.

It is recommended that policies are

written in the Deposit LDP which affirm

that no tourism development would be

allowed in locations that would lead to

adverse effects on European Sites.

This option is too broad to be able to say that

adverse impacts would occur as a result of

coastal erosion. The European Site most

likely to be affected by any coastal access

improvements would be Morfa Harlech and

Is Appropriate

Assessment

Required?

No

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Elements of

Preferred

Strategy that

are of Potential

Concern

European Sites Which Could be

Affected

Reason for Concern

Increased recreational activity within the

European Sites which could have direct

physical impacts through abrasion and

compaction.

Are Potential Effects Considered Likely to

be Significant and Why?

Morfa Dyffryn as it is designated primarily for

its unique dune formations that could viably

be affected by improved access. However,

the provisions of option B1b would ensure

that access to coastal European Sites would

not be allowed if there was a risk that it may

result in adverse impacts on a site’s integrity.

It is recommended that policies are

written in the Deposit LDP which affirm

that no coastal access schemes would be

allowed in locations that would pose a

risk to European Sites.

Is Appropriate

Assessment

Required?

Table AB-2 Detailed consideration of whether elements of the Preferred Strategy are likely to result in significant effects

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Appendix C

European Sites located near to or adjacent to

Settlements

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Settlement

Hierarchy

Type of

Development

Proposed in LDP

Settlement

European Sites Near or Adjacent to

Settlement

Local Service

Centres

Open market housing &

affordable housing for

local needs.

Dolgellau

Coedydd Darw a Safloedd Ystlumod Meirion

SAC

Land allocated for new

or existing employment

opportunities.

Improve existing and

provide new community

and visitor facilities.

Y Bala

Afon Dyfrdwy a Llyn Tegid SAC

Llyn Tegid Ramsar

Retail development in

close proximity to town

centres.

Service

Settlements

Secondary

Settlements

Small scale affordable

housing for local needs.

Small scale

employment

development.

Improve existing and

provide new community

and visitor facilities.

Retail development

within established

centres of Aberdyfi,

Harlech & Betws-y-

Coed.

Small scale affordable

housing for local needs.

Small scale

employment

development.

Improve existing and

provide new community

facilities to serve

residents and rural

hinterland.

Aberdyfi

Betws y Coed

Harlech

Llanberis -

Trawsfynydd

Abergwyngregyn

Abergynolwyn -

Beddgelert

Bontddu

Brithdir

Bryncrug -

Capel Garmon -

Dinas Mawddwy -

Dolgarrog -

Dolwyddelan -

Pen Llyn a’r Sarnau SAC

Cors Fochno & Dyfi Ramsar

Aber Dyfi SPA

Mwyngloddiau Fforest Gwydir SAC

Morfa Harlech and Morfa Dyffryn SAC

Coedydd Darw a Safloedd Ystlumod Meirion

SAC

Afon Eden, Cors Goch – Trawsfynydd SAC

Migneint-Arenig-Dduallt SAC / SPA

Coedydd Aber SAC

Coedydd Darw a Safloedd Ystlumod Meirion

SAC

Pen Llyn a’r Sarnau SAC

Coedydd Darw a Safloedd Ystlumod Meirion

SAC

Coedydd Darw a Safloedd Ystlumod Meirion

SAC

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Settlement

Hierarchy

Type of

Development

Proposed in LDP

Settlement

European Sites Near or Adjacent to

Settlement

Dwygyfylchi

Y Fenai a Bae Conwy SAC

Dyffryn Ardudwy &

Coed Ystumgwern

-

Friog

Coedydd Darw a Safloedd Ystlumod Meirion

SAC

Frongoch

Afon Dyfrdwy a Llyn Tegid SAC

Ganllwyd

Coedydd Darw a Safloedd Ystlumod Meirion

SAC

Afon Eden, Cors Goch – Trawsfynydd SAC

Garndolbenmaen -

Garreg &

Llanfrothen

-

Gelliydan -

Llan Ffestiniog

Llanbedr

Coedydd Darw a Safloedd Ystlumod Meirion

SAC

Coedydd Darw a Safloedd Ystlumod Meirion

SAC

Llanegryn -

Llanelltyd

Pen Llyn a’r Sarnau SAC

Afon Eden, Cors Goch – Trawsfynydd SAC

Llanfachreth -

Llanfair

Pen Llyn a’r Sarnau SAC

Morfa Harlech and Morfa Dyffryn SAC

Llanuwchllyn -

Llwyngwril

Maentwrog

Pen Llyn a’r Sarnau SAC

Pen Llyn a’r Sarnau SAC

Coedydd Darw a Safloedd Ystlumod Meirion

SAC

Nantlle -

Parc -

Penmachno

Pennal -

Rhydymain

Coedydd Darw a Safloedd Ystlumod Meirion

SAC

Rowen -

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Settlement

Hierarchy

Type of

Development

Proposed in LDP

Settlement

European Sites Near or Adjacent to

Settlement

Tal y Bont

Coedydd Darw a Safloedd Ystlumod Meirion

SAC

Talsarnau

Pen Llyn a’r Sarnau SAC

Coedydd Darw a Safloedd Ystlumod Meirion

SAC

Smaller

Settlements

Single units of

affordable housing for

local needs – 2/3 across

15 year plan period.

Improve existing and

provide new community

facilities for residents.

Trefriw -

Ysbyty Ifan -

Aberangell -

Arthog

Betws Garmon

Capel Curig

Capelulo -

Croesor -

Cwm Penmachno -

Cwrt -

Llanbedr y Cennin -

Pen Llyn a’r Sarnau SAC

Coedydd Darw a Safloedd Ystlumod Meirion

SAC

Afon Gwyrfai a Llyn Cwellyn SAC

Eryri SAC

Llandanwg

Llandecwyn

Llangywer

Pen Llyn a’r Sarnau SAC

Pen Llyn a’r Sarnau SAC

Afon Dyfrdwy a Llyn Tegid SAC

Llyn Tegid Ramsar

Llanllechid -

Llanymawddwy

Berwyn a Mynyddoedd de Clwyd SAC

Berwyn SPA

Mallwyd -

Nant Gwynant

Nant Peris

Nantmor

Eryri SAC

Coedydd Darw a Safloedd Ystlumod Meirion

SAC

Eryri SAC

Coedydd Darw a Safloedd Ystlumod Meirion

SAC

Nebo -

Penmaen-pŵl

Pen Llyn a’r Sarnau SAC

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Settlement

Hierarchy

Type of

Development

Proposed in LDP

Settlement

European Sites Near or Adjacent to

Settlement

Penmorfa -

Prenteg

Coedydd Darw a Safloedd Ystlumod Meirion

SAC

Rhoslefain -

Rhosygwaliau -

Rhyd -

Rhyd ddu

Afon Gwyrfai a Llyn Cwellyn SAC

Rhyd Uchaf -

Ynys

Pen Llyn a’r Sarnau SAC

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Appendix D

Conservation Objectives of the European Sites

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Introduction

Conservation Objectives of European Sites consist of two inter-related components:

• A Vision for the feature concerned which outlines in broad terms the condition of the

feature and its environment that enables it to be considered in Favourable Conservation

Status.

• A set of Performance Indicators by which progress towards the Vision will be judged.

For the purposes of the HRA Screening Report, the Vision component is deemed sufficient to

form an assessment of likely significant effects. The sensitivity of the feature to disturbance is

apparent from the Vision, whereas the Performance Indicators drop into a level of detail that is

not required for the purposes of this assessment.

The Vision parts of the Conservation Objectives for each European Site are presented in the

following tables. These have been obtained from the current Core Management Plan for each

site which is separately referenced at the end of each table. It should be noted that references

and figures referred to in the following tables can be obtained from the source documents i.e the

Core Management Plan for each site.

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Aber Dyfi / Dyfi Estuary SPA

Qualifying

interest

Greenland white-fronted

goose (Anser albifrons

flavirostris)

Vision

The vision for this feature is for it to be in a favourable conservation status,

where all of the following conditions are satisfied:

1. The Dyfi wintering population attains national importance level (i.e.1% of the

national (UK) population), annually.

2. Winter mortality levels are 5% of the wintering population

annually.

4. All site-specific factors affecting the achievement of these conditions (eg.

avoidable disturbance), are under control

Reference

Lovering, T. (2008). Core Management Plan including Conservation Objectives for Dyfi Estuary

/ Aber Dyfi SPA. Countryside Council for Wales.

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Afon Dyfrdwy a Llyn Tegid / River Dee and Bala Lake SAC

Qualifying

interest

Water Course

(While not a feature in its

own right the ecological

status of the water

course is a major factor

in determining FCS for

all of the site features)

Vision

The vision for the water course is for it to be in Favourable Conservation Status,

where all of the following conditions are satisfied:

1. The ecological status of the water environment should be sufficient to

maintain a stable or increasing population of each feature. This will include

elements of water quantity and quality, physical habitat and community

composition and structure (It is anticipated that these limits will concur with the

relevant standards used by the Review of Consents process).

2. There will be no deterioration in water quality other than that temporarily

generated by natural variations in water flow or by man made variations

occurring as a result of operating the River Dee flow control regime within its

normal operating parameters.

3. The Dee flow regime should remain within 10% of ‘recent actual flow’ as

described by Bethune (2006).

4. The river plan-form and profile should be predominantly unmodified.

Physical modifications having an adverse effect on the integrity of the SAC will

be avoided.

5. Artificial factors impacting on the capability of each feature to occupy the full

extent of its potential range should be modified where necessary to allow

passage, eg. weirs, bridge sills, or other forms of barrier.

6. Natural limiting factors such as waterfalls, which may limit the natural range

of a feature or its dispersal between naturally isolated populations, should not be

modified.

7. Flow objectives for assessment points in the Dee Catchment Abstraction

Management Strategy will be agreed between EA and CCW as necessary.

8. Levels for nutrients, in particular phosphate, will be agreed between EA and

CCW for each Water Framework Directive water body in the River Dee and Bala

Lake SAC, and measures taken to maintain nutrients below these levels (It is

anticipated that these limits will concur with the standards used by the Review of

Consents process).

9. The levels of water quality parameters, in addition to those deemed to be

nutrients and including levels of suspended solids, that may affect the distribution

and abundance of SAC features will be agreed between EA and CCW for each

Water Framework Directive water body in the River Dee and Bala Lake SAC,

and measures taken to maintain them below these levels (It is anticipated that

these limits will concur with the standards used by the Review of Consents

process).

10. Potential sources of pollution, nutrient enrichment and/or suspended solids

that have not been addressed in the Review of Consents such as, but not

confined to, diffuse pollution or disturbance to sediments, will be considered in

assessing plans and projects.

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Water courses of plain to

montane levels with

Ranunculion fluitantis

and Callitricho-

Batrachion vegetation

Atlantic salmon (Salmo

salar)

Floating water plantain

(Luronium natans)

Sea lamprey

(Petromyzon marinus)

Brook lamprey

(Lampetra planeri)

River lamprey

(Lampetra fluviatilis)

Bullhead (Cottus gobio)

The vision for this feature is for it to be in a Favourable Conservation Status,

where all of the following conditions are satisfied:

1. The conservation objective for the water course must be met

2. The extent of this feature within its potential range in this SAC should be

stable or increasing

3. The extent of the sub-communities that are represented within this feature

should be stable or increasing.

4. The conservation status of the feature’s typical species should be

favourable.

5. All known, controllable factors, affecting the achievement of these

conditions are under control (many factors may be unknown or beyond human

control).

The vision for this feature is for it to be in a Favourable Conservation Status,

where all of the following conditions are satisfied:

1. The parameters defined in the vision for the water course must be met

2. The SAC feature populations will be stable or increasing over the long term.

3. The natural range of the features in the SAC is neither being reduced nor is

likely to be reduced for the foreseeable future.

4. There will be no reduction in the area or quality of habitat for the feature

populations in the SAC on a long-term basis

5. All known, controllable factors, affecting the achievement of these

conditions are under control (many factors may be unknown or beyond human

control).

The conservation objective for the lake water body (see conservation objectives

for Llyn Tegid Ramsar) must be met. The vision for this feature is for it be in

Favourable Conservation Status, where all of the following conditions are

satisfied:

1. There will be no contraction of the current L. natans extent and distribution,

and the populations will be viable throughout their current distribution & will be

able to maintain themselves on a long-term basis. Each L. natans population

must be able to complete sexual and/or vegetative reproduction successfully.

2. The lake will have sufficient habitat to support existing L. natans populations

within their current distribution and for future expansion.

3. All factors affecting the achievement of these conditions are under control.

The vision for this feature is for it to be in a Favourable Conservation Status,

where all of the following conditions are satisfied:

1. The parameters defined in the vision for the water course must be met

2. The SAC feature populations will be stable or increasing over the long term.

3. The natural range of the features in the SAC is neither being reduced nor is

likely to be reduced for the foreseeable future.

4. There will be no reduction in the area or quality of habitat for the feature

populations in the SAC on a long-term basis

5. All factors affecting the achievement of these conditions are under control.

The vision for this feature is for it to be in a Favourable Conservation Status,

where all of the following conditions are satisfied:

1. The parameters defined in the vision for the water must be met

2. The SAC feature populations will be stable or increasing over the long term.

3. The natural range of the features in the SAC is neither being reduced nor is

likely to be reduced for the foreseeable future.

4. There will be no reduction in the area or quality of habitat for the feature

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European otter (Lutra

lutra)

populations in the SAC on a long-term basis

5. All factors affecting the achievement of these conditions are under control

The vision for this feature is for it to be in a Favourable Conservation Status,

where all of the following conditions are satisfied:

1. The parameters defined in the vision for the water course must be met.

2. The SAC otter population is stable or increasing over the long term, both

within the SAC and within its catchment.

3. There will be no loss of otter breeding or resting sites other than by natural

means (such as naturally occurring river processes) within the SAC or its

catchment.

4. There number of potential resting sites within the SAC will not be a factor

limiting that limits the otter population’s size or extent

5. There should be no reduction of fish biomass within the SAC or its

tributaries except for that attributable to natural fluctuations

6. There should be no loss of amphibian habitat likely to provide a source of

prey for members of the SAC otter population.

7. The potential range of otters in the within the SAC or its catchment is neither

being reduced nor is likely to be reduced for the foreseeable future.

8. All known or potential access or dispersal routes within the catchment for

otters that might be considered part of the SAC population should be maintained

such that their function is not impaired including the incorporation of measures or

features required to avoid disturbance.

9. Off site habitats likely to function as ‘stepping stones’ within the catchment

for members of the SAC otter population will be maintained for migration,

dispersal, foraging and genetic exchange purposes.

10. All man-made structures within or likely to be used by otters from the SAC

population must incorporate effective measures to facilitate the safe movement

and dispersal of otters.

All known, controllable factors, affecting the achievement of these conditions are

under control (many factors may be unknown or beyond human control).

Reference

Hatcher, D. and Garrett, H. (2008). Core Management Plan including Conservation Objectives

for River Dee and Bala Lake/Afon Dyfrdwy a Llyn Tegid SAC. Countryside Council for Wales.

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Afon Eden, Cors Goch Trawsfynydd SAC

Qualifying

interest

Water Course

(While not a feature in its

own right the ecological

status of the water

course is a major factor

in determining FCS for

all of the site features)

Floating water-plantain

(Luronium natans)

Freshwater pearl mussel

(Margaritifera

Vision

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The ecological status of the water course is a major determinant in the capacity

for the habitats in the SAC to support each feature at near-natural population

levels, as determined by natural ecological and hydromorphological processes

and characteristics. Flow regime, water quality, quantity and physical habitat

should be maintained or restored as far as possible to a near-natural state in

order to support the coherence of the ecosystem structure and function.

Favourable conservation status (FCS) is determined in part by the capacity of the

water course to support the species for which it is considered special, so the

relevant SAC features must be in FCS for the water course feature to be in FCS.

FCS can be maintained or restored to favourable conservation status when all

the following conditions for the water course are satisfied:

1. Water flows and water quantity shall be sufficient to support the SAC

features. This shall include:

• During the migration periods of each migratory fish species that their

passage upstream to spawning sites is not hindered by abstraction discharges,

engineering or gravel extraction activities or other impacts.

• Water quantity and flows at pearl mussel beds, fish spawning sites and

nursery areas will not be depleted by abstraction, discharges, engineering or

gravel extraction activities or other impacts to the extent that these sites are

damaged or destroyed.

2. Water quality shall be sufficient to support the SAC features. This shall

include:

• Levels of nutrients, in particular orthophosphate, will be agreed between EA

and CCW for the Water Framework Directive water body in the Afon Eden –

Cors Goch Trawsfynydd SAC, and measures taken to maintain nutrients below

these levels.

• Levels of suspended solids will be agreed between EA and CCW for the

Water Framework Directive water body in the Afon Eden – Cors Goch

Trawsfynydd SAC. Measures including, but not limited to, the control of

suspended sediment generated by agriculture, forestry and engineering works,

will be taken to maintain suspended solids below these levels.

3. The physical habitat and substrate quantity shall be maintained. All known

breeding, spawning and nursery sites of species features should be maintained

as suitable habitat except where natural processes cause them to change.

Artificial factors impacting on the capability of each species feature to occupy the

full extent of its natural range should be modified where necessary to allow

passage, eg. leats, bridge sills etc.

The vision for this feature is for it to be in favourable conservation status, where

all of the following conditions are satisfied:

1. The L. natans populations will be viable throughout their current extent in

the Afon Eden & will be able to maintain themselves on a long-term basis. There

will be no contraction of the current L. natans distribution in the Afon Eden and

each L. natans population must be able to disperse and complete sexual and/or

vegetative reproduction successfully.

2. The river will have sufficient habitat to support existing L. natans populations

within their current distribution and future expansion.

3. All factors affecting the achievement of these conditions are under control.

The vision for this feature is for it to be in favourable conservation status, where


Afon Eden, Cors Goch Trawsfynydd SAC

Qualifying

interest

margaritifera)

Atlantic Salmon (Salmo

salar)

Otter (Lutra lutra)

Reference

Vision

all of the following conditions are satisfied:

1. The freshwater pearl mussel population must be viable throughout its

distribution in the river and maintaining itself on a long-term basis.

2. There will be no contraction of the number, age range, distribution or size of

mussel beds found within the population.

3. Within the distribution of these beds there will be sufficient habitat to support

a viable population.

4. The transference of pearl mussel glochidia (larvae) is facilitated by an

abundant and self-sustaining Atlantic salmon population.

5. All factors affecting the achievement of these conditions are under control.

The vision for this feature is for it to be in favourable conservation status, where

all of the following conditions are satisfied:

1. The Atlantic salmon population must be viable throughout its distribution in

the river and maintaining itself on a long-term basis.

2. There will be no contraction of the number or age range of the salmon

population.

3. There will be sufficient habitat to support a viable population.

4. All factors affecting the achievement of these conditions are under control.

The vision for this feature is for it to be in favourable conservation status, where

all of the following conditions are satisfied:

1. The population of otters in the SAC is stable or increasing over the long

term and reflects the natural carrying capacity of the habitat within the SAC, as

determined by natural levels of prey abundance and associated territorial

behaviour.

2. The natural range of otters in the SAC is neither being reduced nor is likely

to be reduced for the foreseeable future. The natural range is taken to mean

those reaches that are potentially suitable to form part of a breeding territory

and/or provide routes between breeding territories. A number of potential and

breeding sites have been identified (Lyles, 2006 – refer to the Management Plan

for this reference) in the upper reaches of the Afon Eden. The size of breeding

territories may vary depending on prey abundance.

3. The population size should not be limited by the availability of suitable

undisturbed breeding sites. Where these are insufficient they should be created

through habitat enhancement and where necessary the provision of artificial

holts. No otter breeding site is subject to a level of disturbance that could have

an adverse effect on breeding success. Where necessary, potentially harmful

levels of disturbance are managed. Survey information shows that otters are

widely distributed in the Mawddach catchment.

4. The safe movement and dispersal of individuals around the SAC is

facilitated by the provision, where necessary, of suitable riparian habitat, and

underpasses, ledges, fencing etc at road bridges and other artificial barriers.

5. All factors affecting the achievement of these conditions are under control.

Garrett, H. (2008). Core Management Plan including Conservation Objectives for Afon Eden

and Cors Goch Trawsfynydd SAC. Countryside Council for Wales.

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Afon Gwyrfai and Llyn Cwellyn SAC

Qualifying

interest

Water Course

(While not a feature in

its own right the

ecological status of the

water course is a major

factor in determining

FCS for all of the site

features)

Vision

1. The capacity of the habitats in the SAC to support each feature at nearnatural

population levels, as determined by predominantly unmodified ecological

and hydromorphological processes and characteristics, should be maintained as

far as possible, or restored where necessary.

2. The ecological status of the water environment should be sufficient to

maintain a stable or increasing population of each feature. This will include

elements of water quantity and quality, physical habitat and community

composition and structure. It is anticipated that these limits will concur with the

relevant standards agreed between CCW and the Environment Agency through

the Review of Consents process.

3. Flow regime, water quality and physical habitat should be maintained in, or

restored as far as possible to, a near-natural state, in order to support the

coherence of ecosystem structure and function across the whole area of the SAC.

4. All known breeding, spawning and nursery sites of species features should

be maintained as suitable habitat as far as possible, except where natural

processes cause them to change.

5. Flows, water quality, substrate quality and quantity at fish spawning sites

and nursery areas will not be depleted by abstraction, discharges, engineering or

gravel extraction activities or other impacts to the extent that these sites are

damaged or destroyed.

6. The river plan-form and profile should be predominantly unmodified.

Physical modifications having an adverse effect on the integrity of the SAC,

including, but not limited to, revetments on active alluvial river banks using stone,

concrete or waste materials, unsustainable extraction of gravel, addition or

release of excessive quantities of fine sediment, will be avoided.

7. River habitat SSSI features should be in favourable condition.

8. Artificial factors impacting on the capability of each species feature to

occupy the full extent of its natural range should be modified where necessary to

allow passage, e.g. weirs, bridge sills, acoustic barriers.

9. Natural factors such as waterfalls, which may limit the natural range of a

species feature or dispersal between naturally isolated populations, should not be

modified.

10. Flows during the normal migration periods of each migratory fish species

feature will not be depleted by abstraction to the extent that passage upstream to

spawning sites is hindered.

11. Levels of nutrients, in particular phosphate, will be agreed between the EA

and CCW in the Water Framework Directive water body in the Afon Gwyrfai a

Llyn Cwellyn SAC, and measures taken to maintain nutrients below these levels.

It is anticipated that these limits will concur with the standards to be agreed

between CCW and Environment Agency Wales used by the Review of Consents

process.

12. Levels of water quality parameters that are known to affect the distribution

and abundance of SAC features will be agreed between EA and CCW for the

Water Framework Directive water body in the Afon Gwyrfai a Llyn Cwellyn SAC

and measures taken to maintain pollution below these levels. It is anticipated that

these limits will concur with the standards to be agreed between CCW and

Environment Agency Wales used by the Review of Consents process.

13. Potential sources of pollution not addressed in the Review of Consents,

such as contaminated land, forestry operations and improvement of riparian

habitat, will be considered in assessing plans and projects.

14. Levels of suspended solids will be agreed between EA and CCW for the

Water Framework Directive water body in the Afon Gwyrfai a Llyn Cwellyn SAC.

Measures including, but not limited to, the control of suspended sediment

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Afon Gwyrfai and Llyn Cwellyn SAC

Qualifying

interest

Vision

generated by agriculture, forestry and engineering works, will be taken to

maintain suspended solids below these levels.

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Afon Gwyrfai and Llyn Cwellyn SAC

Qualifying

interest

Oligotrophic to

mesotrophic standing

waters with vegetation

of the Littorelletea

uniflorae and /or of the

Isoteo-Nanojuncetea

Water courses of plain

to montane levels with

the Ranunculion

fluitantis and Callitricho-

Batrachion vegetation

Atlantic salmon Salmo

salar

Floating water-plantain

Luronium natans

European otter Lutra

lutra

Vision

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1. Water quality of the lake is within parameters which are suitable to support

the characteristic flora and fauna.

2. The lake shows a characteristic vegetation zonation from the shore to the

deeper water.

3. The lake has a macrophyte flora which includes many of the characteristic

species including Littorella uniflora, Lobelia dortmanna, Isoetes lacustris,

Luronium natans and Subularia aquatica, together with a diverse range of

associates including Myriophyllum alterniflorum, Callitriche hamulata, Nitella

flexilis and Potamogeton berchtoldii.

4. Nitella gracilis and Luronium natans to be present as characteristic plants.

1. The conservation objective for the water course as defined in 4.1 of the

Core Management Plan must be met.

2. The extent of this feature within its potential range in this SAC should be

stable or increasing.

3. The extent of the sub-communities that are represented within this feature

should be stable or increasing.

4. The conservation status of the feature’s typical species should be

favourable.

5. All known, controllable factors, affecting the achievement of these

conditions are under control (many factors may be unknown or beyond human

control).

The vision for this feature is for it to be in a favourable conservation status, where

all of the following conditions are satisfied:

1. The conservation objective for the water course as defined in 4.1 above

must be met

2. The population of the feature in the SAC is stable or increasing over the

long term.

3. The natural range of the feature in the SAC is neither being reduced nor is

likely to be reduced for the foreseeable future. The natural range is taken to mean

those reaches where predominantly suitable habitat for each life stage exists over

the long term. Suitable habitat is defined in terms of near-natural hydrological

and geomorphological processes and forms e.g. suitable flows to allow upstream

migration, depth of water and substrate type at spawning sites, and ecosystem

structure and functions. Suitable habitat need not be present throughout the SAC

but where present must be secured for the foreseeable future. Natural factors

such as waterfalls may limit the natural range of individual species. Existing

artificial influences on natural range that cause an adverse effect on site integrity,

such as physical barriers to migration, will be assessed.

4. The Gwyrfai will continue to be a sufficiently large habitat to maintain the

feature’s population in the SAC on a long-term basis.

The vision for this feature is for it to be in favourable conservation status, where

all of the following conditions are satisfied:

1. The conservation objective for the water course as defined in 4.1 above

must be met.

2. Llyn Cwellyn will continue to support a peripheral floating water-plantain

assemblage, as well as a deeper water assemblage, with a characteristic

zonation of vegetation from the shore at two areas of the lake.

3. Floating water-plantain will continue to flourish in the Afon Gwyrfai and will

continue to occur in every selected section

4. All factors affecting the achievement of these conditions are under control.

The vision for this feature is for it to be in a favourable conservation status, where

all of the following conditions are satisfied:

1. The population of otters in the SAC is stable or increasing over the long


Afon Gwyrfai and Llyn Cwellyn SAC

Qualifying

interest

Reference

Vision

term and reflects the natural carrying capacity of the habitat within the SAC, as

determined by natural levels of prey abundance and associated territorial

behaviour.

2. The natural range of otters in the SAC is neither being reduced nor is likely

to be reduced for the foreseeable future. The natural range is taken to mean

those reaches that are potentially suitable to form part of a breeding territory

and/or provide routes between breeding territories. The size of breeding territories

may vary depending on prey abundance.

3. The population size should not be limited by the availability of suitable

undisturbed breeding sites. Where these are insufficient they should be created

through habitat enhancement and where necessary the provision of artificial holts.

No otter breeding site is subject to a level of disturbance that could have an

adverse effect on breeding success. Where necessary, potentially harmful levels

of disturbance are managed.

4. The safe movement and dispersal of individuals around the SAC is

facilitated by the provision, where necessary, of suitable riparian habitat, and

underpasses, ledges, fencing etc at road bridges and other artificial barriers.

5. All factors affecting the achievement of these conditions are under control.

Anon (2008). Core Management Plan including Conservation Objectives for Afon Gwyrfai a Llyn

Cwellyn SAC. Countryside Council for Wales.

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Berwyn SPA

Qualifying

interest

Hen harrier (Circus

cyaneus)

Merlin (Falco

columbarius)

Peregrine falcon (Falco

peregrinus)

Vision

The vision for this feature is for it to be in a favourable conservation status,

where all of the following conditions are satisfied:

1. The size of the population must be maintained at eleven breeding pairs or

increased beyond this.

2. There will be sufficient appropriate habitat to support the population in the

long-term including patches of tall heather available for nesting and roosting,

areas grasslands, bracken of low trees/scrub for feeding with an adequate supply

of prey species in the form of small birds and small mammals to maintain

successful breeding.

3. Distribution of species within site is maintained.

4. Distribution and extent of habitats supporting the species is maintained.

5. Developments should not be permitted where they can be shown to have

likely adverse impacts upon hen harrier.

6. Populations of legally controllable predator species, such as foxes and

carrion crows, will not pose a threat to ground nesting birds.

7. Hunting territories will be managed by controlled grazing to improve

structural diversity within the grasslands. This will increase seed production and

maximise prey availability e.g. small passerines.

8. There will be no disturbance of any nest location.

9. Illegal human persecution of protected bird species should not occur.

10. All factors affecting the achievement of these conditions are under control

The vision for this feature is for it to be in a favourable conservation status,

where all of the following conditions are satisfied:

1. The size of the population must be maintained at 13 breeding pairs or

increased beyond this.

2. There will be sufficient appropriate habitat to support the population in the

long-term including patches of tall heather available for nesting and roosting,

areas grasslands, bracken of low trees/scrub for feeding with an adequate supply

of prey species in the form of small birds and small mammals to maintain

successful breeding.

3. Distribution of species within site is maintained.

4. Distribution and extent of habitats supporting the species is maintained.

5. Developments should not be permitted where they can be shown to have

likely adverse impacts upon merlin.

6. Populations of legally controllable predator species, such as foxes and

carrion crows, should not pose a threat to ground nesting birds.

7. Adjoining hunting territories will be managed by controlled grazing to

improve structural diversity within the grasslands. This will increase seed

production and maximise prey availability e.g. small passerines.

8. There will be no disturbance of any nest location.

9. Illegal human persecution of protected bird species should not occur.

10. All factors affecting the achievement of theses conditions are under control

The vision for this feature is for it to be in a favourable conservation status,

where all of the following conditions are satisfied:

1. The size of the population must be maintained at 13 breeding pairs or

increased beyond this.

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Berwyn SPA

Qualifying

interest

Red kite (Milvus milvus)

Vision

2. Mountainous and moorland terrain with cliffs, crags and quarries for nesting

and roosting plus grasslands, bracken of low trees/scrub for feeding with an

adequate supply of prey species in the form of small birds and small mammals to

maintain successful breeding.

3. The range of the population must not be contracting.

4. Distribution and extent of habitats supporting the species is maintained.

5. Developments should not be permitted where they can be shown to have

likely adverse impacts upon peregrine.

6. Populations of legally controllable predator species, such as foxes and

carrion crows, should not pose a threat to ground nesting birds.

7. Adjoining hunting territories will be managed by controlled grazing to

improve structural diversity within the grasslands. This will increase seed

production and maximise prey availability e.g. small passerines.

8. There will be no disturbance of any nest location.

9. Illegal human persecution of protected bird species should not occur.

10. All factors affecting the achievement of theses conditions are under control

The vision for this feature is for it to be in a favourable conservation status,

where all of the following conditions are satisfied:

1. The size of the population must be maintained at two breeding pairs or

increased beyond this.

2. Sufficient Broadleaf woodland required for nesting and roosting plus heath

and rough grassland for feeding with an adequate supply of prey species in the

form of carrion, small birds and small mammals to maintain successful breeding.

(NOTE: Red kite do not nest within the SPA.)

3. Developments should not be permitted where they can be shown to have

likely adverse impacts upon red kite.

4. Adjoining hunting territories will be managed by controlled grazing to

improve structural diversity within the grasslands. This will increase seed

production and maximise prey availability e.g. small passerines.

5. There will be no disturbance of any nest location.

6. Illegal human persecution of protected bird species should not occur.

7. All factors affecting the achievement of theses conditions are under control

Reference

Anon (2008). Core Management Plan including Conservation Objectives for Berwyn & South

Clwyd Mountains SAC and Berwyn SPA [DRAFT]. Countryside Council for Wales.

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Berwyn a Mynyddoedd de Clwyd / Berwyn & South Clwyd Mountains

SAC

Qualifying

interest

Blanket Bogs

European Dry Heaths

Vision

The vision for this feature is for it to be in a favourable conservation status,

where all of the following conditions are satisfied:

1. There will be no measurable decline in blanket bog; the area of the habitat

must be stable or increasing.

2. Dry blanket bog on moisture shedding ridges and slopes will be defined as

ericoid (typically Calluna) dominated, with clearly subordinate Erica tetralix.

Empetrum nigrum, Vaccinium vitis-idaea and/or V. myrtilus will be present at high

frequency. Eriophorum vaginatum typically constant but sometimes only at low

cover – other graminoids are typically scarce. Vaccinium oxycoccus may sprawl

over the thick bryophyte mat but other elements of ‘wet’ bog such as Narthecium

and Drosera are characteristically sparse. Hypnoid mosses (typically Hypnum

jutlandicum and Pleurozium schreberi) often the dominant bryophyte component,

and Sphagna where present most often represented by Sphagnum capillifolium.

3. Wet blanket bog on plateaux and col areas is characterised by a more even

balance between ericoids and graminoids. Eriophorum vaginatum generally

achieves a higher cover than in drier situations and E. angustifolium is constant.

Representation of Molinia caerulea and Trichophorum cespitosum is variable

according to past management and hydrology. Smaller elements such as

Vaccinium oxycoccus, Narthecium and Drosera are typically present. Hypnoids

and Sphagnum capillifolium may still comprise the main bryophyte element, but

often joined by species of Sphagnum sect. Sphagnum.

4. All areas of blanket bog should exhibit a high water table just below the

surface of the ground for the majority of the year as this is consistent with

continued peat formation.

5. In areas of wet bog in particular, the vegetation should develop or retain an

irregular pattern with drier hummocks and wetter hollows.

6. The quality of blanket bog (including in terms of ecological structure and

function) must be maintained.

7. Areas with habitats classed as degraded or modified blanket bog and bare

peat should be restored to a more sustainable state by encouraging the growth

of typical blanket bog vegetation and the blocking of drainage ditches.

8. Burning blanket bog will be discouraged as it retards the development of

hummock & hollows as well as the development of more sensitive Sphagna.

9. There should be no moor drains or grips draining the peat body.

10. There should be no evidence of damage caused, for example, by active

drainage or burning.

11. Any typical species must also be at FCS, as defined below.

12. Non-native plant species should be absent.

13. There should be no decline in the range or abundance of characteristic plant

species and vegetation communities.

14. All factors affecting the achievement of these conditions are under control.

The vision for this feature is for it to be in a favourable conservation status,

where all of the following conditions are satisfied:

1. There will be no measurable decline of dry heath area; the area of the

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Berwyn a Mynyddoedd de Clwyd / Berwyn & South Clwyd Mountains

SAC

Qualifying

interest

Semi-natural dry

grasslands and

scrubland facies: on

calcareous substrates

(Festuco-Brometalia)

Vision

habitat must be stable or increasing.

2. The European dry heath consists principally of NVC type H12 Calluna

vulgaris–Vaccinium myrtillus heath, with frequent Empetrum nigrum and

occasional Vaccinium vitis-idaea. Other heath vegetation present includes areas

of H18 Vaccinium myrtillus–Deschampsia flexuosa heath and in some areas

stands of damp H21 Calluna vulgaris–Vaccinium myrtillus–Sphagnum

capillifolium heath. These latter heaths occur in an intermediate position between

the drier heaths and blanket mire and support occasional plants of Listera

cordat.a

3. Its quality (including in terms of ecological structure and function) must be

maintained.

4. The areas of heath vegetation should be retained and where possible

permitted to re-establish on areas modified or degraded as a result of agricultural

improvement, or through inappropriate management.

5. The dry heathland should have a diverse age structure in the heather and

other shrubby plants.

6. Management will ensure the development of a mosaic of age structures

through pioneer, building, mature to degenerate heather with at least 10%

identified for no-management and allowed to develop through to maturity.

7. Management will not be undertaken within sensitive habitat areas.

8. Some native scrub development will be acceptable up to 10% cover with

higher densities, up to 20% within e.g. identified black grouse management

zones.

9. Heather and other plants should not exhibit signs of suppressed growth

forms due to grazing.

10. There should be areas of long heather providing nesting habitat for ground

nesting birds such as grouse, merlin and hen harriers; and areas of lower young

heather, and wet flushes where birds can feed on heather shoots and

invertebrates.

11. Non-native plant species should be absent.

12. Any typical species must also be at FCS, as defined below.

13. All factors affecting the achievement of these conditions are under control.

The vision for this feature is for it to be in a favourable conservation status,

where all of the following conditions are satisfied:

1. The extent of the calcareous and neutral grasslands should be maintained

or increase in size at the expense of bracken, scrub and other more improved

grasslands. No loss in extent is acceptable.

2. The calcareous grassland varies floristically. At low altitudes the sward of

the calcareous grassland should be rich in calcicolous species such as Carlina

vulgare, Briza media and Sanguisorba minor. Locally scarce species such as

Gymnadenia conopsea and Blackstonia perfoliata should also be present. At

higher elevations the calcareous sward has more acid species present. Along

with the typical indicator species of calcareous grassland, acid loving species

such as Agrostis tenuis and Potentilla erecta are regular. Within the sward, fine

leaved grasses and herb species like Briza media, Carlina vulgaris and Thymus

polytrichus will be regular, although due to the upland nature of the site other

more typically acid-loving herbs like heath Galium saxatile and Campanula

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Berwyn a Mynyddoedd de Clwyd / Berwyn & South Clwyd Mountains

SAC

Qualifying

interest

Transition mires and

quaking bogs

Calcareous and calcshist

screes of the montane to

alpine levels

(Thlaspietea rotundifolii)

Vision

rotundifolia may commonly occur. Though described as grasslands, more than

half of the ground cover will consist of herbaceous species.

3. The limestone grassland areas will have a wide variety of plant communities

with the limestone grasslands having those typical of thin, lime rich soils.

4. Grazing will be at levels that allow plants to flower and set seed whilst

preventing the spread of trees and scrub.

5. Bracken will only be found in a few isolated patches at the perimeters.

6. Within the sward tree and scrub seedlings, and robust or tussock forming

grasses such as Dactylis glomerata, and Deschampsia cespitosa are uncommon

or at low cover. While weeds and other agriculturally favoured species such as

Lolium perenne, Urtica dioica, Cirsium arvensis and C. vulgare are rare or

absent.

7. Introduced species should be absent and control measures should be taken

if any such species becomes established.

8. High levels of grazing results in localised soil erosion on steeper parts of the

escarpment, which degrades some areas. However, grazing pressure should be

sufficient to open small transient patches of bare ground within the sward

providing a seed bed for the vascular plant species and suitable habitat for the

diminutive bryophytes, macro-lichens and short-lived vascular plant species

which are particularly characteristic of limestone grassland on the steeper, more

exposed slopes.

9. On deeper soils south of the quarry acid grassland develops and in places

forms a mosaic of habitats with the calcareous grassland. On these soils the

spread of gorse and bracken should be controlled.

All factors affecting the achievement of these conditions are under control.

The vision for this feature is for it to be in a favourable conservation status,

where all of the following conditions are satisfied:

1. There will be no measurable decline in Transition mires and quaking bogs;

the area of the habitat must be stable or increasing.

2. Typically characterised by a range of low-growing sedges over an extensive

carpet of Sphagnum bog mosses, accompanied by other mosses, rushes and

some scattered herbs.

3. The water table is above the surface of the substrate, giving rise to

characteristic floating mats of vegetation.

4. The vegetation normally has intimate mixtures of species considered to be

acid-lovers and others thought of as lime-lovers.

5. There should be no moor drains or grips draining the mire.

6. There will be no threats to the transition mire habitat from burning or

grazing.

7. There is no significant input of nutrient-rich water from ditches and

surrounding land.

8. All factors affecting the achievement of theses conditions are under control.

The vision for this feature is for it to be in a favourable conservation status,

where all of the following conditions are satisfied:

1. There will be no measurable decline of habitat, the area of the habitat must

be stable but due to its nature an increase in extent is unlikely.

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Berwyn a Mynyddoedd de Clwyd / Berwyn & South Clwyd Mountains

SAC

Qualifying

interest

Calcareous rocky slopes

with chasmophytic

vegetation

Vision

2. The feature is typically characterised by sensitive pioneer species including

maidenhair spleenwort, and bryophytes that are able to colonise the scree, as

the crags and ledges provide shelter from grazing and frost action.

3. The flora representative of this feature reflects the base rich nature of the

rocks including limestone, calcareous-schists and the more basic igneous rocks

such as serpentine and basalt.

4. The scree community is important for the rich fern flora and acts as refugia

for a number of rare species.

5. Light grazing will prevent the succession to scrub and minimise colonisation

by species such as ash and hazel whilst not damaging the feature through

overgrazing.

6. The scree will remain largely undisturbed by human activity and the

depositional slopes will continue to accumulate small amounts of scree. The

vegetation is only likely to be truly representative of this feature where it occurs

on stable scree on less steep slopes where the vegetation can accumulate.

7. The existing diversity of species in each of the above communities should

be maintained.

8. There will be no reduction in extent as a result of undesirable human activity

such as afforestation, quarrying, climbing or civil engineering works.

9. The use of herbicides, such as Asulox to control the spread of bracken,

should be restricted to areas where they will not adversely impact the feature.

10. Only native species should be present.

All factors affecting the achievement of theses conditions are under control.

The vision for this feature is for it to be in a favourable conservation status,

where all of the following conditions are satisfied:

1. There will be no measurable loss of habitat, the area of the habitat must be

stable but due to its nature an increase in extent is unlikely.

2. The chasmophytic vegetation will consist of plant communities colonising

cracks and fissures of rock faces. The type of plant communities developing will

be largely determined by the base-status of the rock face.

3. The chasmophytic vegetation is usually dominated by ferns such as

Asplenium ruta-muraria and small herbs such as Thymus praecox and Hieracium

spp. The inaccessibility of rock habitats to grazing animals, specially rock ledges

provides a refuge for many vascular plants that are sensitive to grazing, including

numerous local and rare species.

4. Bryophytes and crustose lichens should form a dominant component in

crevices but are also found on open rock surfaces where there is a lack of

competition form vascular plants. Ledge communities are recognised as part of

the feature on the site due to the spectacular stepped topography.

5. Grass benches should be floristically diverse supporting species

characteristic of the feature such as Campanula rotundifolia, Centaurea nigra

and Dryopteris spp.

6. The existing diversity of species in each of the above communities should

be maintained.

7. Only native species should be present.

8. Chasmophytic vegetation and grass benches vegetation will not exhibit

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Berwyn a Mynyddoedd de Clwyd / Berwyn & South Clwyd Mountains

SAC

Qualifying

interest

Vision

signs of overgrazing.

9. There will be no reduction in extent as a result of undesirable activities such

as quarrying.

10. Small scale excavations may enhance the interest of the site by providing

additional exposures but would be deleterious to the highly vulnerable scree and

clitter slopes.

11. The use of herbicides, such as Asulox, to control the spread of bracken

should be restricted to areas where they will not adversely impact the feature.

12. All factors affecting the achievement of these conditions are under control.

Reference

Anon (2008). Core Management Plan including Conservation Objectives for Berwyn & South

Clwyd Mountains SAC and Berwyn SPA [DRAFT]. Countryside Council for Wales.

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Cadair Idris SAC

Qualifying interest Vision

Oligotrophic to

mesotrophic standing

waters with vegetation of

the Littorelletea uniflorae

and/or of the Isoëto-

Nanojuncetea

Siliceous scree of the

montane to snow levels

(Androsacetalia alpinae

and Galeopsietalia

ladani)

Calcareous rocky slopes

with chasmophytic

vegetation

Siliceous rocky slopes

with chasmophytic

vegetation

Hydrophilous tall herb

fringe communities of

plains to and of the

mountain to alpine level

(Tall herb ledges)

European dry heaths

Northern Atlantic wet

heath with Erica tetralix

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The vision for the oligotrophic to mesotrophic (clear-water) lakes SAC features is

for them to be in a favourable conservation status, where all of the following

conditions are satisfied:

1. The total extent of the clear-water lakes shall be maintained including open

water/swamp and immediate lake basin visible on air photographs. The

catchments should also be maintained in at least their current condition.

2. The location of the clear-water lakes will be as shown in the Core

Management Plan.

3. The typical species, as listed following, of the vegetation communities

comprising the clear-water lakes SAC feature will be common.

4. The vegetation community is characterised by amphibious short perennial

vegetation, with shoreweed Littorella uniflora, water lobelia Lobelia dortmanna

and quillworts Isoetes spp. being the defining components. On Cadair Idris these

species occur in association with bog pondweed Potamogeton polygonifolius,

bulbous rush Juncus bulbosus, alternate water milfoil Myriophyllum alterniflorum,

the stonewort Nitella flexilis and floating water bur-reed Sparganium

angustifolium.

5. Invasive non-native species are absent

6. All factors affecting the achievement of these conditions are under control.

The vision for this feature is for it to be in a favourable conservation status,

where all of the following conditions are satisfied:

1. The total extent of the vegetated scree should be maintained.

2. The scree vegetation should be made up primarily of either desirable

species listed in the table below or by other lichen and bryophyte dominated

communities characteristic of mobile scree

3. The scree should be mobile and open and free from bracken, tree and scrub

species such as birch Betula and rowan.

4. All factors affecting the achievement of these conditions are under control.

The vision for these features is for them to be in a favourable conservation

status, where all of the following conditions are satisfied:

1. The total extent of the tall herb ledge and chasmophytic vegetation should

be stable or increasing.

2. The tall herb ledges, and chasmophytic vegetation should be made up

primarily of the typical and desirable species listed in the table below.

3. Non-native species are absent or rare.

4. All factors affecting the achievement of these conditions are under control.

The vision for the heath land SAC features is for them to be in a favourable

conservation status, where all of the following conditions are satisfied:

1 The total extent of the dry heath, approximately 1451 ha, shall at least be

maintained. The currently unfavourable areas of dry heath and acid grassland

capable of restoration should be managed under a restoration programme. The

area of dry heath should increase at the expense of less desirable vegetation

communities such as acid grassland.

The total extent of the wet heath, approximately 239 ha, shall at least be


Cadair Idris SAC

Qualifying interest Vision

maintained. The area of wet heath should increase overall at the expense of

less desirable vegetation communities. Some areas of wet heath which are

degraded blanket bog may be restored to that priority habitat provided that there

is no net loss of wet heath within the SAC.

2 The distribution of the dry and wet heath will at least be as mapped in Gray

(2003) and Averis (2000) and will preferably be increasing as it is restored in

additional areas.

3 The typical species of the vegetation communities comprising the dry heath

and wet heath will be frequent and abundant.

4 The abundance and distribution of uncommon plants will be maintained or

increased.

5 The structure of the heath should be maintained and restored, to show

natural regeneration by layering and seeding, and to ensure that the component

vegetation communities are naturally diverse (refer also to 3 and 4 above). In

practise some stands will benefit from being taller with very mature heather (e.g

NVC H 21) and others including wet heath from having a medium to short

structure, less than 30cms height. Signs of overgrazing, including ‘suppressed’,

‘topiary’ or ‘drumstick’ growth habits will not be apparent.

6 Invasive non-native species such as conifers, rhododendron, Japanese

knotweed and Himalayan balsam will not be present.

7 The surface of the heath will be generally free from trees and at most have

only a few individuals at a density of no more than two per hectare. Exceptions to

this rule are transition zones from woodland to heath land where trees may be

denser grading to open heath. Limits for woodland transition zones should be set

on a unit or sub-unit basis.

8 All factors affecting the achievement of these conditions are under control.

Blanket Bog

Old Sessile oak woods

with Ilex and Blechnum

The vision for this priority blanket bog SAC feature is for it to be in a favourable

conservation status, where all of the following conditions are satisfied:

1. The total extent of the blanket bog area is stable at some 200 ha in total of

NVC blanket bog communities and some 73ha of vegetation on deep peat (Gray

2003), or increasing. Vegetation mapped as NVC M20, or not recognisable as a

blanket bog community, is always considered to be unfavourable. The area of

the blanket bog feature is increasing at the expense of less desirable vegetation

communities or if wet heath is restored to blanket bog commensurate areas of

land are gained to wet heath.

2. The location and distribution of the blanket bog is increasing at the expense

of less desirable vegetation communities.

3. The typical species of the vegetation communities comprising the blanket

bog SAC feature are frequent.

4. The structure of the blanket bog is maintained and restored to include bog

pools, depressions, hummocks and hollows as a natural feature of the bog

surface. Artificial drainage ditches or moor grips are not present as functioning

drains. No significant areas of peat erosion should be present.

5. Invasive non-native species such as conifers, rhododendron, Japanese

knotweed and Himalayan balsam are not present within the SAC and a species

specific buffer area.

6. The blanket bog is free from all trees.

7. All factors affecting the achievement of these conditions are under control.

The vision for the Woodland SAC feature is for it to be in a favourable

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Cadair Idris SAC

Qualifying interest Vision

woodlands

conservation status, where all of the following conditions are satisfied:

1. The total extent of the woodland area, including woodland canopy and

scrub, woodland glades and associated dry heath, bracken and grassland, of

approximately 73ha shall be stable or increasing.

2. The location of the woodland SAC feature will be at least as indicated on

Map 1. The woodland covered by this feature is woodland often without clear

boundary such as on Tir Stent (unit 9) and should be encouraged to spread up

slope at Dol y Cae.

3. The tree canopy percentage cover within the woodland shall be no less than

the current cover (excepting natural catastrophic events).

4. The canopy and shrub layer comprises locally native species. (Some areas

are less oak and more birch dominated examples of this SAC feature.)

5. There shall be sufficient natural regeneration of locally native trees and

shrubs to maintain the woodland canopy and shrub layer, by filling gaps, joining

fragments of woodland and allowing the recruitment of young trees, and

encouraging a varied age structure.

6. The typical ground layer species of the woodland SAC feature will be

common. It is important that the vegetation does not become rank and

overgrown with a height above 40cm and/or dominated by species such as

bramble, ivy and young holly. Limits may be set on a unit or compartment basis.

Typical lower plants including oceanic species should continue to be abundant

and/or maintained. Dol y cae is known to support oceanic bryophytes of interest.

7. The abundance and distribution of uncommon mosses, liverworts, lichens

and ferns, will be maintained or increased.

8. There will be a defined number of mature trees per hectare within the

existing tree canopy on a unit basis. These are, as a guide, of c60cm diameter

plus for oak and ash and/or with signs of decay, holes etc.

9. Dead wood will be present and consist of a mixture of fallen trees (minimum

one per hectare), broken branches, dead branches on live trees, and standing

dead trees (minimum one per hectare). Volumes of deadwood are currently at

relatively low levels because the woodlands, in general, have an even-age

structure and lack mature trees. Some lower plants are dead wood specialists

but these woodlands tend to lack the rare dead wood invertebrate assemblage

found in other parts of the UK.

10. Invasive non-native species such rhododendron, larch, sycamore, beech,

ornamental broad-leaved and conifer trees are not present.

11. All factors affecting the achievement of these conditions are under control.

Molinia meadows on

calcareous, peaty or

clayey-silt-laden soils

(Molinion caeruleae)

The vision for this feature is for it to be in a favourable conservation status,

where all of the following conditions are satisfied:

1. The total extent of the Molinia grasslands should be stable or increasing.

Both upland Molinia grasslands and lowland Molinia grasslands should be

represented at Tir Stent.

2. The Molinia grasslands are composed of typical species

3. Rare/uncommon species shall flourish.

4. Species indicative of agricultural modification, such as perennial rye grass

Lolium perenne and white clover Trifolium repens will be absent from the Molinia

grasslands.

5. Bare ground is limited.

6. The vegetation is not rank and overgrown.

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Cadair Idris SAC

Qualifying interest Vision

7. Tree and scrub species such as willow Salix and birch Betula will also be

absent from the Molinia grasslands.

8. All factors affecting the achievement of these conditions are under control.

Alkaline Fens

Slender green feather

moss (Drepanocladus

(Hamatocaulis)

vernicosus)

Marsh Fritillary

(Euphydryas,

(Eurodryas, Hypodryas)

aurinia)

The vision for the feature is for it to be in a favourable conservation status, where

all of the following conditions are satisfied:

1. The total extent of the alkaline fen vegetation should be stable or increasing.

2. The alkaline fens are vegetated primarily with the desirable species listed in

the table

3. The alkaline fens have a low frequency/cover of Molinia caerulea and

rushes.

4. Tree and scrub species such as willow Salix and birch Betula are absent.

5. All factors affecting the achievement of these conditions are under control.

The vision for this feature is for it to be in a favourable conservation status,

where all of the following conditions are satisfied:

1. The population of Hamatocaulis vernicosus is stable or increasing.

2. The habitats, which support the Hamatocaulis vernicosus, should be in good

condition.

3. All factors affecting the achievement of these conditions are under control.

The vision for this feature is for it to be in a favourable conservation status,

where all of the following conditions are satisfied:

1. The metapopulation of the marsh fritillary should be stable or increasing.

2. The marshy grasslands which support the marsh fritillary should be in good

condition for the marsh fritillaries.

3. All factors affecting the achievement of these conditions are under control.

Reference

Evans, F., Williams, P. and Lewis, H. (2008). Core Management Plan including Conservation

Objectives for Cadair Idris Special Area of Conservation. Countryside Council for Wales.

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Coedydd Aber SAC

Qualifying

interest

Old sessile oak woods

with Ilex and Blechnum

in the British Isles

Alluvial forests with

Alnus glutinosa and

Fraxinus excelsior (Alno

– Padion, Alnion

incanae, Salicion albae)

Reference

Vision

The vision for this feature is for it to be in a favourable conservation status,

where all of the following conditions are satisfied:

1. The woodland is maintained as far as possible by natural processes.

2. The location of open glades or gaps varies over time.

3. Trees and shrubs are locally native, and neither beech nor conifers are

dominant anywhere in the canopy or understorey.

4. Trees and shrubs of a wide range of ages and sizes are present.

5. Tree seedlings are plentiful throughout the site and where occurring in open

glades develop into viable saplings.

6. Field and ground layers are a patchwork of various vegetation communities

characteristic of local soil and humidity conditions.

7. There are abundant dead and dying trees (with holes and hollows, rot

columns, torn off limbs and rotten branches) with associated dead wood

dependent species present.

8. Humidity levels are high enough to favour the presence of ferns, mosses

and liverworts.

9. The woodland continues to support populations of birds and mammals.

10. All factors affecting the achievement of these conditions are under control.

The vision for this feature is for it to be in favourable conservation status, where

all of the following conditions are satisfied:

1. The woodland is maintained as far as possible by natural processes.

2. The trees and shrubs will be locally native broadleaved species with alder

dominating the canopy.

3. The sparse shrub layer will comprise a scattering of hazel, willow and

rowan.

4. Seedlings will be relatively sparse throughout the site with only a few native

seedlings from non-self coppicing trees developing into saplings.

5. The majority of regeneration will be from the base of the alders by means of

self-coppicing.

6. There will be abundant dead and dying trees with holes and hollows, rot

columns, torn off limbs and rotten branches throughout the woodland. Dead

wood, both standing and fallen, will be retained to provide habitats for other

species.

7. Veteran trees will be favoured during any silvicultural management because

they support a wide variety of species, including lichens. Old forest lichen

species will be found throughout the sites, especially on well-lit trees around

woodland edges and glades.

8. All factors affecting the achievement of these conditions are under control.

Creer, J. (2008). Core Management Plan including Conservation Objectives for Coedydd Aber

SAC. Countryside Council for Wales.

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Coedydd Darw a Safloedd Ystlumod Meirion / Meirionnydd Oakwoods

and Bat Sites SAC / cSAC

Qualifying

interest

Woodlands, including

the following:

Old sessile oakwoods

with Ilex and Blechnum

Bog woodland

Tilio-Acerion forests of

slopes, screes and

ravines

Alluvial forests with

Alnus glutinosa and

Fraxinus excelsior

Vision

The vision for the Woodland SAC feature is for it to be in a favourable

conservation status, where all of the following conditions are satisfied:

1. The total extent of the woodland area, including woodland canopy and

scrub, woodland glades and associated dry heath, bracken and grassland shall

be maintained as indicated on maps in Annex 2 of the Core Management Plan,

some 1826 ha in total.

2. The location of the different woodland SAC features, as listed in the title

above, will be as shown in Annex 2 of the Core Management Plan. The

distribution of these woodland communities is largely a reflection of the

topography, soils, geology and aspect and is unlikely to change.

3. The tree canopy percentage cover within the woodland area for the whole

SAC shall be no less than 80%, 87% being the current canopy cover (excepting

natural catastrophic events). Some units will have a lower canopy cover which is

acceptable provided this is compatible with safeguard of the habitat, features and

special interest.

4. The canopy and shrub layer comprises locally native species. Table 2 in the

Core Management Plan gives the relevant species for each woodland SAC

feature.

5. There shall be sufficient natural regeneration of locally native trees and

shrubs to maintain the woodland canopy and shrub layer, by filling gaps and

allowing the recruitment of young trees, and encouraging a varied age structure.

6. The typical ground layer species of each woodland SAC feature will be

common. It is important for most of the woodland SAC that the vegetation does

not becomes rank and overgrown with a height above 40cm and/or dominated by

species such as bramble, ivy and young holly. Limits may be set on a unit or

compartment basis.

7. The abundance and distribution of common and typical (Atlantic, sub-Atlantic,

western, oceanic) mosses and liverworts, lichens (and slime moulds), will be

maintained or increased. Indicative lists are provided in Tables 3 & 4 of the Core

Management Plan.

8. The abundance and distribution of uncommon mosses and liverworts,

lichens and slime moulds, will be maintained or increased. Indicative lists are

provided in Tables 5 & 6 in Annex 3 of the Core Management Plan.

9. There will be a scattering of 5 mature trees per hectare within the existing

tree canopy or parkland, that is trees of c60cm diameter plus for oak and ash

and/or with signs of decay, holes etc. In the longer-term, by 2060 there should be

1 veteran trees per hectare that is trees of c100cm diameter plus for oak and ash

and 75cms birch.

10. The volume of dead wood will exceed 30 cubic metres per hectare

throughout and consist of a mixture of fallen trees (minimum one per hectare),

broken branches, dead branches on live trees, and standing dead trees

(minimum 1 per hectare). Volumes of deadwood are currently at relatively low

levels because the woodlands, in general, have an even-age structure and lack

mature trees and any quantity of deadwood because of past silvicultural

management. Some lower plants are dead wood specialists but these woodlands

tend to lack the rare dead wood invertebrate assemblage found in other parts of

the UK.

11. Invasive non-native species such as rhododendron, Japanese knotweed

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Coedydd Darw a Safloedd Ystlumod Meirion / Meirionnydd Oakwoods

and Bat Sites SAC / cSAC

Qualifying

interest

Lesser horseshoe bats

(Rhionolphus

hipposideros)

European Dry Heaths

Water courses of plain to

montane levels with the

Ranunculion fluitantis

and Callitricho-

Batrachion vegetation

Vision

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and Himalayan balsam will not be present.

12. All factors affecting the achievement of these conditions are under control.

The vision for this feature is for it to be in a favourable conservation status,

where all of the following conditions are satisfied:

1. The population of lesser horseshoe bats should be maintained at its current

size and encouraged where possible to increase. Supporting information is

provided in the Core Management Plan. As there has been an upward trend in

lesser horseshoe bats numbers in Wales it is reasonable to expect the Gwynedd

population to increase.

2. There are sufficient breeding roosts (buildings, structures and trees) and

hibernation roosts (mines and buildings) of appropriate quality. The other types

of roost such as night, transitional, leks and swarming sites, should also be

maintained as our knowledge of these often significant roosts improves.

3. Foraging or feeding habitat in the SAC and surrounding countryside,

including grasslands and some gardens, is of appropriate quality, extent and

connectivity across the range.

4. The range of the population within the SAC/Gwynedd is stable or

increasing.

5. All factors affecting the achievement of these conditions are under control.

The vision for the dry heath feature is for it to be in a favourable conservation

status, where all of the following conditions are satisfied:

1 The total extent of the dry heath area, approximately 21 ha, shall be

maintained.

2 The distribution of the dry heath will at least be as shown in the Core

Management Plan

3 The typical and uncommon species of the vegetation communities

comprising the dry heath will be frequent and abundant.

4 The structure of the heath should be maintained and restored, to show

natural regeneration by layering and seeding, and to ensure that the component

vegetation communities are naturally diverse (refer also to 3 above).

5 Invasive non-native species such as conifers, rhododendron, Japanese

knotweed and Himalayan balsam will not be present.

6 The heath will be generally free from trees and at most have only a few

individuals at a density of no more than two per hectare. Exceptions to this rule

are transition zones from woodland to heath land where trees may be denser

grading to open heath. Limits for woodland transition zones should be set on a

unit or sub-unit basis.

7 All factors affecting the achievement of these conditions are under control.

The vision for this feature is for it to be in favourable conservation status, where

all the following conditions are satisfied:

1. The extent of suitable river habitat within which the Ranunculion fluitantis

and Callitricho-Batrachion vegetation can occur should be stable as indicated on

map in Annex 2.

2. The current distribution (not known) of the Ranunculion fluitantis and

Callitricho-Batrachion vegetation should be stable or increasing.

3. The river with floating vegetation may be dominated by water crowfoot


Coedydd Darw a Safloedd Ystlumod Meirion / Meirionnydd Oakwoods

and Bat Sites SAC / cSAC

Qualifying

interest

Vision

species usually Ranunculus fluitans, (but this species is not recorded in

Meirionnydd), Callitriche stagnalis and bryophytes.

4. Species indicative of unfavourable condition for this feature eg. filamentous

algae associated with eutrophication and invasive non-native species, should be

absent or below an acceptable threshold level, indicative of high ecological

status, within the SAC. This attribute is considered further under factors.

5. All factors affecting the achievement of these factors are under control

Reference

Clark, J, Barber, P. and Evans, F. (2008). Core Management Plan including Conservation

Objectives for Meirionnydd Oakwoods and Bat Sites SAC. Countryside Council for Wales.

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Cors Fochno SAC

Qualifying

interest

Active raised bogs

Degraded raised bogs

still capable of natural

regeneration

Vision

The vision for this feature is for it to be in a favourable conservation status,

where all of the following conditions are satisfied:

1. NVC type M18 Sphagnum papillosum-Erica tetralix raised mire and M2

Sphagnum cuspidatum bog pool communities will occupy > 95% of the ‘primary’

(i.e. uncut) bog area.

2. The cover level of characteristic bog mosses (Sphagnum species) will be

sufficiently high (>25%) to indicate healthy peat growth.

3. ‘Hummock and hollow’ patterning will be present across the centre of the

bog dome.

4. The hollows (ie. Rhyncosporion depressions) will usually have greater

sundew Drosera anglica present and will be increasing or maintaining their

extent.

5. The following species will be common in the active raised bog: Sphagnum

capillifolium, S. papillosum and S. magellanicum, bog rosemary Andromeda

polifolia and white-beak sedge Rhyncospora alba.

6. The rare hummock forming bog mosses Sphagnum austinii and S. fuscum

will be have stable or increasing populations.

7. Purple moor grass Molinia caerulea will be largely absent from the active

raised mire

8. Scrub species such as willow Salix and birch Betula will also be largely

absent.

9. All factors affecting the achievement of these conditions are under control.

The vision for this feature is for it to be in a favourable conservation status,

where all of the following conditions are satisfied:

1. 80% of the degraded raised bog resource is restored to active raised bog,

with the remainder, being hydrologically compatible with active bog.

2. Vegetation corresponding to National Vegetation Classification raised mire

communities types M2 and/or M18 will be stable or increasing in extent relative

to that mapped in 2003.

3. Areas/ stands of M18 vegetation will have a 20% or more cover of bog

moss, and tree species and rhododendron will be rare or absent.

4. Other non-woodland semi-natural vegetation communities, including poor

fen, brackish fen and swamp will have tree species not exceeding their extent in

2003.

5. Characteristic plant species of the mire margins and transitions, including

alder buckthorn, black bog rush, brown beak-sedge, greater tussock sedge,

lesser butterfly orchid, marsh cinquefoil, royal fern and veilwort will have stable or

increasing populations.

6. Species intolerant of impeded drainage such as bracken and most grass

species will be absent or rare throughout the site, together with alien invasive

species such as rhododendron.

7. All factors affecting the achievement of these conditions are under control.

Reference

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Lovering, T. (2008). Core Management Plan including Conservation Objectives for Cors Fochno

SAC. Countryside Council for Wales.

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Corsydd Eifionydd SAC

Qualifying

interest

Transition Mires and

quaking bogs

Slender green feather

moss (Dreplanocladus

(Hamatocaulis)

vernicosus)

Vision

The vision for this feature is for it to be in a favourable conservation status,

where all of the following conditions are satisfied:

1. Transition mire and quaking bog will be the dominant habitat at Cors

Gyfelog and Cors Graianog

2. A mosaic of fen, bog, marshy grassland and swamp habitats should cover

at least 80% of both sites. The habitat should be of good quality, supporting a

number of scarce, rare and endangered plant species. It should also provide

habitat for a wide range of birds, insects and reptiles.

3. During the driest part of the year most of the site should have water at or

above the surface and when the site is walked upon, the bog shakes. This

quaking bog should support wetland habitats with typical species such as crossleaved

heath, bog asphodel, sundews, bogmosses (Sphagnum spp.) and cotton

grass.

4. The site should support healthy populations of rarer plants such as

intermediate bladderwort, bog sedge, royal fern, oblong-leaved sundew together

with rare insect populations. Habitat suitable for the marsh fritillary butterfly

should be present. The blue flowered devil’s bit scabious should be common on

the site because it is the food plant of marsh fritillary caterpillars.

5. Wet woodland should cover no more than 30% of Cors Gyfelog and 10% of

Cors Graianog and there should be no rhododendron present. This diverse

woodland community has developed over a number of years and supports a rich

lichen and moss community. The woodland should continue to contain a number

of different tree species and be able to support the lichen and moss

communities.

6. Light grazing by cattle and ponies will occur across all accessible parts of

the site during the late spring to early summer months.

7. All factors affecting the achievement of these conditions are under control.

The vision for this feature is for it to be in a favourable conservation status,

where all of the following conditions are satisfied:

1. The low growing fen vegetation of Cors Gyfelog and Cors Llanllyfni should

continue to support a healthy population of the slender green feather-moss.

Management shall ensure that the population remains stable and afford it the

opportunity to expand

2. On Cors Gyfelog, H. vernicosus is confined to neutral or slightly basic

flushes and runnels with an open vegetation structure of brown mosses, sedges,

mixed forbs and Sphagnum spp.

3. The open vegetation needs to be maintained by seasonally light grazing and

a high water table with ground conditions being wet throughout the year, the

water table being at or near to the surface.

4. Under-grazing is a significant threat to the H. vernicosus sub-populations at

both sites since it could lead to increased cover by rushes, forbs, sedges and

scrub invasion. When the vegetation became denser, the H. vernicosus formed

small sub-populations of a few scattered scrawny stems. The site is summergrazed

by ponies, which maintains the short open sward conditions favoured by

the moss.

5. Nutrient enrichment of the water source is also a potential risk at both sites.

Measures should be implemented to prevent, and/or reduce to a minimum,

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Corsydd Eifionydd SAC

Qualifying

interest

Marsh fritillary butterfly

(Euphydryas aurinia)

Vision

sources of nutrient enrichment.

6. Certain herbs, grasses and sedges grow in close proximity to the moss

populations. These plants share the habitat requirements of the moss; they

include Lesser Spearwort, Sharp-flowered Rush, Purple Moor Grass, Star

Sedge, Carnation Sedge, Devil’s- bit Scabious, Lesser Skullcap, Large Birdfoot

Trefoil, Bogbean,, Common marsh-bedstraw, Common Cotton Sedge, Bottle

Sedge, Common Sedge, Common Yellow Sedge, Velvet Bent and Flea Sedge.

7. All factors affecting the achievement of the foregoing conditions are under

control

The vision for this feature is for it to be in a favourable conservation status,

where all of the following conditions are satisfied:

1. To ensure this, at least 80% of Cors y Wlad SSSI should be covered by

habitat suitable for the marsh fritillary i.e. rushy vegetation (rhos pasture). The

habitat should be of good quality (tussocky grassland at a height of 10 – 20cm)

with an abundance of devil’s bit-scabious, the food plant of the marsh fritillary

caterpillars.

2. The SAC supports a nationally important population of the marsh fritillary

butterfly. Although, numbers of adult butterflies and larvae fluctuate annually in

response to a parasitic wasp and weather conditions, the population is robust,

resilient and viable in the long term. This population contributes towards the

larger population of the butterfly in the general area.

3. During peak years, a visitor taking a walk through the site on a sunny day in

June will see numerous adult butterflies. In these years the caterpillars, feeding

communally in silken webs on their food-plant Devils Bit Scabious, will be

abundant throughout those units supporting the butterfly.

4. The SAC population contributes to and is the core of the Eifionydd marsh

fritillary metapopulation. The metapopulation consists of the SAC population,

plus populations breeding on land outside the SAC.

5. The population breeds throughout four units, where it is a key species

driving the management of each unit.

6. Rosettes of Devils Bit Scabious will be both very numerous and widespread

throughout parts of those units supporting marsh fritillary (particularly Cors y

Wlad SSSI), growing amongst a turf of grasses, sedges and flowering herbs with

scattered tussocks of purple moor grass and rushes providing shelter for the

caterpillars in wet weather.

7. Dense mixed hedges of hawthorn, hazel, mountain ash and other locally

native species grow around the external and internal boundaries and offer vital

shelter to the breeding adult butterflies during poor weather in what is otherwise

a very exposed landscape with little shelter.

8. All factors affecting the achievement of the foregoing conditions are under

control

Reference

Anon. (2008). Core Management Plan including Conservation Objectives for Corsydd Eifionydd

SAC. Countryside Council for Wales.

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Craig yr Adern / Bird’s Rock SPA

Qualifying

interest

Chough (Pyrrhocorax

pyrrhocorax)

Vision

The vision for this feature is for it to be in a favourable conservation status,

where all of the following conditions are satisfied:

1. The breeding population of Chough is at least five pairs

2. The winter roosting population should be at least 27 birds

3. Sufficient suitable habitat is present to support the populations

4. The factors affecting the feature are under control

Reference

Anon. (2008). Core Management Plan including Conservation Objectives for Craig yr Adern

(Bird’s Rock) SPA. Countryside Council for Wales.

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Eryri / Snowdonia SAC

Qualifying

interest

Siliceous alpine and

boreal grasslands

Alpine and Boreal

Heaths

Hydrophilous tall herb

communities of plains

and of the montane to

alpine levels

Vision

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The vision for this feature is for it to be in a favourable conservation status,

where all of the following conditions are satisfied:

1. The high summits of the Carneddau (Carnedd Dafydd, Pen yr Ole Wen,

Carnedd Llewelyn, Garnedd Uchaf, Yr Aryg, Foel Grach, Llwytmor, Drosgl, Foel

Fras, Pen Llythrig y Wrach and Pen yr Helgi Ddu) the Glyderau (Y Garn, Glyder

Fach, Glyder Fawr, Elidir Fach, Carnedd y Ffiliast and Mynydd Perfedd), should

each support summit heath vegetation which does not show signs of heavy

modification by grazing and/or heavy trampling.

2. There should be no further loss of summit heath on Yr Wyddfa. The extent

of the habitat at Crib y Ddysgl and Garnedd Uchaf should be retained as an

absolute minimum and there should be no loss of quality.

3. The vegetation should be dominated by species typical of species of summit

heath such as Racomitrium lanuginosum (woolly hair moss), Carex bigelowii (stiff

sedge), shrubs dwarfed by the high altitude conditions such as Vaccinium

myrtillus (bilberry) and Salix herbacea, lichens and montane bryophytes.

4. Grasses should not comprise a significant proportion of the vegetation.

5. The habitat should grade into montane heath at its lower level.

6. All factors affecting the achievement of these conditions are under control.

The vision for this feature is for it to be in a favourable conservation status,

where all of the following conditions are satisfied:

1. Alpine and Boreal heath habitat should cover considerable areas of the Eryri

SAC at high altitudes i.e. from about 600m upwards, though it may extend below

this in particularly exposed areas.

2. It should grade into summit heath on the high summits and ridges, and into

dry heath at its lower end.

3. This vegetation should be dominated by dwarf shrubs, typically stunted by

the high altitude conditions, such as cowberry (Vaccinium vitis idea), bilberry

(Vaccinium myrtillus) and mountain crowberry (Empetrum hermaphroditum),

prostrate ling (Calluna vulgaris) and in some stands dwarf juniper (Juniperus

communis ssp. nana.)Other montane species such as wooley hair moss

(Racomitrium lanuginosum) and other montane bryophytes and lichens should

be present.

4. Although some grasses, particularly sheep’s fescue, will be present, they

should not be at high cover.

5. In the long term we expect existing habitat to be retained and to improve in

quality in its current locations, and also to expand into other suitable localities

where the habitat now exists in a degraded state.

6. All factors affecting the achievement of these conditions are under control

The vision for this feature is for it to be in a favourable conservation status,

where all of the following conditions are satisfied:

1. The area of tall herb ledge must be stable, or increasing in the long term.

There will be no loss of tall herb ledge vegetation and the feature will occur in all

management units in which it currently occurs

2. Tall herb ledge vegetation will develop on ledges and on damp calcareous

grassland below cliffs where the potential exists but expansion is currently

prevented by grazing.


Eryri / Snowdonia SAC

Qualifying

interest

Calcareous rocky slopes

with chasmophytic

vegetation

Alpine and subalpine

calcareous grasslands

Siliceous rocky slopes

with chasmophytic

vegetation

Siliceous scree of the

montane to snow levels

Oligotrophic to

mesotrophic standing

waters with vegetation of

the Littorelletea uniflorae

and/or of the Isoëto-

Nanojuncetea

Vision

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3. Tall herb vegetation will consist of a number of flowering plant species such

as Lady’s mantle Alchemilla spp., Meadowsweet Filipendula vulgaris,

Globeflower Trollius europaeus, Welsh poppy Meconopsis cambrica, Devilsbit

scabious Succisa pratensis, Ox-eye daisy Leucanthemum vulgare, Wild Angelica

Angelica sylvestris, Roseroot Sedum rosea, Lesser meadow rue Thalictrum

minus and Common valerian Valeriana officinalis

4. The flowering plants will be ungrazed and able to mature and set seed

freely

The vision for this feature is for it to be in a favourable conservation status,

where all of the following conditions are satisfied:

1. The feature must be stable or increasing in the long term. There will be no

loss of calcareous chasmophytic vegetation and it will continue to occur in all of

management units in which it currently occurs.

2. The feature must continue to support a range of arctic alpine plant

populations.

3. The plants will be ungrazed and able to mature and set seed freely, or nonflowering

plants reproduce by propagules or vegetative means.

4. The feature will not be inhibited by invasive non-native plant species.

The vision for this feature is for it to be in a favourable conservation status,

where all of the following conditions are satisfied:

1. This habitat should remain in its current locations although there may be

some shifts in its extent.

2. The feature should continue to support the characteristic plants including

arctic alpine plant species.

3. The only acceptable losses of this habitat should be due to succession to

other valuable montane communities such as tall herb ledge vegetation.

The vision for this feature is for it to be in a favourable conservation status,

where all of the following conditions are satisfied:

1. This habitat should support a range of bryophytes and ferns in suitable

crevices on acid rocks.

2. The feature should not be damaged by grazing.

3. It should be widespread on suitable moist acidic rock crevices on each

massif.

The vision for this feature is for it to be in a favourable conservation status,

where all of the following conditions are satisfied:

1. The naturally mobile scree on each massif will have open vegetation on or

among the boulders, with Cryptogramma crispa, Deschampsia flexuosa, Festuca

ovina, Galium saxatile, Huperzia selago and an extensive and varied bryophyte

flora.

2. There will not be excessive disturbance to the as a result of human or

animal activity.

The vision for this feature is for it to be in a favourable conservation status,

where all of the following conditions are satisfied:

1. Each of the lakes has a macrophyte flora which includes some of the

characteristic species such as Littorella uniflora, Lobelia dortmanna, Isoetes

lacustris, Myriophorum alterniflorum, Juncus bulbosus, Potamogeton species


Eryri / Snowdonia SAC

Qualifying

interest

North Atlantic wet heaths

with Erica tetralix

European Dry Heath

Blanket Bog

Depressions on peat

substrates of the

Rhynchosporion

Vision

and Subularia aquatica

2. The lakes which have not been dammed for use as reservoirs retain a

natural profile.

3. All of the lakes show a characteristic vegetation zonation from the shore to

the deeper water.

4. Water quality of each lake is within parameters which are suitable to support

the characteristic flora and fauna

The vision for this feature is for it to be in a favourable conservation status,

where all of the following conditions are satisfied:

1. The feature must be stable or increasing in the long term.

2. The habitat will typically comprise Erica tetralix and Calluna vulgaris and

mosses on a wet peaty substrate with a range of small flowering plants such as

bog asphodel Narthecium ossifragum, milkwort Polygala serpyllifolia, Common

butterwort Pinguicula vulgaris, small sedges and round leaved sundew Drosera

rotundifolia.

The vision for this feature is for it to be in a favourable conservation status,

where all of the following conditions are satisfied:

1. The feature must be stable or increasing in the long term.

2. The habitat will be dominated by at least two dwarf shrub species, usually

heather Calluna vulgaris and bilberry Vaccinium mytillus, but sometimes western

gorse Ulex gallii or crowberry Empetrum nigrum may be prominent.

3. There will be a mixed age range of heath at an appropriate scale which

includes stands of young vigorous dwarf shrubs, mature stands where the

heather is becoming senescent, and all age ranges in between.

4. The heath shrubs will not exhibit forms characteristic of overgrazing.

5. There will be no signs of frequent burning or reversion to grassland.

6. All factors affecting the achievement of these conditions are under control.

The vision for this feature is for it to be in a favourable conservation status,

where all of the following conditions are satisfied:

1. The extent of this habitat should be of the order of 1342 ha (as notified on

the N2K data form). This figure however includes a considerable amount of

degraded blanket bog. At present it is unknown how much of this is capable of

restoration to good quality blanket bog habitat.

2. The good quality blanket bog will support typical species e.g. oligotrophic

Sphagnum spp., cotton grass Eriophourm spp, ling Calluna vulgaris, bell heather

Erica cinerea, crowberry Empetrum nigrum, cow berry Vaccinium vitis-idaea, and

cranberry Vaccinium oxycoccus.

3. The intact habitat will not show any signs of degradation as a result of

overgrazing, drainage, or burning, such as depletion of dwarf shrubs and

sphagna with increased grass cover.

4. The degraded habitat will not show any recent signs of further degradation

as a result of overgrazing, drainage or burning.

5. All factors affecting the achievement of these conditions are under control.

The vision for this feature is for it to be in a favourable conservation status,

where all of the following conditions are satisfied:

1. The extent has not been fully measured because the nature of the habitat is

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Eryri / Snowdonia SAC

Qualifying

interest

Species-rich Nardus

grassland on siliceous

substrates in mountain

areas

Old sessile oakwoods

with Ilex and Blechnum

Petrifying springs with

tufa formation

(Cratoneuron)

Vision

small scale and patchy within mosaics of blanket bog and wet heath. However

the extent should be at least that which has been mapped.

2. The habitat, characterised by white beak sedge Rhynchospora alba will

support a range of plant species such as bog pimpernel Anagallis tenella, ling

Calluna vulgaris, round leaved sundew Drosera rotundifolia, cross-leaved heath

Erica tetralix, cottongrass Eriophorum angustifolium, marsh St John’s wort

Hypericum elodes, purple moor grass Molinia caerulea, bog asphodel

Narthecium ossifragum, bog pondweed Potamogeton polygonifolius, Sphagnum

spp., and short sedges.

3. There will be no signs of excessive grazing which would result in large areas

of bare peat and possibly significant cover of rushes Juncus spp.

4. Drainage or burning would damage this habitat and neither activity should

be consented where this habitat could potentially be affected.

5. At Cwmffynnon and other small areas in the Glyderau, the habitat supports

the uncommon species, marsh clubmoss Lycopodiella inundata. Here we would

expect to see frequent small patches of bare peat which support the species.

Many of these areas may be caused by vigorous flushing of water rather than by

grazing animals.

The vision for this feature is for it to be in a favourable conservation status,

where all of the following conditions are satisfied:

1. The extent will be at least 10 hectares of the habitat to include 5 ha on the

slopes above Llyn Llydaw.

2. The grassland will support a range of plant species such as Harebell

Campanula rotundifolia, Eyebright Euphrasia spp. Devilsbit scabious Succisa

pratensis, Wild thyme Thymus polytrichus, Heath speedwell Veronica officinalis,

Spring sedge Carex caryophyllea, Flea sedge Carex pulicaris, Carnation sedge

Carex panicea, Lady’s mantle Alchemila glabr.

3. There will not be any significant cover of invasive species. New Zealand

willowherb, Epilobium brunnescens is a long established alien plant on the site

and is accepted at present as it doesn’t appear to adversely affect the feature.

(At present CCW has no knowledge of any means of reducing or eliminating it)

The vision for this feature is for it to be in a favourable conservation status,

where all of the following conditions are satisfied:

1. The extent is increasing.

2. The woodland comprises locally native canopy forming trees including:

Quercus petraea, Betula pubescens, B. pendula, Fraxinus excelsior and Sorbus

aucuparia.

3. There is a mixed age structure within the woodland.

4. Regeneration is occurring and sufficient seedlings can grow on to saplings

and ultimately canopy trees.

5. There are no significant alien species.

The vision for this feature is for it to be in a favourable conservation status,

where all of the following conditions are satisfied:

1. This feature on Eryri does not form tufa but should display a dominant cover

of mosses such as Cratoneuron communatum, Philonotis fontana and Bryum

pseudotriquetrum with frequent characteristic forbs such as Montia fontana,

Chrysosplenium oppositifolium and Saxifraga stellaris.

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Eryri / Snowdonia SAC

Qualifying

interest

Alkaline fens

Alpine pioneer

formations of the

Caricion bicolorisatrofuscae

Floating water plantain

(Luronium natans)

Slender green feathermoss

(Drepanocladus

(Hamatocaulis)

vernicosus)

Vision

2. There are no significant increases in grass or rush cover

The vision for this feature is for it to be in a favourable conservation status,

where all of the following conditions are satisfied:

1. The habitat consists of flushes, influenced by some base-enrichment, where

brown mosses (such as Scorpidium scorpioides, Cratoneuron commutatum and

Drepanocladus revolvens) are present. Small sedge species such as Carex

viridula, C. panicea, C. dioica C. pulicaris and Eriophorum spp will be present

and usually also Pinguicula vulgaris.

The vision for this feature is for it to be in a favourable conservation status,

where all of the following conditions are satisfied:

1. The feature consists of base rich flushes at high altitude which are flushed

continuously with cold water.

2. This habitat should have a high bryophyte cover and support arctic alpines

such as Saxifraga oppositifolia, S. stellaris and Thalictrum alpinum. Juncus

triglumis should be present and sedges such as Carex viridula.

3. There should be no non-native species.

4. The flowering plants should be able to flower and set seed unhindered by

grazing

The vision for this feature is for it to be in a favourable conservation status,

where all of the following conditions are satisfied:

1. Luronium natans occurs in Llyn Cwmffynnon as a minimum

The vision for this feature is for it to be in a favourable conservation status,

where all of the following conditions are satisfied:

1. The moss is present at Cwm Afon Llafar Flush A and Flush B.

2. The associated vegetation should be dominated by rushes and sedges, with


Glynllifon SAC

Qualifying

interest

Lesser horseshoe bat

(Rhinolophus

hipposideros)

Vision

1. The natural range of lesser horseshoe bats will not be reduced, nor be likely

to be reduced for the foreseeable future.

2. There is, and will continue to be, sufficient habitat to maintain the lesser

horseshoe bat population on a long-term basis.

3. The three maternity roosts will continue to be occupied annually by lesser

horseshoe bats and their babies: Glynllifon Mansion (Unit 16), Melin y Cim (Unit

32), Pen y Bont (Unit 36).

4. There will be a sufficiently large area of suitable habitat surrounding these

roosts to support the bat population, including continuous networks of sheltered,

broadleaved and coniferous woodland, tree lines and hedgerows connecting the

various types of roosts with areas of insect-rich grassland and open water.

5. All factors affecting the achievement of these conditions are under control.

Reference

Anon. (2008). Core Management Plan including Conservation Objectives for Glynllifon SAC.

Countryside Council for Wales.

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Migneint-Arenig-Dduallt SAC

Qualifying

interest

Blanket Bog

European dry heaths

and Northern Atlantic

wet heath with Erica

tetralix

Vision

The vision for this priority blanket bog SAC feature is for it to be in a favourable

conservation status, where all of the following conditions are satisfied:

1. The total extent of the blanket bog area, including those areas that are

considered unfavourable or currently degraded is maintained at the area present

when designated, some 8100 ha in total. Vegetation mapped as NVC M20,

currently approx. 1700ha, is always considered to be unfavourable. The area of

the blanket bog feature is expanding into areas of heavily modified bog currently

occupied by wet heath or acid grassland.

2. The location and distribution of the blanket bog is increasing at the expense

of less desirable vegetation communities.

3. The degraded areas and currently unfavourable blanket bog are managed

under a restoration programme so that the area and distribution of favourable

blanket bog is increasing.

4. The typical species of the vegetation communities comprising the blanket

bog SAC feature are frequent.

5. The abundance and distribution of uncommon plants is maintained or

increased.

6. The structure of the blanket bog is maintained and restored to include bog

pools, depressions, hummocks and hollows as a natural feature of the bog

surface. Artificial drainage ditches or moor grips are not present as functioning

drains. Peat erosion should be under control, and limited to apparently longestablished

plateux erosion systems.

7. Invasive non-native species such as conifers, rhododendron, Japanese

knotweed, Himalayan balsam and bridewort (Spiraea) are not present within the

SAC and a species specific buffer area.

8. The blanket bog is free from all trees.

9. All factors affecting the achievement of these conditions are under control.

The vision for the heath land SAC features is for them to be in a favourable

conservation status, where all of the following conditions are satisfied:

1. The total extent of the dry heath area, including those areas that are

‘degraded’ (approx 2600ha) shall at least be maintained as present when

designated. The degraded areas and currently unfavourable dry heath should be

managed under a restoration programme. The area of dry heath should increase

at the expense of less desirable vegetation communities such as acid grassland.

The total extent of the wet heath area, including those areas that are ‘degraded’

(approx 400 ha) shall at least be maintained as present when designated. The

area of wet heath should increase in overall at the expense of less desirable

vegetation communities. Some areas of wet heath which are degraded blanket

bog may be restored to that priority habitat provided that there is a net gain of

wet heath within the SAC.

2. The distribution of the dry and wet heath will at least be as shown on Maps

1-4 of the Core Management Plan and will preferably be increasing as it is

restored in additional areas.

3. The typical species of the vegetation communities comprising the dry heath

and wet heath will be frequent and abundant.

4. The abundance and distribution of uncommon plants will be maintained or

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Migneint-Arenig-Dduallt SAC

Qualifying

interest

Oligotrophic to

mesotrophic standing

waters with vegetation of

the Littorelletea uniflorae

and/or of the Isoëto-

Nanojuncetea and for

natural dystrophic lakes

and ponds

Vision

increased.

5. The structure of the heath should be maintained and restored, to show

natural regeneration by layering and seeding, and to ensure that the component

vegetation communities are naturally diverse (refer also to 3 and 4 above). In

practise some stands will benefit from being taller with very mature heather (eg

NVC H 21) and others including wet heath from having a medium to short

structure, less than 30cms height. Signs of overgrazing, including ‘suppressed’,

‘topiary’ or ‘drumstick’ growth habits will not be apparent.

6. Invasive non-native species such as conifers, rhododendron, Japanese

knotweed, Himalayan balsam and bridewort (Spiraea) will not be present.

7. The surface of the heath will be generally free from trees and at most have

only a few individuals at a density of no more than 2 per hectare. Exceptions to

this rule are transition zones from woodland to heath land where trees may be

denser grading to open heath. Limits for woodland transition zones should be set

on a unit or sub-unit basis.

8. All factors affecting the achievement of these conditions are under control.

Migneint-Arenig-Dduallt has 22 lakes of more than 0.5ha in area, and many more

smaller pools. Although these nominally consist of two distinct types (clear-water

and peaty), in practice the water bodies on the site span the full range from very

clear lakes such as Llyn Arenig Fawr, to typical peaty lakes such as Llyn y

Dywarchen. Climate change and recovery from acidification is expected to lead

to increased peat staining of many of these water bodies, but it is essential that

this situation is not exacerbated by inappropriate land management.

The vision for the oligotrophic to mesotrophic (clear-water) and dystrophic

(peaty) lakes SAC features is for them to be in a favourable conservation status,

where all of the following conditions are satisfied:

1 The total extent of the clear-water and peaty lakes shall be maintained, as

indicated on Maps 1-4 of the Core Management Plan, some x ha of open

water/swamp and immediate lake basin, as visible on air photographs. The lake

condition is intrinsically linked to the condition of the catchment therefore the

catchments should be maintained in at least their current condition (including

vegetation cover, drainage and appropriate management ie not over grazing and

burning).

2 The location of the clear-water and peaty lakes will be as shown on Maps 1-4

of the Core Management Plan.

3 The typical species, as listed following, of the vegetation communities

comprising the clear-water lakes SAC feature will be common.

The vegetation community is characterised by amphibious short perennial

vegetation, with shoreweed Littorella uniflora being considered as the defining

component. This species often occurs in association with water lobelia Lobelia

dortmanna, bog pondweed Potamogeton polygonifolius, quillwort Isoetes

lacustris, bulbous rush Juncus bulbosus, alternate water milfoil Myriophyllum

alterniflorum and floating water bur-reed Sparganium angustifolium. On Migneint-

Arenig-Dduallt all the above species are present, together with yellow water-lily

Nuphar lutea, white water-lily Nymphaea alba, smooth stonewort Nitella flexilis,

lesser bladderwort Utricularia minor and the nationally scarce slender stonewort

Nitella gracilis.

In the case of peaty lakes, these water bodies are very acidic and poor in plant

nutrients. Their water has a high humic acid content and is usually stained dark

brown through exposure to peat. Most examples are small (less than 5 ha in

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Migneint-Arenig-Dduallt SAC

Qualifying

interest

Old sessile oakwoods

with Ilex and Blechnum

Woodland

Vision

extent), shallow, and contain a limited range of flora and fauna, with the principal

aquatic plants being Sphagnum, floating bur-reed and water lilies. The pools are

naturally species-poor and a littoral zone is often absent. Fringing vegetation is

that characteristic of the habitat in which the pools occur.

4 All factors affecting the achievement of these conditions are under control.

The vision for the Woodland SAC feature is for it to be in a favourable

conservation status, where all of the following conditions are satisfied:

1. The total extent of the woodland area, including woodland canopy and

scrub, woodland glades and associated dry heath, bracken and grassland shall

be maintained as indicated on the map in the annex, of 67 ha plus additional

areas of c.13ha (not mapped) giving a total of approx.80 ha. Broadleaved

woodland and scrub currently covers about 0.4% of the site (and bracken over

2% (c. 450 ha).

2. The location of the woodland SAC feature will be as shown on Maps in

annex 1 of the Core Management Plan. Woodlands include: Coed Dol- Fudr (SH

831318), Coed Gordderw (SH 838336), Coed Maen y Menyn (SH 848354) and

Coed Boch-y-Rhaeadr (SH 843398).

3. The tree canopy percentage cover within the woodland area shall be no less

than 85% (excepting natural catastrophic events).

4. The canopy and shrub layer comprises locally native species, as indicated

in Table 2, typical of this upland woodland which is less oak and more birch

dominated than more lowland examples of this SAC feature.

5. There shall be sufficient natural regeneration of locally native trees and

shrubs to maintain the woodland canopy and shrub layer, by filling gaps and

allowing the recruitment of young trees, and encouraging a varied age structure.

6. The typical ground layer species of the woodland SAC feature will be

common. It is important for most of the woodland SAC that the vegetation does

not becomes rank and overgrown with a height above 40cm and/or dominated by

species such as bramble, ivy and young holly. Limits may be set on a unit or

compartment basis. Typical lower plants including oceanic species (refer to

Table 2 of Core Management Plan for an indicative list where known records are

ticked) should continue to be abundant and/or maintained.

7. The abundance and distribution of uncommon mosses, liverworts, lichens

and ferns, will be maintained or increased.

8. There will be a defined number of mature trees per hectare within the

existing tree canopy on a unit basis. This will need to be defined by diameter for

the upland situation where comparable trees at lower altitude are of c60cm

diameter plus for oak and ash and/or with signs of decay, holes etc.

9. Dead wood will be present and consist of a mixture of fallen trees (minimum

one per hectare), broken branches, dead branches on live trees, and standing

dead trees (minimum one per hectare). Volumes of deadwood are currently at

relatively low levels because the woodlands, in general, have an even-age

structure and lack mature trees. Some lower plants are dead wood specialists

but these woodlands tend to lack the rare dead wood invertebrate assemblage

found in other parts of the UK.

10. Invasive non-native species such as rhododendron, Japanese knotweed

and Himalayan balsam will not be present.

11. All factors affecting the achievement of these conditions are under control.

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Reference

Evans, F., Young, N. and Jenkins, R. (2008). Core Management Plan including Conservation

Objectives for Migneint-Arenig-Dduallt SAC/SPA. Countryside Council for Wales.

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Migneint-Arenig-Dduallt SPA

Qualifying

interest

Hen harrier (Circus

cyaneus)

Merlin (Falco

columbarius)

Peregrine (Falco

peregrinus)

Vision

The vision for this feature is for it to be in a favourable conservation status,

where all of the following conditions are satisfied:

1. The size of the population is at least eight breeding pairs (SPA form 2003

10-12 pairs) and preferably increasing. (2007 –11 pairs)

2. Hen Harrier nesting distribution within the site is maintained or expanded, so

that breeding occurs in all appropriate habitats.

3. Hen Harrier breeding success is at least one young fledged per nest.

4. There is sufficient nesting and roosting tall heather habitat to support the

population in the long-term.

5. There is sufficient hunting habitat, often in mosaic and including areas of

grassland, bogs, flushes, short heath and bracken with low trees/scrub present.

There is an adequate supply of prey species in the form of small birds and small

mammals to maintain successful breeding. Prey supply cannot be easily

monitored or assessed but may be an important attribute, for research and study,

if productivity is low.

6. All factors affecting the achievement of these conditions are under control

The vision for this feature is for it to be in a favourable conservation status,

where all of the following conditions are satisfied:

1. The size of the population is at least nine breeding pairs (SPA form 2003 9-12

pairs, 0.7-0.9% GB) and preferably increasing.

2. Merlin nesting distribution within the site is maintained or expanded, so that

breeding occurs in all appropriate habitats.

3. Merlin breeding success is at least one young fledged per nest when sample

monitoring is carried out.

4. There is sufficient nesting and roosting tall heather, individual trees often with

crows’ nests and forestry edge habitat to support the population in the long-term.

5. There is sufficient hunting habitat, often in mosaic and including areas of

grassland, bogs, flushes, short heath and bracken with low trees/scrub present.

There is an adequate supply of prey species in the form of small birds

(commonly meadow pipit and skylark) and large insects to maintain successful

breeding. Prey supply cannot be easily monitored or assessed but may be an

important attribute, for research and study, if productivity is low.

6. All factors affecting the achievement of these conditions are under control

The vision for this feature is for it to be in a favourable conservation status,

where all of the following conditions are satisfied:

1. The size of the population is at least 9 breeding pairs (SPA form 2003 9-12

pairs, 0.7-0.9% GB) and preferably increasing.

2. Peregrine nesting distribution within the site is maintained or expanded, so

that breeding occurs in all appropriate nest sites.

3. Peregrine breeding success is at least one young fledged per nest when

sample population monitoring is carried out.

4. There are sufficient cliff and crag with ledges suitable for nesting usually

known traditional nest sites to support the population in the long-term.

5. There is a sufficient hunting habitat and prey. Prey supply cannot be easily

monitored or assessed but may be an important attribute, for research and study,

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Migneint-Arenig-Dduallt SPA

Qualifying

interest

Vision

if peregrine productivity is low.

6. All factors affecting the achievement of these conditions are under control

Reference

Evans, F., Young, N. and Jenkins, R. (2008). Core Management Plan including Conservation

Objectives for Migneint-Arenig-Dduallt SAC/SPA. Countryside Council for Wales.

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Morfa Harlech a Morfa Dyffryn SAC

Qualifying

interest

Embryonic shifting

dunes

Shifting dunes along the

shoreline with

Ammophila arenaria

Humid Dune Slacks

Dunes with Salix repens

Petalwort (Petalophyllum

ralfsii)

Vision

The vision for this feature is for it to be in a favourable conservation status,

where all of the following conditions are satisfied:

1. The total extent of the embryonic shifting dunes including those areas that

are considered unfavourable or currently degraded is maintained at the area

present when designated.

2. The strand line and embryonic dune vegetation should be made up of

typical species listed in the table below.

3. All factors affecting the achievement of these conditions are under control.

The vision for this feature is for it to be in a favourable conservation status,

where all of the following conditions are satisfied:

1. The total extent of the shifting dunes including those areas that are

considered unfavourable or currently degraded is maintained at the area present

when designated, c.18.9 ha at Morfa Harlech which should be present both along

the seaward dune ridge and inland within units 1, 3, 4 and 5 and at least 82 ha of

shifting dunes at Morfa Dyffryn which should be distributed throughout units 28,

27, 26, 24, and 23.

2. The shifting dunes should be vegetated by species such as those listed in

the table below.

3. All factors affecting the achievement of these conditions are under control.

The vision for these features is for them to be in a favourable conservation

status, where all of the following conditions are satisfied:

1. The total extent of the humid dune slacks and dunes with Salix repens

including those areas that are considered unfavourable or currently degraded is

maintained at the area present when designated, some 65.1 ha at Morfa Harlech

and 43.6 ha at Morfa Dyffryn.

2. All successional phases of dune slack vegetation should be present at

Morfa Dyffryn.

3. The humid dune slacks should be vegetated with typical and desirable

species such as those outlined in the table below.

4. The dune slack vegetation should be free from scrub and should have a

relatively short sward.

5. All factors affecting the achievement of these conditions are under control.

The vision for this feature is for it to be in a favourable conservation status,

where all of the following conditions are satisfied:

1. The population of Petalophyllum will remain stable or increase.

2. Petalophyllum should be present at Morfa Harlech should be distributed

across the northern part of Morfa Dyffryn sand dune system (Units 26 and 28).

3. The successionally young dune slacks that support the Petalophyllum

should be in good condition as defined in the conservation objective for features

3 and 4 above.

4. All factors affecting the achievement of these conditions are under control.

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Reference

Anon. (2008). Core Management Plan including Conservation Objectives for Morfa Harlech a

Morfa Dyffryn Special Area of Conservation. Countryside Council for Wales.

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Mwyngloddiau Fforest Gwydir / Gwydyr Forest Mines SAC

Qualifying

interest

Calaminarian grasslands

of the Violetalia

calaminariae

Lesser horseshoe bat

(Rhinolophus

hipposideros)

Vision

The vision for this feature is for it to be in a favourable conservation status,

where all of the following conditions are satisfied:

1. The area of calaminarian grassland must be stable (based on the extent at

the time of SAC notification), or increasing in the long term, and will occur in all

management units (where previously recorded see Table 4).

2. The remainder of the management units not highlighted for calaminarian

grassland will be maintained in a favourable condition for lesser horseshoe bat.

3. The calaminarian grassland can be described as either “calaminarian

grassland with Ditrichum plumbicola” or ‘calaminarian grassland (metal spoil)

without Ditrichum plumbicola’.

a. Calaminarian grassland with D. plumbicola will be defined as a

characteristically sparse and species poor vegetation type. The substrate

varies from fine scree, through fine clay to fine silt like spoil. The substrate is

rich in heavy metals (notably lead and zinc) resulting in a paucity of taxa within

the habitat. Mosses and liverwort (e.g. Polytrichum piliferum, Jungermanniana

gracillima, Weissia controversa, Dicranella heteromalla, Pholia nutans and

Cephaloziella spp.) are often the only taxa found in association with D.

plumbicola.

b. Calaminarian grassland (metal spoil) without D. plumbicola is characterised

by lichen encrusted (often Stereocaulon species), heavy metal rich, mine

spoil. Between the blocks of spoil where humus accumulates, lower and

higher plants with some degree of heavy metal toxicity tolerance grow.

Mosses and liverworts often dominate the vegetation, however, in areas with

greater depths of humus, pteridophytes and angiosperms can dominate. The

metallophytes Asplenium septentrionale (Forked Spleenwort), Silene uniflora

(Sea Campion) and Thlaspi caerulescens (Alpine Penny-cress) are often

found in association with other higher plants on the mine spoil.

4. Broadleaf, coniferous, exotic and scrub species should be absent from the

calaminarian grassland stands, because the above plants will shade out the

slower growing moss and lichen species, and in time will smother the lower

plants with litter material.

5. A 10m buffer, clear of coniferous vegetation, will be maintained around the

stands of calaminarian grassland with D. plumbicola.

6. Disturbance through human impact and recreation will be absent from the

calaminarian grassland.

7. All factors affecting the achievement of these conditions are under control.

The vision for this feature is for it to be in a favourable conservation status,

where all of the following conditions are satisfied:

1. The site will support a sustainable population of lesser horseshoe bats in

the Gwydyr Forest area.

2. The population will viable in the long term, acknowledging the population

fluctuations of the species.

3. The natural range of lesser horseshoe bats is neither being reduced nor is

likely to be reduced for the foreseeable future.

4. Mines on the site will be in optimal condition to support the populations.

5. Sufficient foraging habitat is available, in which factors such as disturbance,

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Mwyngloddiau Fforest Gwydir / Gwydyr Forest Mines SAC

Qualifying

interest

Vision

interruption to flight lines, and mortality from predation or vehicle collision,

changes in habitat management that would reduce the available food source are

not at levels which could cause any decline in population size or range.

6. There is a sufficiently large area of suitable habitat surrounding the roosts to

support the bat population, including continuous networks of sheltered

broadleaved and coniferous woodland, and tree lines, connecting the various

roosts with areas of insect rich grassland and open water.

7. Management of the surrounding habitats is of the appropriate type and

sufficiently secure to ensure there is likely to be no reduction in population size or

range, nor any decline in the extent or quality of breeding, foraging or hibernating

habitat.

8. All factors affecting the achievement of the foregoing conditions are under

control.

Reference

Anon. (2008). Core Management Plan including Conservation Objectives for Mwyngloddiau

Fforest Gwydir / Gwydyr Forest Mines SAC. Countryside Council for Wales.

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Pen Llŷn a’r Sarnau / Lleyn Peninsula and the Sarnau SAC

Qualifying

interest

Reefs

Vision

The conservation objective for the reefs is to achieve the favourable conservation

status of the feature. The reefs feature will be considered to be in favourable

conservation status when:

NATURAL RANGE AND AREA

(i) The distribution of the reef feature within the site is as indicated on the

indicative feature maps ii, ii and the reef feature map 1.1 - this includes rocky

intertidal and subtidal reefs, the Sarnau cobble and boulder reefs, biogenic reefs

(horse mussel, Modiolus modilus, mussel reefs formed by Musculus discors and

honeycomb worm reefs formed by Sabellaria alveolata) and carbonate reefs

structures formed by methane gas leaking from the seabed.

(ii) There is no reduction in the overall extent of the reef habitat or the extent of

the different components of the reef feature (rocky intertidal and subtidal reefs,

the Sarnau cobble and boulder reefs, biogenic reefs (horse mussel, Modiolus

modiolus, mussel reefs formed by Musculus discors and honeycomb worm reefs

formed by Sabellaria alveolata) and carbonate reefs structures formed by

methane gas leaking from the seabed.

STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION

(iii) There is no change to the distribution, extent and variation of the rock types

forming the reefs within the site.

(iv) The geomorphology (reef morphology, topography, orientation, aspect,

bathymetry) of all components of the reef feature is determined by and evolves

under the influence of uninterrupted environmental processes.

(v) The supply and nature (granulometry and structure) of sediment deposits on

reef surfaces and influencing the reef communities is not hindered or modified

(this includes sediment supply to create scour conditions and provide material for

construction of reef communities (e.g. reefs formed by Sabellaria spp.).

(vi) The patterns of physical, chemical and biological conditions and processes

that form and sustain the reefs and their associated communities operate within

the range of dynamic fluctuation that would be expected to satisfy the ecological

requirements of the feature.

(vii) The nature and pattern of hydrological and hydrodynamic processes

(including wave –exposures, tidal stream strengths, depth ranges, scour

regimes, temperature) and the interaction and influence of these on the reefs and

their associated communities continueto operate without constraint or

interference.

(viii) The levels of suspended particulate concentrations and water

clarity/turbidity are within a range that sustains the continued presence of the

communities and typical species of the reefs.

(ix) The water and sediment chemistry (includes salinity, dissolved oxygen, levels

of contaminants) are within ranges that sustains the continued presence of the

communities and typical species of the reefs.

(x) Levels of nutrients in the water column and sediments remain:

- at or below existing statutory guideline concentrations

- at levels within ranges that are not potentially detrimental to the long-term

maintenance of the biotic assemblages and species populations of the reef

TYPICAL SPECIES

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Pen Llŷn a’r Sarnau / Lleyn Peninsula and the Sarnau SAC

Qualifying

interest

Large shallow inlets and

bays

Vision

(xi) The species richness, population dynamics, biomass and range of typical

species of the reefs including assemblages of mobile species are determined by

and sustained in response to the prevailing physical, chemical and biological

conditions and processes.

(xii) The large variety of biological communities (as categorised by intertidal and

subtidal biotopes) includes, but is not limited to that listed in Appendix 4.1.1 of

the Management Plan.

(xiii) The distribution of the biological communities of the reefs reflects the range

of physiographic conditions throughout the site (including a broad spectrum of

rocky substrata, wave exposure, tidal stream strengths, depth ranges, turbidity

and scour regimes).

(xiv) The communities within the 7 different groupings of communities listed in

Appendix 4.1.2 and shown on map 1.2 are present and there is no reduction in

their extent, distribution and quality is as described.

(xv) The seaweed communities of the Sarnau are representative/characteristic of

disturbed and scoured habitat and conditions (as indicated by the presence of

extensive examples of a limited number of specific communities)

(xvi) There is no reduction in the extent of the Horse mussel Modiolus modiolus

community off the north Llŷn coast or the quality of this community in terms of its

structural integrity (age structure, density of live Modiolus), community

composition and species richness (epibiota and infuana).

(xvii) The potential for expansion of the Horse mussel Modiolus modiolus

community off the north Llŷn coast is not inhibited.

(xviii) There is no reduction in the extent and distribution of the honeycomb worm

reef Sabellaria alveolata in the intertidal and shallow infralittoral) or the quality of

this community in terms of its community composition and species richness and

the presence of honeycomb worm reefs in varying stages of development and

maturity.

(xix) There is no reduction in the extent of the Carbonate reef structure formed by

gas leaking from seabed or the quality of this habitat in terms of its species

community (epibiota) and assemblage of mobile species.

(xx) The 20 notable species listed in Appendix 4.1.3 are present within, but not

limited to, the reefs.

(xxi) The assemblages of fish species and other mobile species supported by

and associated with the reefs are present.

SECURITY OF THE FEATURE IN THE LONG TERM

(xxii) The management of activities or operations likely to damage or degrade the

distribution, extent, structure, function or typical species populations of the

feature, is appropriate for maintaining favourable conservation status and is

secure in the long term.

The conservation objective for the large shallow inlet and bay is to achieve the

favourable conservation status of the feature. The large shallow inlet and bay

feature will be considered to be in favourable conservation status when:

NATURAL RANGE AND AREA

(i) The distribution of the large shallow inlet and bay within the site is as indicated

on the indicative features maps ii and iii

(ii) There is no reduction in the area (extent) of the large shallow inlet and bay

STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION

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Pen Llŷn a’r Sarnau / Lleyn Peninsula and the Sarnau SAC

Qualifying

interest

Vision

(iii) The structure of the bay (the sediments of the seashore and seabed, their

topography and the bathymetry of the bay) are determined by and continue to

evolve under the influence of uninterrupted environmental processes.

(iv) There is no reduction in the variety and relative extent of the various

sediment types within the bay.

(v) The structure of the shingle shore at Pwllheli is suitable to support the

population of Pectenogammarus planicrurus.

(vi) The supply and nature of the sediments and material forming and sustaining

the large shallow inlet and bay feature and its associated communities are not

hindered or modified.

(vii) The patterns of physical, chemical and biological conditions and processes

that form and sustain the large shallow inlet and bay and its associated

communities continue to operate within the range of dynamic fluctuation that

would be expected to satisfy the ecological requirements of the feature

(viii) The nature and pattern of hydrodynamic processes and the interaction and

influence of these on the patterns of sediment movement that form and sustain

the varied habitats of the large shallow inlet and bay and their associated

communities continue to operate without constraint or interference.

(ix) The pattern and range of seabed surface and surface water temperatures

sustains the continued presence of the communities and typical species of the

large shallow inlet and bay.

(x) Levels of nutrients in the water column and sediments remain:

- at or below existing statutory guideline concentrations

- at levels within ranges that are not potentially detrimental to the long-term

maintenance of the biotic assemblages and species populations of the large

shallow inlet and bay

TYPICAL SPECIES

(xi) The species richness, population dynamics, biomass and range of typical

species of the large shallow inlet and bay are determined by and sustained in

response to the prevailing physical, chemical and biological conditions and

processes.

(xii) The variety of the biological communities of the large shallow inlet and bay

(as categorised by intertidal and subtidal biotopes) includes, but is not limited to

that listed in Appendix 4.2.1 of the Management Plan.

(xiii) The distribution of the biological communities of the large shallow inlet and

bay reflects the range of physiographic conditions present within the bay (a

summary description of this distribution is provided in Appendix 4.2.2 of the

Management Plan)

(xiv) No reduction in the extent and quality of the 9 communities listed in

Appendix 4.2.3 of the Management Plan.

(xv) The 11 notable species listed in Appendix 4.2.4 of the Management Plan are

present within, but not limited to, the large shallow inlet and bay.

(xvi) The bay functions as a nursery area for crustaceans and fish species

without interference and/or constraint

SECURITY OF THE FEATURE IN THE LONG TERM

(xvii) The management of activities or operations likely to damage or degrade the

distribution, extent, structure, function or typical species populations of the

feature, is appropriate for maintaining favourable conservation status and is

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Pen Llŷn a’r Sarnau / Lleyn Peninsula and the Sarnau SAC

Qualifying

interest

Subtidal sandbanks

Estuaries

Vision

secure in the long term.

The conservation objective for the sandbanks which are slightly covered by

seawater all the time is to achieve the favourable conservation status of the

feature. The ‘subtidal sandbanks’ feature will be considered to be in favourable

conservation status when:

RANGE AND EXTENT

(i) The distribution of the sandbanks within the site is as indicated on the

indicative features maps ii and iii

(ii) The overall extent of sandbank habitat is as indicated in the indicative feature

maps ii and iii .

STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION

(iii) The supply and nature of sediment forming and sustaining the sandbanks

structures is not hindered or modified

(iv) The relative proportions of sediment types on each sandbanks are as listed

in Appendix 4.3.1

(v) The topography of each sandbank is maintained within the relative

proportions described in Appendix 4.3.2

(vi) The patterns of physical, chemical and biological conditions and processes

that form and sustain the sandbanks and their associated communities operate

within the range of dynamic fluctuation that would be expected to satisfy the

ecological requirements of the feature.

(vii) The dynamic nature and pattern of hydrodynamic processes and the

interaction and influence of these on the patterns of sediment movement that

form and sustain the sandbanks and their associated communities continue to

operate without constraint or interference

(viii) Levels of nutrients in the water column and sediments remain:

- at or below existing statutory guideline concentrations

- at levels within ranges that are not potentially detrimental to the long-term

maintenance of the biotic assemblages and species populations of the

sandbanks

CONSERVATION OF TYPICAL SPECIES

(ix) The variety and distribution of infaunal communities of the sandbanks should

include, but is not limited to that listed in Appendix 4.3.3

(x) The species richness, population dynamics, biomass and range of typical

species of the sandbanks are determined by and sustained in response to the

prevailing physical, chemical and biological conditions and processes.

(xi) The species richness of infauna at the base of the Tripods, Bastram Shoal

and Devil’s Ridge sandbanks is no lower than, and contains the species listed in

Appendix 4.3.4

(xii) The assemblages (and their populations) of mobile species associated with

the sandbanks (on the sediment surface and in the water column) are present

SECURITY OF THE FEATURE IN THE LONG TERM

(xiii) The management of activities or operations likely to damage or degrade the

distribution, extent, structure, function or typical species populations of the

feature, is appropriate for maintaining favourable conservation status and is

secure in the long term.

The conservation objective for the estuaries is to achieve the favourable

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Pen Llŷn a’r Sarnau / Lleyn Peninsula and the Sarnau SAC

Qualifying

interest

Vision

conservation status of the feature. The estuaries feature will be considered to be

in favourable conservation status when:

RANGE AND EXTENT

(i) The distribution of the estuaries of the SAC is as indicated on the indicative

features maps ii and iii.

(ii) There is no reduction in the extent of each of the estuaries that comprise the

feature within the site

(iii) Additional land which should form an integral part of the estuarine ecosystem

is restored

STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION

(iv) The patterns of physical, chemical and biological conditions and processes

that form and sustain the estuaries and their associated communities operate

within the range of dynamic fluctuation that would be expected to satisfy the

ecological requirements of the feature.

(v) The geomorphological processes operating within the estuaries are not

constrained or modified

(vi) The supply and nature of sediment forming and sustaining the estuaries is

not hindered or modified

(vii) The pattern and rate of sediment movement within the estuaries, and

between the estuaries and coastal and inshore areas are not hindered or

modified

(viii) There is no increase in the background levels of riverine sediment input into

each estuary

(ix) The dynamic evolution of the spit at the mouth of each estuary continues and

there is no reduction in the size of the ebb tide delta at mouth of

(x) The current range of bathymetric horizons present in each estuary is retained

such that the majority of estuarine sediment in each estuary is exposed at low

water.

(xi) Each estuary is in a state of dynamic equilibrium

(xii) The dynamic process of channel movement within each estuary continues

without constraint or hindrance

(xiii) There is a relatively higher proportion of sandy sediments to muddy

sediments in each estuary.

(xiv) The hydrological and hydrodynamic processes (including the characteristic

flood hydrograph) & salinity regime within each estuary are within ranges that

sustain the continued presence of the communities and typical species of the

estuary.

(xv) There is no increase in the background nutrient levels within the water and

sediments of each estuary.

(xvi) The water and sediment chemistry (e.g. dissolved oxygen, temperature and

levels of contaminants) are within ranges that sustain the continued presence of

the communities and typical species of the estuaries.

(xvii) The structure and functions of the estuaries that have been

damaged/degraded by the constraints of artificial structures (e.g. flood banks)

are restored

CONSERVATION OF TYPICAL SPECIES

(xviii) The variety of typical plant and animal species within viable populations

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Pen Llŷn a’r Sarnau / Lleyn Peninsula and the Sarnau SAC

Qualifying

interest

Mudflats and sandflats

not covered by seawater

at low tide

Vision

continue to be present

(xix) The variety of biological communities supported by the estuary feature

reflects the gradient of estuarine physio-chemical conditions and includes, but is

not limited to, the communities listed in Appendix 4.4.1 of the Management Plan.

(xx) The following communities are present and their extent, distribution and

quality is as described:

• The distribution of the intertidal mudflat and sandflat communities present in

estuarine conditions reflects the gradient of sediment and salinity conditions

typical of estuarine conditions is as indicated in map 4.1 of the Management

Plan.

• The proportion of sand to mud and muddy sand communities within the

estuaries is as indicated in Appendix 4.4.2 of the Management Plan.

• There is no reduction in the extent of intertidal rock habitat suitable to support

the variety of rocky shore intertidal communities, as indicated on map 4.2 of the

Management Plan.

• The extent, distribution and quality of the variable salinity rocky and mixed

substrate communities is as indicated in map 4.3 and listed in Appendix 4.4.3 of

the Management Plan.

• There is no reduction in the extent, quality and distribution of, saltmarsh,

transition and sand dune communities.

(xxi) The assemblages of marine and terrestrial invertebrates, fish and birds

supported by and associated with the estuaries are present. See appendix 4.4.4

of the Management Plan.

(xxii) The estuaries continue to function effectively as nursery areas for bass

Dicentrarchus labrax and other fish species and as a migratory route for salmon

Salmo salar, sea trout Salmo trutta and eels Anguilla anguilla.

SECURITY OF THE FEATURE IN THE LONG TERM

(xxiii) The management of activites or operations likely to damage or degrade the

distribution, extent, structure, function or typical species populations of the

feature, is appropriate for maintaining favourable conservation status and is

secure in the long term.

The conservation objective for the mudflats and sandflats not covered by

seawater at low tide is to achieve the favourable conservation status of the

feature. The “intertidal mudflats and sandflats” feature will be considered to be in

favourable conservation status when:

NATURAL RANGE AND EXTENT

(i) The distribution of the intertidal mudflats and sandflats within the site is as

indicated on the indicative feature maps ii and iii

(ii) There is no reduction in the extent of the intertidal mudflats and sandflats in

estuarine conditions (as indicated in map 4.1)

(iii) There is no reduction in the extent of the intertidal mudflats and sandflats in

open coast situations (as indicated in map 5.1)

STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION

(iv) The supply and nature of sediment forming and sustaining the intertidal

mudflats and sandflats are not hindered or modified

(v) The geomorphology, topography and sediment characteristics of the mudflats

and sandflats support the extent and distribution of the feature and its variety and

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Pen Llŷn a’r Sarnau / Lleyn Peninsula and the Sarnau SAC

Qualifying

interest

Vision

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populations of typical species

(vi) The patterns of physical, chemical and biological conditions and processes

that form and sustain the inertidal mudflats and sandflats and their associated

communities operate within the range of dynamic fluctuation that would be

expected to satisfy the ecological requirements of the feature

(vii) The nature and pattern of hydrological and hydrodynamic processes

(includes sediment transport patterns & processes; wave exposure; tidal range;

tidal currents; temperature) and the interaction and influence of these on the

intertidal mudflats and sandflats and their associated communities continue to

operate without constraint or interference.

(viii) The water and sediment chemistry (e.g. salinity, temperature, dissolved

oxygen, levels of contaminants) are within ranges that sustain the continued

presence of the communities and typical species of the intertidal mudflats and

sandflats

(ix) There is no increase in the levels of nutrients in the water column and

sediments of the estuaries

(x) Levels of nutrients in the water column and sediments of the open coast

areas remain:

- at or below existing statutory guideline concentrations

- at levels within the ranges that are not potentially detrimental to the long-term

maintenance of the biotic assemblages and species populations of the open

coast intertidal mudflats and sandflats

CONSERVATION OF TYPICAL SPECIES

(xi) The range of typical infaunal, epifaunal and mobile species (including their

population dynamics and biomass) continue to be associated with the intertidal

mudflats and sandflats.

(xii) The variety of biological communities (as categorised by intertidal biotopes)

supported by the intertidal mudflats and sandflats in estuarine conditions reflects

the gradient of sediment and salinity conditions typical of estuarine conditions

and includes, but is not limited to the communities listed in Appendix 4.5.1.

(xiii) The distribution of the intertidal mudflat and sandflat communities present in

estuarine conditions reflects the gradient of sediment and salinity conditions

typical of estuarine conditions is as indicated in map 4.1

(xiv) The variety of biological communities (as categorised by intertidal biotopes)

supported by the intertidal mudflats and sandflats in open coast conditions

reflects the gradients of differing exposure to wave action and aspect and

includes, but is not limited, to the communities listed in Appendix 4.5.2.

(xv) The distribution of the intertidal mudflat and sandflat communities present in

open coast conditions reflects the gradients of differing exposure to wave action

and aspect as is indicated in map 5.1

(xvi) The following communities are present and their extent, distribution and

quality is as described:

• The proportion of sand to mud and muddy sand communities within the

estuaries is as indicated in Appendix 4.5.3

• There is no reduction in the geographical distribution of the nationally important

community of Mya arenaria and polychaetes in muddy gravel gravel as indicated

in map 5.2.

• There is no reduction in the extent, distribution and quality (in terms of blade

density) of eel grass Zostera marina (see map 5.3 for indication of location of


Pen Llŷn a’r Sarnau / Lleyn Peninsula and the Sarnau SAC

Qualifying

interest

Atlantic salt meadows

(Glauco-Puccinellietalia

maritimae)

Vision

intertidal eel grass beds).

• The extent and overall community of species associated with the muddy gullies

in the Mawddach estuary is as described in Appendix 4.5.4

(xvii) The extent and community composition of examples of sediment zonation

is as described in Appendix 4.5.5.

SECURITY OF THE FEATURE IN THE LONG TERM

(xviii) The management of activites or operations likely to damage or degrade the

distribution, extent, structure, function or typical species populations of the

feature, is appropriate for maintaining favourable conservation status and is

secure in the long term.

The conservation objective for the Atlantic salt meadow (Glauco-Puccinellietalia)

is to achieve the favourable conservation status of the feature. The “Atlantic salt

meadow” feature will be considered to be in favourable conservation status

when:

NATURAL RANGE AND EXTENT

(i) The distribution of the Atlantic salt meadow of the SAC is as indicated on the

indicative features maps ii and iii

(ii) There is no reduction in the overall extent of the Atlantic saltmeadow.

STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION

(iii) The patterns of physical, chemical and biological conditions and processes

that form and sustain the Atlantic salt meadow and its associated communities

operate within the range of dynamic fluctuation that would be expected to satisfy

the ecological requirements of the feature. (Also see structural and functional

components under estuaries)

(iv) A variety of geomorphological components are present within the Atlantic salt

meadow, e.g. saltmarsh creeks, saltpans and erosional cliffs.

(v) The morphology of the saltmarsh creeks and pans within the Atlantic salt

meadow continues to evolve in response to the influence of uninterrupted

environmental processes.

THE CONSERVATION OF TYPICAL SPECIES

(vi) The variety of typical plant and animal species within viable populations

continue to be present.

(vii) The variety of the saltmarsh communities that form the Atlantic salt meadow

includes the communities listed in Appendix 4.6.1.

(viii) The distribution and quality of the saltmarsh communities that form the

Atlantic salt meadow is as described in Appendix 4.6.2 and shown on map 6.1.

(ix) No reduction in the extent and quality of the transitions between the Atlantic

salt meadow and other communities as described in Appendix 4.6.3

(x) The nationally rare and scarce communities listed in Appendix 4.6.4 are

present and there is no reduction in their extent and quality.

(xi) The nationally rare, scarce and uncommon species listed in Appendix 4.6.5

are present and there is no reduction in their populations.

SECURITY OF THE FEATURE IN THE LONG TERM

(xii) The management of activities or operations likely to damage or degrade the

distribution, extent, structure, function or typical species populations of the

feature, is appropriate for maintaining favourable conservation status and is

secure in the long term.

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Pen Llŷn a’r Sarnau / Lleyn Peninsula and the Sarnau SAC

Qualifying

interest

Salicornia and other

annuals colonising mud

and sand

Submerged or partly

submerged sea caves

Vision

The conservation objective for the Salicornia and other annuals colonising mud

and sand is to achieve the favourable conservation status of the feature. The

“Salicornia” feature will be considered to be in favourable conservation status

when:

NATURAL RANGE AND EXTENT

(i) The distribution of the Salicornia communities of the SAC is as indicated on

map 7.1

(ii) There is no reduction in the overall extent of the Salicornia and other annuals

feature.

STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION

(iii) The patterns of physical, chemical and biological conditions and processes

that form and sustain the Salicornia and other annuals feature operate within the

range of dynamic fluctuation that would be expected to satisfy the ecological

requirements of the feature. (Also see structural and functional components

under estuaries).

(iv) A variety of geomorphological components are present within the Salicornia

communities, e.g. saltmarsh creeks, saltpans and erosional cliffs.

THE CONSERVATION OF TYPICAL SPECIES

(v) The variety of typical plant and animal species within viable populations

continue to be present.

(vi) The variety of the saltmarsh communities that form the Salicornia and other

annuals feature includes the communities listed in Appendix 4.7.1.

(vii) The distribution and quality of the saltmarsh communities that form the

Salicornia feature is as described in Appendix 4.7.2

(viii) The nationally scarce community characterised by the species Sarcocornia

perennis is present and there is no reduction in its extent and quality

(ix) The notable plant species listed in Appendix 4.7.3 are present in the

Salicornia and other annuals communities and there is no reduction in their

populations.

SECURITY OF THE FEATURE IN THE LONG TERM

(x) The management of activities or operations likely to damage or degrade the

distribution, extent, structure, function or typical species populations of the

feature, is appropriate for maintaining favourable conservation status and is

secure in the long term.

The conservation objective for the submerged or partially submerged sea caves

is to achieve the favourable conservation status of the feature. The “sea caves”

feature will be considered to be in favourable conservation status when:

NATURAL RANGE AND EXTENT

(i) There is no reduction in the geographical distribution of the different types and

sizes of sea caves present within the site

(ii) There is no reduction in the overall area (extent and number) of the sea caves

within the site (see maps ii and iii for an indication of the areas where sea caves

are present within the SAC)

STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION

(iii) There is no change to the distribution, extent and variation of the rock types

where the sea caves are present within the site.

(iv) The morphology, topography, orientation, aspect and bathymetry of the sea

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Pen Llŷn a’r Sarnau / Lleyn Peninsula and the Sarnau SAC

Qualifying

interest

Coastal lagoon

Vision

caves is determined by and evolves under the influence of uninterrupted

environmental processes.

(v) There is a variety of sediment / rock deposits in base of sea caves

determined by and evolving under the influence of uninterrupted environmental

processes

(vi) The patterns of physical, chemical and biological conditions and processes

that form and sustain the sea caves and their associated communities operate

witin the range of dynamic fluctuaion that would be expected to satisfy the

ecological requirements of the feature.

TYPICAL SPECIES

(vii) The sea caves support a variety and distribution of biological communities

that includes, but is not limited to that described in Appendix 4.8.1

(viii) The species richness, population dynamics, biomass and range of typical

species of the sea caves are determined by and sustained in response to the

prevailing physical, chemical and biological conditions and processes.

(ix) There are extensive examples of sea cave communities (as categorised by

biotopes) present in, but not limited to, certain caves as described in Appendix

4.8.2

(x) The larger caves near Hell’s Mouth, St. Tudwal’s Islands and Pen y Cil

(Trwyn y Fulfran cave, Two-levels cave and Pen y Cil tunnel (Bunker & Holt

2003) continue to support a relatively high species and habitat richness and welldeveloped

zonation of sea cave communities.

(xi) The notable species listed in Appendix 4.8.3 are present within, but not

limited to, the sea caves listed.

SECURITY OF THE FEATURE IN THE LONG TERM

(xii) The management of activities or operations likely to damage or degrade the

distribution, extent, structure, function or typical species populations of the

feature, is appropriate for maintaining favourable conservation status and is

secure in the long term

The conservation objective for the coastal lagoons is to achieve the favourable

conservation status of the feature. The coastal lagoons feature will be considered

to be in favourable conservation status when:

NATURAL RANGE AND EXTENT

(i) The distribution of the lagoon within the site is as shown on the indicative

features maps ii and iii

(ii) There is no reduction in the area (extent) of the lagoon

STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION

(iii) There is no modification to the physical structure of the lagoon

(iv) There is no modification to the structure of the supporting/impounding shingle

spit, bank and beach

(v) The patterns of physical, chemical and biological conditions and processes

that form and sustain the lagoon and its associated community operate within the

range of dynamic fluctuation that would be expected to satisfy the ecological

requirements of the feature.

(vi) There is no interruption to the input of seawater through percolation and input

of freshwater through percolation and rainfall.

(vii) The salinity regime is within the range to support the lagoonal specialist

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Pen Llŷn a’r Sarnau / Lleyn Peninsula and the Sarnau SAC

Qualifying

interest

Bottlenose dolphin

(Tursiops truncatus)

Grey seal (Halichoerus

Vision

species (10‰ - 40‰)

(viii) The temperature regime is within the range to support the lagoonal

specialist species

(ix) Levels of nutrients in the water column and sediments remain:

- at or below existing statutory guideline concentrations

- at levels within ranges that are not potentially detrimental to the long-term

maintenance of the lagoonal specialist species and the biotic assemblage of the

lagoon

(x) The level of dissolved oxygen in the water and sediments is within the range

to support the lagoonal specialist species

CONSERVATION OF TYPICAL SPECIES

(xi) The lagoon supports a community of species that is determined by and

sustained in response to the prevailing physical, chemical and biological

conditions and processes.

(xii) The lagoon supports a community of species that includes a minimum of

three lagoonal specialist species and a variety of other species including, but not

limited to the species listed in Annex/Appendix 4.9.1

SECURITY OF THE FEATURE IN THE LONG TERM

(xiii) The management of activities or operations likely to damage or degrade the

distribution, extent, structure, function or typical species populations of the

feature, is appropriate for maintaining favourable conservation status and is

secure in the long term.

The conservation objective for the Bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncates) to

achieve the favourable conservation status of the feature. The “bottlenose

dolphin” feature will be considered to be in favourable conservation status when:

POPULATION DYNAMICS

(i) The number of bottlenose dolphins within the SAC is stable or increasing

(ii) The number of bottlenose dolphin calves produced in the SAC and beyond is

sufficient to sustain the population

(iii) There is a balance between the relative proportions of immature, mature,

male and female bottlenose dolphins within the SAC and beyond

(iv) The physiological health of bottlenose dolphins within the SAC is good

NATURAL RANGE

(v) The range of the bottlenose dolphin within the SAC and their contribution to

the SW UK and Ireland population is not constrained or hindered

SUPPORTING HABITAT

(vi) There are appropriate and adequate food sources for the bottlenose dolphins

within the SAC and beyond.

(vii) The amount of supporting habitat for the bottlenose dolphins is stable or

increasing

SECURITY OF THE FEATURE IN THE LONG TERM

(viii) The management of activities or operations likely to damage or degrade the

distribution, extent, structure, function or typical species populations of the

feature, is appropriate for maintaining favourable conservation status and is

secure in the long term.

The conservation objective for the Grey seal Halichoerus grypus is to achieve the

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Pen Llŷn a’r Sarnau / Lleyn Peninsula and the Sarnau SAC

Qualifying

interest

grypus)

Otter (Lutra lutra)

Vision

favourable conservation status of the feature. The ‘grey seal’ feature will be

considered to be in favourable conservation status when:

POUPLATION DYNAMICS

(i) The number of grey seals within the site is stable or increasing and there is a

balance between the relative proportions of immature, mature, male, female

components

(ii) The level of pup production within the SAC is stable or increasing

(iii) The physiological health of grey seals within the SAC is good

NATURAL RANGE

(iv) The range and distribution of grey seals within the SAC and beyond is not

constrained or hindered

SUPPORTING HABITATS

(v) Sites used by grey seals are accessible to them and the extent and

appropriate quality of supporting habitats are stable or increasing.

(vi) There are appropriate and sufficient food sources for grey seals within the

SAC and beyond

SECURITY OF THE FEATURE IN THE LONG TERM

(vii) The management of activities or operations likely to damage or degrade the

distribution, extent, structure, function or typical species populations of the

feature, is appropriate for maintaining favourable conservation status and is

secure in the long term.

The conservation objective for the Otter Lutra lutra is to achieve the favourable

conservation status of the feature. The ‘otter’ feature will be considered to be in

favourable conservation status when:

POPULATION DYNAMICS

(i) The number of otters within the SAC is stable or increasing

(ii) The number of otter cubs produced in the SAC and beyond is sufficient to

sustain the population

(iii) The physiological health of otters within the SAC is good

NATURAL RANGE

(iv) The range of otters within the SAC and adjacent inter-connected areas is not

constrained or hindered

SUPPORTING HABITAT

(v) Supporting habitats used by otters (e.g. for safe breeding, feeding, resting

and travelling) are accessible to them, and the extent and quality of these

habitats is stable or increasing.

(vi) There are appropriate and sufficient food sources for otters within the SAC

and beyond

(vii) There are sufficient sources within the SAC and beyond of high quality

freshwater for otter drinking and bathing

SECURITY OF THE FEATURE IN THE LONG TERM

(viii) The management of activities or operations likely to damage or degrade the

distribution, extent, structure, function or typical species populations of the

feature, is appropriate for maintaining favourable conservation status and is

secure in the long term.

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Reference

Anon. (2008). Draft advice provided by the Countryside Council for Wales in fulfilment of

Regulation 33 of the Conservation (Natural Habitats, &c.) Regulations 1994 for Pen Llŷn a’r

Sarnau / Lleyn Peninsula and the Sarnau European Marine Site. Countryside Council for Wales.

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Rhinog SAC

Qualifying

interest

European dry heaths

and Northern Atlantic

wet heath with Erica

tetralix

Old sessile oakwoods

with Ilex and Blechnum

Woodland

Vision

The vision for the heath land SAC features is for them to be in a favourable

conservation status, where all of the following conditions are satisfied:

1 The total extent of the dry heath area, approximately 1419 ha, shall be

maintained. The area of dry heath should increase at the expense of less

desirable vegetation communities such as acid grassland where appropriate.

The total extent of the wet heath area, approximately 324ha, shall be maintained.

The area of wet heath should increase in overall at the expense of less desirable

vegetation communities. Some areas of wet heath which are degraded blanket

bog may be restored to that priority habitat provided that there is a net gain of

wet heath within the SAC.

2 The distribution of the dry and wet heath will at least be as at its present

extent and will preferably be increasing as it is restored in additional areas.

3 The typical and uncommon species of the vegetation communities

comprising the dry heath and wet heath, including lower plants, will be frequent

and abundant. See Table 1. The nationally rare liverwort Welsh notchwort

Gymnocolia acutiloba should continue to flourish at its known locations within the

humid rocky heath.

4 The structure of the heath should be maintained and restored, to show

natural regeneration by layering and seeding, and to ensure that the component

vegetation communities are naturally diverse (refer also to 3 above). Wet heath

will often benefit from having a medium to short structure, less than 30cms

height. Signs of overgrazing, including ‘suppressed’, ‘topiary’ or ‘drumstick’

growth habits will not be apparent.

5 Invasive non-native species such as conifers, rhododendron, Japanese

knotweed, Himalayan balsam and bridewort (Spiraea) will not be present.

6 The surface of the heath will be generally free from trees and at most have

only a few individuals at a density of no more than two per hectare. Exceptions to

this rule are transition zones from woodland to heath land where trees may be

denser grading to open heath. Limits for woodland transition zones should be set

on a unit or sub-unit basis.

7 All factors affecting the achievement of these conditions are under control.

The vision for the Woodland SAC feature is for it to be in a favourable

conservation status, where all of the following conditions are satisfied:

1. The total extent of the woodland area, including woodland canopy and

scrub, woodland glades and associated dry heath, bracken and grassland shall

be maintained as at present, of some 42 ha plus. The woodland feature is

broadly in five interconnecting ‘zones’ to the west and south-west of Llyn Cwm

Bychan.

2. The location of the woodland SAC feature will be as at present. Most of

the woodland within Rhinog SSSI is excluded from Rhinog SAC and is included

within Meirionnydd Oakwoods and Bat sites SAC (refer to that SAC plan). The

woodland covered by this feature is woodland generally without clear boundary

between the heath, bog, acid grassland and bracken. Indeed these transitions

between the habitats to woodland, which make measuring woodland extent

difficult, are of interest in their own right.

3. The tree canopy percentage cover within the woodland area shall be no

less than the current cover (excepting natural catastrophic events).

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Rhinog SAC

Qualifying

interest

Blanket Bog

Vision

4. The canopy and shrub layer comprises locally native species, as indicated

in Table 2, typical of this upland woodland which tends to be less oak and more

birch dominated than more lowland examples of this SAC feature.

5. There shall be sufficient natural regeneration of locally native trees and

shrubs to maintain the woodland canopy and shrub layer, by filling gaps, joining

fragments of woodland and allowing the recruitment of young trees, and

encouraging a varied age structure.

6. The typical ground layer species of the woodland SAC feature will be

common, see Table 2. It is important that the vegetation does not become rank

and overgrown with a height above 40cm and/or dominated by species such as

bramble, ivy and young holly. Limits may be set on a unit or compartment basis.

Typical lower plants including oceanic species (refer to Table 1 below for an

indicative list) should continue to be abundant and/or maintained.

7. The abundance and distribution of uncommon mosses, liverworts, lichens

and ferns, will be maintained or increased.

8. There will be a defined number of mature trees per hectare within the

existing tree canopy on a unit basis. This will need to be defined by diameter for

the upland situation where comparable trees at lower altitude are of c60cm

diameter plus for oak and ash and/or with signs of decay, holes etc.

9. Dead wood will be present and consist of a mixture of fallen trees

(minimum 1 per hectare), broken branches, dead branches on live trees, and

standing dead trees (minimum one per hectare). Volumes of deadwood are

currently at relatively low levels because the woodlands, in general, have an

even-age structure and lack mature trees. Some lower plants are dead wood

specialists but these woodlands tend to lack the rare dead wood invertebrate

assemblage found in other parts of the UK.

10. Invasive non-native species such as rhododendron, conifers, sweet

chestnut, Japanese knotweed and Himalayan balsam will not be present.

11. All factors affecting the achievement of these conditions are under control.

The vision for this priority blanket bog SAC feature is for it to be in a favourable

conservation status, where all of the following conditions are satisfied:

1. The total extent of the blanket bog area of approximately 231ha, is

maintained.

2. The location and distribution of the blanket bog is maintained.

3. The typical species of the vegetation communities comprising the blanket

bog SAC feature are frequent. The bulk of the blanket bog is referable to

Trichophorum- Eriophorum bog (M17) with more localised stands of Calluna –

Eriophorum bog (M19). See Table 1.

4. The abundance and distribution of uncommon plants, often indicative of

good quality, is maintained or increased.

5. The structure of the blanket bog is maintained and restored where

appropriate to include bog pools, depressions, hummocks and hollows as a

natural feature of the bog surface. Artificial drainage ditches or moor grips are

not present as functioning drains. No significant areas of peat erosion should be

present.

6. Invasive non-native species such as conifers, rhododendron, Japanese

knotweed, Himalayan balsam and bridewort (Spirea) are not present within the

SAC and a species-specific buffer area

7. The blanket bog is free from all trees.

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Rhinog SAC

Qualifying

interest

Alpine and sub-Alpine

heaths

Depressions on peat

substrates of the

Rhynchosporion

Oligotrophic to

mesotrophic standing

waters with vegetation of

the Littorelletea uniflorae

Vision

8. All factors affecting the achievement of these conditions are under control.

The vision for this feature is for it to be in a favourable conservation status,

where all of the following conditions are satisfied:

1. The extent of alpine and sub-alpine heath (currently 5.1ha of NVC H14 and

possibly less than 1 ha of U10a –not measured) is maintained to be as large as

possible such that it occupies all the area suitable for its development. The

extent is unlikely to increase significantly here as most suitable areas are already

NVC H14.

2. The location and range of the alpine and sub-alpine shall be the summits of

Rhinog Fawr, Rhinog

Fach and currently fragmentary stands around Craig Wion as well as Y Llethr,

which currently supports small patches of moss heath (U10a) within the acid

grassland NVC U4e.

3. Vegetation composition: The following characteristic plants will be common

in the NVC H14 heath: Calluna vulgaris, Vaccinium myrtillus, V.vitis-idaea,

Empetrum nigrum, Racomitrium lanuginosum,Hypnum jutlandicum,Cladonia sps.

This NVC community also has a less mossy form on Rhinog which is considered

to be the most common form of this montane heath in Wales. Typical montane

clubmosses, sedges and grasses.

Moss-heath NVC U10a here on y Llethr is “an almost continuous carpet of

Racomitrium lanuginosum studded with small plants such as Salix herbacea,

Vaccinium myrtillus,V.vitis-idaea, Carex bigelowii and Diphasiastrum alpinum”

(Averis 2004) . Typical montane clubmosses, sedges and grasses will also be

present.

4. Non-native species are not present.

5. All factors affecting the achievement of these conditions are under

control.Performance indicators for the alpine heath Feature

The vision for this feature at Rhinog is for it to be in a favourable conservation

status, where all of the following conditions are satisfied:

1. Extent: The feature occupies all the area suitable for its development within

a complex mosaic of mires, wet heaths and bog pools. From a partial survey in

2007 this feature is currently thought to cover about 1 ha.

2. Location:

3. Vegetation composition: The following plants will be common in the

‘depressions on peat substrates of the Rhynchosporion’: Rhyncospora alba,

Sphagnum papillosum, Molinia caerulea, Narthecium ossifragum, Drosera

rotundifolia, Eriophorum angustifolium. Extensive mats of Sphagum mosses will

also be present locally, and Menyanthes trifoliata and Carex echinata also

feature frequently. Other than Myrica gale, dwarf shrubs will be sparse. There

will be no non native species present.

4. Uncommon species continue to be present including Sphagnum

magellanicum, Drosera intermediaand the nationally scarce marsh clubmoss

Lycopodiella inundata.

5. All factors affecting the achievement of these conditions are under control.

The vision for the oligotrophic to mesotrophic (clear-water) lakes SAC feature is