Conservation and Sustainable Use of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants

ias.unu.edu

Conservation and Sustainable Use of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants

UNU-IAS Working Paper No. 160

Conservation and Sustainable Use of Medicinal

and Aromatic Plants:

A Case Study in Köprülü Kanyon National Park, Turkey

Gulay Cetinkaya

March 2009


Abstract

Köprülü Kanyon is one of the largest national parks in Turkey with a high diversity of

medicinal and aromatic plants (MAPs). Local people collect these plants to meet their

subsistence needs (e.g. food and primary medicine) and to generate cash income.

Unfortunately, a number of factors, such as lack of a management plan and marketing

mechanism for the species in trade, threaten the long-term conservation and sustainable use

of these resources. However, conservation and sustainable use of these species is necessary

for strengthening biodiversity conservation and also for meeting the needs of local

livelihoods in the national park. Accordingly, the purpose of the research is to determine

MAPs with ecological, economic and socio-cultural values in Köprülü Kanyon National Park

through examining economic, institutional and population factors that affect the sustainability

of the target species. The method of research includes a series of stages, and relevant data

was collected through fieldwork and interviews with the target groups. Within this context,

the conceptual framework for sustainable use of natural resources developed by the World

Conservation Union Sustainable Use Specialist Group (IUCN-SUSG) was adopted to the

research to assess the factors that affect the sustainability of MAPs. The results of the survey

show that 20 MAPs are harvested from the wild for both commercial and non-commercial

purposes in the national park. Several categories of data on these plants (e.g. part of plant

used and folk use) are presented. It was determined that the degree of dependence upon

MAPs at household level differs between 88.23% (in the village of Altınkaya) and 34.48%

(in the village of Karabük). The results of the survey revealed that an informal institution –

created by following ancestral occupation for “livestock grazing” – regulates the access rights

to MAPs resources in the villages of Çaltepe and Ballıbucak where the degree of dependence

upon MAPs is high. Assessment of the marketing structure showed that a volume of 471,80

tonnes of MAPs was harvested and US$ 263,930 of cash income was generated in the

selected villages in 2005. The annual average income per capita was in the range of

US$ 332,74 (in the village of Çaltepe) to US$ 46,21 (in the village of Altınkaya). The final

section focuses on the major obstacles to the sustainability of MAPs (e.g. institutional and

market failures) and a number of potential responses (e.g. strengthening legal framework and

eco-labelling) for ensuring and strengthening the sustainability of MAPs in the national park.

Keywords: Medicinal and aromatic plants, wild-collection, sustainable use, marketing,

Köprülü Kanyon National Park, Turkey


Acknowledgement

I wish to acknowledge the support of the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS)

for this research. I further acknowledge the input of Global Environment Facility (GEF)

project “Biodiversity and Natural Resource Management”, conducted by the Ministry of

Environment and Forestry of Turkey in Köprülü Kanyon National Park.


Contents

1. Introduction……………………………………………………………………….. 1

2. Methodology…………………………………………………………………….... 4

3. Diversity and usage of medicinal and aromatic plants.……………….……...…… 8

4. Gender and degree of dependence upon the wild-collection of medicinal and

aromatic plants........……………………………………………………………....11

5. The role of informal institution in the wild-collection of medicinal and

aromatic plants.……………………………………………………………….......13

6. Trends in marketing of medicinal and aromatic plants.…………………………. 14

7. Constraints to the sustainable use of medicinal and aromatic plants.………….... 16

8. Potential responses for the sustainable use of medicinal and aromatic plants ...... 18

9. Conclusion......…………………………………………………………………… 23

References.…………………………………………………………………………..26

Appendix.…………………………………………………………………………... 29


List of tables and figures

List of tables

Table 1. MAPs used for a variety of purposes in

Köprülü Kanyon National Park…………………………………………......... 8

Table 2. Conservation status of MAPs collected from the wild in Köprülü

Kanyon National Park...……………………………………………………… 9

Table 3. Degree of dependence upon MAPs at household level in the selected

villages.………………..…………………………………………………… 11

Table 4. Annual average income per capita in each village...………………………... 12

Table 5. Average prices of MAPs at source, export and consumer levels. .………..... 16

List of figures

Figure 1. Location of Köprülü Kanyon National Park……………………………….... 2

Figure 2. Assessment of the factors affecting the sustainability of MAPs in Köprülü

Kanyon National Park .......………………………………………………........5

Figure 3. The marketing structure of MAPs in Köprülü Kanyon National Park ..........14

Figure 4. Marketing mechanism developed for trading MAPs. .…………….............. 22


1. Introduction

Medicinal and aromatic plants (MAPs) are plants which are used for a variety of purposes

such as food, primary medicine and drinks. For example, the World Health Organization

(WHO) (2002) points out that the majority of the world’s population, particularly in

developing countries, still depends on traditional medicine systems to provide for its primary

healthcare needs based on MAPs. In developed countries, traditional medicine has also been

popular as an alternative treatment system because of the recognition of the benefits of herbal

products. In addition, MAPs have been important products for local communities in

developing countries (particularly landless poor people and/or fragile groups such as children

and women) to generate cash income to lift their lives out of poverty. These plants are used in

a variety of industries such as pharmaceutical, cosmetic, perfume and dyes. Consequently, the

values of MAPs for human well-being are very high and therefore the demand for these

species has increased on a global level. Hamilton (2003) emphasizes that assessment of the

scale of the global market for MAPs is difficult due to the paucity of reliable statistics and

trade secrecy, but it is growing rapidly. For example, Turkey is a major exporter of MAPs in

Europe - one of the largest trade centres of MAPs in the world. The volume of export

increased from 33.458 to 41.393 tones between 1999 and 2003 in Turkey (Özgüven et al.,

2005). In addition, there is a large market of internal trade for MAPs, but the volume of this

trade is unknown. However, this is a research gap that should be explored in the future.

However, the growing market demand for MAPs on a global level has begun to threaten the

existence of approximately 15,000 species worldwide (Schippmann et al., 2006) due to a

number of reasons such as overexploitation, destruction of natural habitats, and lack of

regulations and standards for sustainable harvesting (Hamilton, 2003; Medicinal Plant

Specialist Group, 2007). However, providing and promoting the sustainable wild-collection

of these species is necessary for meeting the needs of present and future generations. Within

this context, Köprülü Kanyon National Park from Turkey can serve as an instructive case

study (Figure 1).

1


Köprülü Kanyon

Source: World Atlas Travel

Tilia platyphyllos Scop.

Vitex agnus-castus L.

Köprülü Kanyon National Park

and location of some villages.

Source: Global Environmental

Facility (GEF) Project

“Biodiversity and Natural

Resource Management in

Köprülü Kanyon National Park”

Origanum minutiflorum O. Schwarz & P.H. Davis

Figure 1. Location of Köprülü Kanyon National Park

Köprülü Kanyon National Park is located in the western part of the Taurus Mountains

between the elevations of 110 and 2500 meters on a very heterogeneous geomorphologic

structure. It encompasses 37,000 ha and lies 90 km north-east of the city of Antalya in the

2


Mediterranean region (Orman Bakanlığı, 1971). According to the National Forest Law No.

6831, the area was designated as a national park on 12 th December 1973 due to its

outstanding natural and geomorphologic features as well as cultural assets (Antalya Orman

Bölge Müdürlüğü, 1993). Because of these merits, the area has been selected as one of the

sites for the Important Plant Areas (IPA) 1 and also for the “Biodiversity and Natural

Resource Management Project” financed by the Global Environmental Facility (GEF)

(Arancli, 2002).

Köprülü Kanyon National Park comprises the whole range of vegetation zones from thermo-

Mediterranean to alpine environment and the flora therefore is very rich (between 900-1000

species) (Ayaşlıgil, 1987), including a high diversity of MAPs. A review of the recent

research (Özçelik et al., 2006) shows that about 76 MAPs grow in the national park.

The diversity of MAPs in the national park and increasing market demand for herbal products

has caused the emergence of MAPs-based livelihoods to reduce dependency upon livestock

husbandry, to alleviate poverty, to diversify local livelihoods, and to enhance human wellbeing.

The local people of the eleven villages located inside and adjacent to the national park

collect MAPs from the wild for both commercial and non-commercial purposes.

Unfortunately, a number of factors threaten the conservation and sustainable use of MAPs 2 in

the national park at present. These factors are respectively high degree of dependence upon

MAPs resources (e.g. 75 % in the village of Ballıbucak), high unemployment rate (e.g. 45 %

in the village of Altınkaya), lack of a management plan and marketing mechanism for the

species in trade, and generally the absence of a policy framework for MAPs at the national

level. The diversity of MAPs and the factors that affect the sustainability of the resources are

the motivated reasons to conduct this research in Köprülü Kanyon National Park. Within this

context, the research question is “How can we provide for and maintain the sustainable use of

MAPs in the national park?” Accordingly, the purpose of the research is to determine MAPs

with ecological, economic and socio-cultural values in Köprülü Kanyon National Park

1 Important Plant Areas (IPAs) have been defined as “natural or semi-natural sites exhibiting exceptional

botanical richness and/or supporting an outstanding assemblage of rare, threatened, and/or endemic plant species

and/or vegetation of high botanical value. The selection of sites follows international and regional guidelines to

ensure consistency and is based on three criteria: threatened species, species richness/diversity and threatened

habitats. Available at: http://www.plantsocieties.org/importan.htm [cited 2007 Feb 10].

2 For the purpose of this paper, sustainable use of MAPs refers both conservation and sustainable use of the

species.

3


through examining economic, institutional, and population factors that affect the

sustainability of the target species. The objectives of the research include:

i. Identification of MAPs harvested from the wild for a variety of reasons (e.g. species

harvested and traditional usage);

ii.

iii.

iv.

Determination of the marketing structure for the species in trade (e.g. value chain and

trade value);

Examination of informal institution that regulates the access rights to MAPs;

Determination of the role of gender and degree of dependence upon MAPs;

v. Examination of the major constraints to the sustainable use of MAPs;

vi.

Investigation of potential instruments and/or incentives to provide for and strengthen

the sustainable use of MAPs in the national park.

It is expected that the results of the research will be useful for decision-makers and those who

are responsible for the management of MAPs to promote a better understanding under which

conditions the sustainable use of these plants can be achieved in the national park.

2. Methodology

The sustainable use of MAPs is a dynamic process that can be ensured through maintaining

the populations of the target species above their thresholds (the level at which resource

decline starts) for long-term viability while the populations of these species still remain a

significant resource for the local livelihoods in Köprülü Kanyon National Park. This

challenge can be achieved by controlling and regulating the factors that directly and/or

indirectly affect the sustainability of the target species and interrelations between them. The

factors and interrelations between them were analyzed through adopting the conceptual

framework developed by the World Conservation Union Sustainable Use Specialist Group

(IUCN-SUSG) (Edwards and Musiti, 2001; Zaccagnini et.al., 2000). According to this

concept, there are diverse factors that affect the sustainability of renewable resources.

However, ecology, economy, population and institution are the key factors that affect the

probability of a use being sustainable or not. Based on this approach, a conceptual framework

was developed to promote a better understanding of the factors that affect the sustainability of

MAPs in Köprülü Kanyon National Park (Figure 2).

4


Factors affecting the sustainability of MAPs in Köprülü Kanyon National Park

Institution

Economy

Population

Management plan

Resource: MAPs

Probability

of the use of

MAPs

being

sustainable

Figure 2. Assessment of the factors affecting the sustainability of MAPs in

Köprülü Kanyon National Park

Assessment of Figure 2 shows that conditions of the factors and interrelations between them

directly and/or indirectly affect the management plan for the target species and thereby the

sustainability of MAPs. Therefore, establishment of a powerful management mechanism for

the species is essential to regulate the factors. In this regard, comprehensive and permanent

monitoring programs should be established to collect feedback data on the factors as

conditions of the factors can change in a positive or negative way over time. Thus,

appropriate decisions can be taken in the management plan for the target species. Relevant

factors and interrelations between them are discussed in turn.

(i) Ecological factor (Natural resource: Medicinal and aromatic plants): MAPs are the

living natural resources that are harvested by the local communities to derive a benefit

such as food and generation of income. A set of ecological factors such as conservation

status of the species, abundance and regeneration of the species, habitat quality of the

target populations, and harvest rate and frequency reflect whether the wild-collection of

MAPs is conducted in a sustainable manner in the national park. Integration of the

indicated ecological data into the management plan for the target species is crucial at

policy-development and also decision-making processes to control the impacts of

population, institutional and economic factors. For example, harvest rate and frequency

within the context of population factor directly affect the sustainable wild-collection of

MAPs in terms of causing the decline in the species and deterioration of their natural

habitats. In addition, the economic (e.g. increased market demand) and institutional (e.g.

lack of principles to regulate the wild-collection) factors directly influence the factor of

population. For example, the local people can over-harvest the target species in line of

market demand when the management plan and a set of principles for regulating the

wild-collection are absent. Accordingly, the factors of economic, population and

institutional factors are interrelated. This interrelation can be controlled in the

framework of the management plan for the target species. In the scope of the ecological

factor, MAPs species collected from the wild, type of traditional usage, and conservation

status of the species in question are determined.

5


(ii) Economic factor: The economic aspect of the relationship between MAPs and the local

communities can be expressed in terms of economic valuation of the target species (e.g.

percent of income generated per capita). For example, increased market prices for the

traded species can trigger the local communities to over-harvest the species from the

wild. Within this context, the economic factor is interrelated with the population factor.

However, market prices are often decided by some rules developed by human population.

In this case, the economic factor is interrelated with the institutional factor. Therefore,

within the framework of the management plan for the target species, tradable quotas

should be implemented to keep the sustainability of the species at ecosystem level and

also to control the impact of the economic factor. Considering economic valuation of

MAPs can be a key aspect to the sustainable management of MAPs, marketing structure,

market channels, volume of harvest, trade value, value chain between source and

consumer level and constraints in marketing are investigated in the scope of this factor.

(iii) Population factor: Population can be defined as that portion of the human population

that directly uses natural resources (Zaccagnini et.al., 2000). The characteristics of the

local people and their relationship to the sustainable use of MAPs can be represented by

several aspects such as land ownership, access to resources, population structure (e.g.

gender) and population income (e.g. degree of dependence upon the resources). This

factor is directly interrelated with the institutional (both formal and informal institutions)

and economic factors. For example, increased market prices set by the human population

can lead to the over-exploitation and also the high degree of dependence upon the target

species. In this case, the factors of institutional, economic and population are interrelated.

Considering these perceptions related to user population, the role of gender and the

degree of dependence upon the wild-collection of MAPs – two fundamental components

of population factor – are determined in the scope of this factor.

(iv) Institutional factor: The existence and effectives of institutions will establish principles

to use and/or harvest natural resources in a sustainable manner and also develop the

mechanisms of distributing benefits obtained from the use of resource (Edwards and

Musiti, 2001; Zaccagnini et.al., 2000). Thus, institutions can enforce the local

communities and trading companies with the requirement of sustainable use of MAPs in

the national park. Within this context, the factor of institution is closely interrelated with

the population and economic factors. For example, the signing of international

Conventions, such as the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), the Convention on

International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) and the

Bern Convention, reflects the efforts of the Government of Turkey to develop a solid

institutional mechanism for the sustainable use of natural resources. In addition,

recognizing the local communities are the first managers of MAPs, informal institution

that regulates access to the resources plays a significant role in the sustainable use of the

resources. Adoption of the informal institutions into the management plan will reflect

the degree of participation of the local communities into legislation pertaining to the

sustainable use of MAPs. Considering the interrelation between the factors of population

and institution, the adoption of the informal institutions into the management plan can

also assist in controlling the impacts of population factor on the resources collected from

the wild. Accordingly, legal institutions for the sustainable use of MAPs were examined.

In addition, an informal institution, regulating access rights to MAPs resources, was

determined in the framework of this factor.

6


Collection of data on the discussed subjects was based upon different tools including

questionnaires, interviews with several key target groups, collection and identification of

species, and observations. The description of the tools and the main audiences for each tool

are described below.

(i) Selection of pilot villages: The following six villages located inside and adjacent to the

national park were selected as pilot sites to conduct the research: Eskibeydilli, Çaltepe,

Ballıbucak, Çukurca, Karabük, and Altınkaya. The major criteria for the selection of

these villages were their proximity to the natural habitats of MAPs, potential for

traditional use of MAPs, their geographical remoteness from the local centre (i.e.

Beşkonak).

(ii) Design of survey forms: Two kinds of survey forms were prepared to record data

obtained from the heads of the villages and collectors.

(iii) Interview with the National Park Authority: Interviews were conducted with the staff of

the National Park Authority to obtain general data on the wild-collection of MAPs,

marketing structure of the species, and constraints to MAPs.

(iv) Interview with the heads of the villages and collectors: Village meetings were held in

each selected village and the aim of the research was discussed with the target groups.

Accordingly, interviews were conducted with the heads of the villages and collectors

(both male and female) in each village in July 2006. The first interviews were conducted

with the heads of the villages and significant data were obtained from them about the

species collected from the wild, harvest volume, trade value, marketing structure, and

market prices of the target species at the collector level. The second interviews were

conducted in each village by holding a number of group meetings with collectors,

instead of individual interviews. The main reason was that group meetings were more

effective than one-on-one interviews, as individuals proved more likely, when in a group

environment, to discuss on the species harvested, modes of use, harvest volume, market

prices at source level, marketing structure, gender, customary institution and constraints

to MAPs.

(v) Collection and identification of species: Species samples used for a variety of reasons

were collected and identified by using the national park’s flora inventory list (Özçelik et.

al., 2006).

(vi) Investigation of market trends in MAPs: The market prices of MAPs at collector, export,

and consumer levels were investigated in order to estimate the economic value of the

species in trade and also to assess the price differentials between source and consumer

levels. The consumer prices of the target species were obtained from herbalist shops

located in the cities of Antalya and Istanbul. The export prices were collected from

trading companies (in the city of Antalya), trade unions (in the cities of İstanbul and

İzmir), and Turkey General Export data (in the city of Ankara). The total economic

value of MAPs was estimated by assessing the harvest volumes and market prices of the

target species at the source level in 2005.

(vii) Evaluation of survey: The data obtained from the surveys were evaluated by combining

with observations of group meetings and literature review.

7


3. Diversity and usage of medicinal and aromatic plants

The results of the surveys conducted in the 6 villages showed that 20 MAPs are harvested

from the wild for commercial and non-commercial purposes in Köprülü Kanyon National

Park (Table 1).

Table 1. MAPs used for a variety of purposes in Köprülü Kanyon National Park

Botanical name

Parts of

plant used

Processing Type of use Species used

locally (L) and/or

marketed (M)

Drying Herbal tea, food

L, M

flavouring and

extraction of oil

Origanum minutiflorum

O. Schwarz et. P.H. Davis

Leaves and

branches

Origanum onites L.

Satureja cuneifolia Ten.

Satureja thymbra L.

Salvia tomentosa Miller

Herbal tea for stomach

Sideritis condensata Boiss. Heldr. apud

disorders and heart

Bentham

problems

Sideritis stricta Boiss. & Heldr.

Herbal tea

Sideritis libanotica Labill. subsp. linearis

(Bentham) Bornm.

Teucrium polium L.

Herbal tea for to

L

reduce stomach ache

Thymbra spicata L. Food flavouring L, M

Laurus nobilis L. Leaves - Extraction of oil M

Ceratonia siliqua L. Fruits Crushing Traditional Turkish

L, M

and then food Pekmez

soaking in

water

Tilia platyphyllos Scop.

Flowers and Drying Herbal tea to prevent

L, M

leaves

colds and chest ache

Urtica dioica L. Leaves Traditional Turkish

L

food Borek

Myrtus communis L. subsp. communis Herbal tea M

Hypericum scabrum L./

Leaves and

Herbal tea to prevent

L

H. perforatum L.

branches

cold and headache

Vitex agnus-castus L. Leaves Wetted leaves are put

on stomach to reduce

stomach ache

L

Others (The species that were not mentioned by the collectors)

Hedera helix L. Leaves - - M

Cistus creticus L.

Leaves and

Cistus salviifolius L.

branches

Assessment of Table 1 shows that the first 17 species are those harvested for private and

commercial reasons. They are generally used for a variety of purposes, such as herbal tea,

food flavouring, drinks and income generation. The last 3 species listed under “others” were

not mentioned by the collectors. The data on these species was obtained from the Director of

Forestry of Turkey. According to this data (Taşağıl Orman İşletme Müdürlüğü, 2006), a

volume of 70,400 kg of rockrose (Cistus spp.) species was harvested in the national park in

spring 2006 to generate income. The results of interviews with the Director of Forestry and

trading companies in the city of Antalya revealed that only a small number of collectors

harvest these species due to the limited demand from a few companies in the city of Antalya.

However, demand for such species often change and therefore the marketing of these species

8


is not stable. Within this context, the economic factor such as unstable market demand may

force the rural poor to over-harvest a single species due to the absence of the management

plan for the target plant and a set of standard for the conservation and sustainable wildcollection

of MAPs at institutional level.

Conservation status of the target species was reviewed to assess the sustainability of MAPs

(Table 2). Within this context, the following national and international instruments (ratified

and/or adopted into the national conservation strategies) were reviewed:

i. The National Red Data Book (Ekim et al., 2000), prepared according to IUCN

threat categories;

ii.

iii.

iv.

The National Regulations for the collection, production, and export of natural

flower bulbs (1989) (Official Gazette: 24 th January 1989 No.20059);

The Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and

Flora (CITES);

European Council Directive 92/43/EEC (EC Habitats, Fauna and Flora Directive);

v. The Convention on the Conservation of European Wildlife and Natural Habitats

(The Bern Convention).

Table 2. Conservation status of MAPs collected from the wild in Köprülü Kanyon National

Park

Botanical name

At national

level

Bulb

regulation

9

IUCN

category

*Origanum minutiflorum

O. Schwarz et. P.H. Davis

Origanum onites L. -

Satureja cuneifolia Ten.

Satureja thymbra L.

Salvia tomentosa Miller

Sideritis condensata Boiss. Heldr. apud

LR(cd)

Bentham

Sideritis stricta Boiss. & Heldr. -

Sideritis libanotica Labill. subsp. linearis

LR(lc)

(Bentham) Bornm.

Teucrium polium L. -

At international level

CITES

EC

Habitats

Directive

- LR (nt) - - -

Bern

Convention

Thymbra spicata L.

LR(cd)

Laurus nobilis L. -

Ceratonia siliqua L.

Tilia platyphyllos Scop.

Urtica dioica L.

Myrtus communis L.

subsp. communis

Hypericum scabrum L./H. perforatum L.

Vitex agnus-castus L.

Hedera helix L.

Cistus creticus L.

Cistus salviifolius L.

According to the National Red Data Book (Ekim et al. 2000): LR: Under “Lower Risk”; cd: “Conservation

Dependant”; nt: “Near Threatened”; - : Species are not evaluated by the red list.

* Most threatened species at national level (Özhatay et al. 1997)


Assessment of Table 2 shows that most of MAPs targeted are not listed in the threat

categories of the indicated regulations and/or Conventions. Omission of some of MAPs

species from the sources consulted may indicate a lack of information and/or assessment.

However, there is an urgent need for regulating and/ or controlling the wild-collection of the

species (e.g. oregano/kekik) traded at international level. For example, Lange (1998)

emphasizes that “Turkey should take appropriate measures for oregano-kekik-thymus species

(e.g. Thymus spp., Origanum spp. and Thymbra spp.), as these species are traded

internationally and there is no regulatory mechanism to control harvesting, marketing, and

trading of these species”. Özhatay et al. (1997) point out that oregano/kekik (Origanum

minutiflorum O. Schwarz & P.H. Davis) is one of the top 50 most-threatened MAPs in

Turkey. In addition, Lange (2002) emphasizes that the huge amounts of plant material

collected each year have massive impacts on the populations of Origanum minutiflorum O.

Schwarz & P.H. Davis. Considering possible threats (e.g. over-harvesting), the following two

subjects should be investigated: “assessment of collection intensity and regeneration level of

the target species (Criterion 1.3 of the Principle 1 of the ISSC-MAP)” and “identification of

sensitive taxa and habitats (Criterion 2.1 of the Principle 1 of the ISSC-MAP)”. Accordingly,

the areas with a high priority of MAPs should be determined. Afterwards, in the framework

of the management plan for particular species, appropriate conservation measures such as

establishment of non-harvest zones, protection and rehabilitation sites and fixing harvest

quotas should be designed and implemented to control the impact of harvest on the wild

populations and their natural habitats. Management is a process that seeks to improve the

current conditions of the target species on the basis of analysis of biological data (e.g. growth

and regeneration rates, impact of harvesting on individuals of the target species). For

example; Schippmann et al. (2002) emphasize that in many cases harvesting techniques need

to be improved as the extraction of the roots or bark is often negatively affecting the recovery

of the species or may even kill the plant. For this reason, design and implementation of a

powerful management plan for the target species are essential to limit the harvest to a

sustainable level through continuous monitoring and evaluation of the success. In addition,

proper regulations for harvesting (e.g. harvesting permit) and marketing (e.g. tradable quotas)

for the target MAPs should be determined and executed in particular for sensitive taxa and

habitats. Thus, the impacts of the population, economic, and institutional factors can be

regulated to increase the effectiveness of the sustainability of MAPs.

10


4. Gender and degree of dependence upon the wild-collection of medicinal and

aromatic plants

The relationship of the population with natural resources is an important factor that affects

the sustainability of resources (Edwards and Musiti, 2001). This relationship can be

represented by aspects such as gender and degree of dependence upon MAPs at household

level. These aspects are briefly discussed in the framework of the population factor below.

The results of the survey in the national park showed that women in rural areas have had

limited access to educational, social and economic opportunities, compared to large Turkish

cities where women have better opportunities to access the same opportunities. Particularly, a

high degree of literacy among women, male-headed household structure and cultural reasons

(e.g. women are responsible for food production and feeding members of households) seem

to be the major reasons causing the majority of women and children living in the selected

villages to be financially dependent upon men for their needs and welfare. The interviews

with women showed that women play a significant role in agricultural and food production

and in household food security as they spend much time every day on agricultural and

domestic tasks. In addition, modernization in agriculture and commercialization of products

has more empowered men to have predominant control over decision-making. Accordingly,

the results of the survey showed that both men and women play a significant role in

harvesting, drying, and carrying of raw plant material. However, marketing of MAPs is only

conducted by men due to the reasons indicated above. Consequently, women are mostly not

involved in decision making. On the other hand, the degree of dependence upon MAPs at

household level was determined through interviews with the collectors in the selected villages.

This degree was estimated through assessing the total number of household and the number

of household collecting MAPs in each village (Table 3).

Table 3. Degree of dependence upon MAPs at household level in the selected villages

Name of village

Total number

of households

Total population

Number of

households

collecting

MAPs

Percentage of

households

economically

dependent on MAPs

Karabük 145 750 50 34.48

Altınkaya 170 1000 150 88.23

Çaltepe 140 680 90 64.28

Ballıbucak 80 480 60 75.00

Eskibeydilli 22 120 - -

Çukurca 25 100 15 60.00

Total 582 3130 365 -

11


Assessment of Table 3 shows that the degree of dependence upon MAPs is in the range of

88.23% (in the village of Altınkaya) and 34.48% (in the village of Karabük). It was revealed

that limited access to farmland has particularly caused the high degree of dependence upon

the wild-collection of MAPs at the household level such as in the villages of Altınkaya and

Ballıbucak. The village of Altınkaya is located in the archaeological zone in the national

park; therefore most economic activities of the local people are limited. In addition, the

remoteness of the villages is another major reason that causes the high degree of dependence

upon these natural resources such as in the villages of Ballıbucak and Çaltepe. The data on

the village of Eskibeydilli is not given in Table 3, as the local people in this village stopped

the wild-collection of MAPs in 2002 when a serious decline in the wild population of

oregano/kekik species was observed. This informal decision can be evidence for the effect of

unsustainable wild-collection of the species in the national park.

On the other hand, it was determined that the wild-collection of MAPs has a great potential to

create temporary and new employment opportunities and push economic growth in the

national park. For example, it was estimated that the wild-collection of oregano/kekik species

creates about 30 days of work a year (in September) for 688 unemployed people in the

villages. The annual average income per capita differs between US$ 332.74 (in the village of

Çaltepe) and US$ 46.21 (in the village of Altınkaya) (Table 4).

Table 4. Annual average income per capita in each village

Name of

village

Number of

household

Total

population

Number of

household

collecting MAPs

Number of

unemployed

people

*Annual average

income per

capita (US$)

Karabük 145 750 50 80 178.00

Altınkaya 170 1000 150 450 46.21

Çaltepe 140 680 90 30 332.74

Ballıbucak 80 480 60 90 87.99

Çukurca 25 100 15 4 115.09

Total 560 3130 365 688 -

*The estimation is done through considering one household includes five persons.

Although this non-agricultural rural labour is a positive human capital to sustain local

livelihoods, Lipton (1991) points out that a minimum of 200 days of work a year is spent to

sustain a livelihood. For this reason, diversifying MAPs-based livelihoods in the national

park is necessary as dependence upon a single solution is not desirable to achieve positive

outcomes of livelihoods. Within this context, a high priority should be given to encourage the

local people to invest in their own capital. Direct support should be done in the form of

12


developing new skills and knowledge that would create new employment and labour

opportunities in the national park.

5. The role of informal institution in the wild-collection of medicinal and aromatic

plants

The wild-collection of non-timber forest products such as MAPs from the State lands is only

regulated through licensing of the plant material harvested in accordance with the Forest Law

No. 6831 in Turkey (Özhatay et al., 1997). Hence, the wild-collection of the target species is

entirely conducted legal in the national park, and the Forest Law No. 6831 is the only legally

binding instrument. Within this context, the collectors pay a fee to the General Directorate of

Forestry for licensing the plant material harvested. For example, the collectors pay about

0.016$/kg for licensing oregano/kekik species harvested. However, licensing of the plant

material harvested does not make a means in terms of controlling and regulating the wildcollection

of MAPs due to the absence of a regulatory mechanism such as the management

plan for the target species. The local people collect the target plants in line of the market

demand. Therefore, the current legal instrument is not effective for ensuring the sustainable

use MAPs in the national park.

Access to MAPs resources is implemented through obtaining permission (permit system) for

harvesting from the National Park Authority in accordance with the Forest Law No.6831. The

heads of the villages have undertaken this role in each village. In addition, the results of the

survey revealed that an informal institution regulates to access to the oregano/kekik species in

the national park. According to FAO (2002), informal (customary) institutions can be defined

as rules invented by local communities to regulate access to land or natural resources.

Customary rights are usually created through following traditions of communities. They are

often rights developed by ancestral occupation and by the use of land by ancestral societies.

Accordingly, the results of the survey in Köprülü Kanyon National Park revealed that the

collectors in the villages of Çaltepe and Ballıbucak harvest oregano/kekik species from the

wild by following an informal institution invented in the past by their ancestors for grazing

livestock. For example, the local communities from both villages move to the alpine pastures

to harvest oregano/kekik species at the beginning of September every year (harvesting time).

They usually move with their families, except elders, and camp there about one month. In the

alpine pastures, each family harvests oregano/kekik at a certain location. The local people

legally do not own these pastures; however, this informal institution is the powerful

13


instrument that regulates access rights to MAPs resources at present, particularly in the

isolated villages where the degree of dependence upon MAPs is high (e.g. the village of

Ballıbucak). Such institutions may assist in the development of sustainable development

strategies. For example, DFID (1999) emphasizes that informal institution assists in

improving the efficiency of natural and human capitals; therefore, the current informal

institution should be recognized into the management plans for the target species to ensure

that the local people’s interests are reflected in policies. Such an approach would make an

important contribution to achieving reliable good governance and thereby the sustainable use

of MAPs in the national park. In addition, certain definition of access rights to MAPs is

essential to control and regulate the impacts of the population and economic factors. For

example, interviews with the target groups showed that certain access rights to MAPs would

encourage the collectors to value these resources. As the collectors obtain benefits from the

use of MAPs in the framework of a defined system, they will conserve them by following up

sustainable harvesting techniques. In contrast, undefined access rights and lack of legislative

and policy guidance may even results in the breakdown of traditional controls of these

resources over time.

6. Trends in marketing of medicinal and aromatic plants

In the framework of the economic factor, the marketing structure of MAPs in the national

park was determined through interviews with the target groups (the National Park Authority,

collectors, heads of the villages, and trade companies in the city of Antalya) (Figure 3).

General Directorate of Forestry

Direct export

Collectors, the heads of

the villages, Çaltepe

cooperative

Middlemen

traders

Trade

companies

Export

companies

Herbalist

shops, markets

and hotels

Figure 3. The marketing structure of MAPs in Köprülü Kanyon National Park

14


Assessment of Figure 3 shows that the marketing structure contains two chains (middlemen

traders and trading companies) between the source and consumer levels. The heads of the

villages play an important role in the marketing structure through obtaining permission for

harvesting from the National Park Authority, negotiating with middlemen traders (from

nearby regions) on the market prices, and marketing the plant material of their villages. The

cooperative of Çaltepe conducts this role in the village of Çaltepe. Afterwards, middlemen

traders pay a fee of about US$ 0.42 per kg to the General Directorate of Forestry for

transporting the plant material outside of the national park and a fee of about US$ 0.33 per kg

to the heads of the villages for their mediatory role with the collectors. This fee is usually

used for the needs of the villages. The middlemen traders generally sell the plant material to

other trading companies located in the city of Antalya where the plant material is handled in

three ways:

• Plant raw material is exported directly;

• Plant raw material is traded to another export company;

• Plant raw material is processed to produce herbal products (e.g. spices for food

flavouring, essential oils, herbal juices, and herbal bath products). These products are

usually marketed to the hotels in the city of Antalya.

The assessment of the marketing structure revealed that the market prices are often decided

by the middlemen as the heads of the villages and collectors have inadequate information

about the real market prices of the species. This situation has led to monopolization of the

marketing of MAPs by a few local middlemen traders. Monopolization of the marketing of

MAPs particularly derives from the absence of a marketing mechanism for the target species.

The lack of such an institutional mechanism has forced the collectors to sell the plant material

harvested with a lower price to the middlemen. Within this context, the population, institution

and economic factors are interrelated. Thus, it is assumed that the current trend in the wildcollection

of MAPs may not be in a sustainable manner due to the absence of marketing

mechanism and management plan for the target species, monopolization of the marketing,

lack of market transparency, and thus marketing of the plant material with an unwise price.

The economic value of the target species was estimated through assessing the harvest volume

and market prices at the source level. Accordingly, it was estimated that a volume of 471,80

tonnes of MAPs was harvested from the wild and US$ 263,930 of cash income was generated

in the selected villages in 2005. In addition, the domestic and export prices of MAPs were

15


collected in three major cities (Antalya, İzmir and İstanbul) and the average economic value

of the species based on market prices (US$/kg) at collector, export, and consumer levels were

determined (Table 5). It was difficult to obtain precise information from the export

companies as those interviewed usually hesitated to share the information due to the fear of

losing their jobs. Therefore, the lack of market transparency adversely affects the market

prices at the collector level.

Table 5. Average prices of MAPs at source, export and consumer levels

Botanical name of plant Average prices of MAPs at collector,

export, and consumer levels (US$/kg)

Harvest

volume

Trade value

(US$)

Collector *Export Consumer (Tonnes)

Oreganum (Kekik) species 0.66 1.30 10 249 164,340

Ceratonia siliqua L. 0.50 4.47 2 90 45,000

**Myrtus communis L. 0.30 - 12 100 30,000

Salvia spp. species 0.69 2.83 9 21 14,490

Sideritis spp. species 8 5,520

Tilia platyphyllos Scop. 4.00 7.15 28 0.8 3,200

Laurus nobilis L. 0.46 2.56 10 3 1,380

Total 471,80 263,930

*Average prices of export are based on the data from the trade unions [İstanbul İhracatçılar Birliği

(2005), Ege İhracatçılar Birliği (2006), and Türkiye İhracatçılar Birliği (2004 and 2005)].

** Export data for Myrtus communis L. could not be found.

The price differentials between the collector and consumer levels show that middlemen, trade

and export companies generate significant amounts of income from the marketing of MAPs.

The price differentials may be derived from the absence of marketing mechanism and

management plan for the species in trade and the length of trade chain; therefore, there is a

need for development of the management plan and establishment of the marketing

mechanism for the target species to regulate the price differentials. Within the context of the

management plan for the target plants, the linkages between the economic and institutional

factors can be mitigated and controlled through ensuring access to reliable markets and

supporting for value-added products such as packaging and eco-labelling.

7. Constraints to the sustainable use of medicinal and aromatic plants

There are a number of constraints to the sustainability of MAPs in Köprülü Kanyon National

Park. These constraints are discussed below.

• Institutional failure - Protected areas, including national parks, are legally vested

under the control of the State in Turkey. However, there is no overall responsible coordinating

agency for conservation issues in Turkey at present. Therefore, various

overlapping responsibilities arise among the Ministries of Environment and Forestry,

Rural Affairs, and Culture and Tourism (Arancli, 2002). Within this situation, the

protection of Köprülü Kanyon National Park is a subject for the three Ministries due

16


to its natural, tourism, and cultural potential. However, the results of interviews with

the National Park Authority show that the low level of cooperation among the

Ministries is one of the major obstacles that often cause failure or delay in natural

resource management. In addition, as discussed earlier in the framework of the

research, the current Conventions and regulations are insufficient to achieve success

in the sustainability of MAPs as most of the species identified are not subject to these

regulations.

• Lack of the management plan for the target species is one of the major constraints for

the sustainability of MAPs in the national park – that is, there is no a regulatory

mechanism to control the wild-collection; therefore, the species are harvested from

the wild in accordance with the market demands.

• Lack of the marketing mechanism for the species in trade has led to a market failure.

For example, monopolization and lack of market transparency (e.g. inadequate

information about market prices at the collector level) are the results of the market

failure. This situation limits the bargaining power of the collectors with the

middlemen traders. In addition, unstable market prices for the species, particularly for

oregano/kekik species, cause undervaluation of the species. For example, the results

of the survey revealed that the market price of oregano/kekik at the collector level

declined from US$/kg 1,32 to US$/kg 0,66 in the last two years.

• Uncertain access rights to MAPs – As earlier discussed in the framework of the

research, the access to MAPs is conducted through the informal institution determined

and permit system in accordance with the Forest Law No.6831. However, strict

management mechanism of the national park in accordance with the National Park

Law No.2873 has limited most of the economic activities of the local people over the

years as the national park was established in a place where eleven villages are located.

However, Ayaşlıgil and Dunme, (1993) point out that the national park has functioned

to conserve the natural forest stands of the Mediterranean ecosystems. Consequently,

conflicts between conservation and development have led to the degradation of the

natural resources in the national park; therefore, establishment of the national park has

been exposed to failure as the needs of the local people were not considered in the

management plan of the national park. In order to solve the conflicts between the

conservation of biodiversity and sustainable development, “Biodiversity and Natural

Resource Management Project” carried out by the Ministry of Environment and

Forestry in collaboration with the World Bank and financed by the Global

Environmental Facility (GEF) has been implemented in the national park. The aim of

the project is to determine and protect the biodiversity and also to strengthen the

social-economical situation of the local people in the national park (Özçelik et al.,

2006). Although this positive initiative, the faced problems with the National Park

Authority over years due to the indicated conflicts cause a fear among the collectors;

for example, most of collectors consider that the Government can ban the wildcollection

of MAPs from the State lands. This unwise consideration is particularly

strong in the villages of Ballıbucak, Çaltepe, and Altınkaya where the degree of

dependence upon MAPs is high. Because of this uncertainty, the long-term

sustainable use of MAPs resources does not make sense for most of the collectors

interviewed.

• Livelihood failure – Limited employment opportunities and access to farmland have

led to poor livelihoods in the national park, particularly in the villages of Ballıbucak

and Altınkaya. For this reason, design and implementation of a sustainable rural

17


livelihood strategy, putting people at the centre of development, is needed to bring a

positive synergy to diversify MAPs-based livelihoods; to control the possible impacts

of harvesting on the wild populations of MAPs and their habitats; to reduce heavy

dependency upon the wild-collection of MAPs through strengthening community

capitals (particularly human and financial capitals) which are vital for a sustainable

livelihood.

The analysis of the constraints to the sustainability of MAPs shows that there is a need to

overcome these obstacles through replacing a system of institutional and socio-economic

incentives that encourages long-term sustainability in the use of these plants in the national

park. Possible instruments and incentives are discussed below.

8. Potential responses for the sustainable use of medicinal and aromatic plants

Despite the constraints discussed above, it is predicted that the current trend in the wildcollection

of MAPs is likely to continue in the national park due to numerous reasons such as

the high degree of dependence upon these plants, lack of alternative economic incentives, and

growing market demands for herbal products on a global level. Therefore, there is a need to

ensure the sustainable wild-collection of MAPs through adopting a number of incentives and

strengthening weak current legal instruments. The following possible incentives and

instruments are recommended for achieving and strengthening the long-term sustainable use

of MAPs in the national park.

Strengthening legal frameworks

As discussed within the framework of the research earlier, the current legal instruments (e.g.

CITES and the Bern Convention) at the national level are insufficient to ensure the

sustainability of the target species in the national park. For this reason, adoption of the

following legal instruments is recommended for achieving success in the sustainability of

MAPs at national and local levels.

• A number of international organizations [The Medicinal Plant Specialist Group (MPSG)

of the Species Survival Commission (SSC), IUCN; Bundesamt für Naturschutz (BfN),

WWF Germany and TRAFFIC Germany] worked together to develop International

Standard for Sustainable Wild Collection of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants (ISSC-MAP)

to help users, collectors, and managers to understand and comply with the conditions

under which sustainable collection of these resources can take place. The purpose of the

ISSC-MAP is to ensure the long term survival of MAPs populations in their habitats,

while respecting the traditions, cultures and livelihoods of stakeholders. Accordingly, the

objectives of this standard are to provide a framework of principles and criteria that can

be applied to the management of MAP species and their ecosystems; to provide guidance

for management planning; to serve as a basis for monitoring and reporting; and to

18


ecommend requirements for certification of sustainable wild-collection of MAP

(Medicinal Plant Specialist Group, 2007). Adoption of this international standard into the

National Biodiversity Conservation Strategy can serve as a positive instrument to provide

for and strengthen the sustainability of MAPs at national and local levels. For example,

maximum allowed collection quantities for the target species will contribute to regulating

collection intensity and species regeneration (Criteria 1.3 of the Principle 1) – one of the

fundamental criteria of Principle 1 “wild collection of MAP shall be conducted at a scale

and rate and in a manner that maintains populations and species over the long-term”. This

standard is a potential instrument to design and implement the management plan for the

target species in the national park.

• Establishment of a law for the sustainable use of MAPs at the national level can be an

effective tool to regulate the wild-collection of these resources through giving more

authority and responsibility to the periphery. Within this context, a number of countries in

Europe (e.g. England, Italy, Austria and Bulgaria) passed such a law to regulate the wildharvesting

of MAPs at local level. For example, the UK Wildlife and Countryside Act

(1981) prohibits the uprooting of any species of wild plant except by landowners or other

authorized people. In several Italian regions and Swiss cantons, not only is the uprooting

or the collection of subterranean parts of plants prohibited, but there are also restrictions

on the gathering of aerial parts. The number of flowering stems or branches which may be

picked varies from five to 20, according to local laws (Centre for Research, Planning and

Action, 2004). In Bulgaria, a specialized Law on Medicinal and Aromatic Plants (Official

Gazette 149/1941) in 1941 and Regulations for the Application of the Law on Medicinal

and Aromatic Plants were prepared (Official Gazette 20/1942). These acts regulated the

breeding, use, growing, distribution, and preservation of the herbs in the country. The

objectives of these regulations were to create conditions and train specialists for the longterm

use of the medicinal plants, to provide an occupation for part of the population, and

to make Bulgarian herbs competitive on the foreign market (Meine, 1988). Accordingly,

establishment of such a legal instrument may assist in ensuring and promoting the wildcollection

of MAPs at national and local level in Turkey. In contrast, revision of the

Forest Law No. 6831 with a special reference to the sustainable wild-collection of MAPs

can be a challenge for contributing to the long-terms survival of these plants. Such

revision should respect the traditions (e.g. informal institutions in the wild-collection of

MAPs) and livelihoods of the rural poor and also recommend specific requirements for

certification of MAPs.

• The EU Traditional Herbal Medicinal Products Directive (Directive 2004/24/EC) (agreed

in April 2004 and came into force on 30 th October 2005) can be an effective instrument

that includes the following objectives: protection of consumer health, providing access to

medicines of their choice provided safeguards are met, and facilitating a single market for

herbal medicines via harmonized rules. Thus, adoption of this Directive at national level

can be an effective instrument to provide a regulative mechanism that MAPs products

meet standards such as product quality, safety, and product information for the consumers.

• Within the framework of the research discussed earlier, permit system and licensing of

the plants material harvested are not effective to regulate the wild-collection of MAPs.

Permit system should be improved through including specific data on the name of the

species that can be harvested, the quantities that may be collected, the dates and places of

collection and the methods of method of harvest techniques.

19


The effective management of these legal instruments would contribute to ensuring sufficient

MAPs resource stocks are sustained in the wild.

Establishment of a database

A database should be established to store periodic data on the target species. The database

should include the inventory list of MAPs, the species prioritized for conservation, data on

conservation (e.g. regeneration and abundance) and socio-economic conditions (e.g. species

in trade, volume and value of trade, and contribution of MAPs to human livelihoods) of the

target species. For example, the data collected on the biological factor can be used to improve

the permit system in terms of providing data on numerous subjects such as maximum harvest

quotas and habitats of collection. In addition, the stored data should be updated and

disseminated to decision-makers, scientists, and stakeholders to contribute to creating a

national strategy for the sustainable use of MAPs and to strengthening the institutional and

policy frameworks for these species.

Design of the management plan

Management is a process to control and regulate the factors and interrelations between them.

The management system is essential to provide relevant data for both the decision-makers

and policy-makers to interact with potential responses to ensure the sustainable use of MAPs.

Therefore, the management plan for the target species should be designed and implemented

to monitor the factors and interrelations between them. For example, monitoring the trend in

extent and quality of the resources can require the adjustment of the allowable collection of

the species harvested from the wild – that is, continuous monitoring of the populations of the

target species can provide a feedback data to measure whether the wild-collection of MAPs is

conducted in a sustainable manner. Therefore, establishment of a comprehensive monitoring

mechanism is necessary for collecting periodic data particularly on the biological (e.g.

regeneration) and economic factors (e.g. market trends) in the framework of the management

plan. On the other hand, in the framework of the management plan, capacity building

programs should be supported for the training of personnel. Such a platform can contribute to

sharing knowledge among personnel from different disciplines.

Support for certification and eco-labelling

Turkey has been one of the main exporters of organic products in Europe and herbal products

have been one of the first to be organically labelled. There is a growing market for organic

20


agriculture in the country. The government encourages people in rural areas to conduct

organic agriculture by providing them with credit (Babadogan and Koc, 2005). However, the

sustainable harvesting of MAPs from the wild is not easy to achieve; therefore, certification

standards can play a significant role to assure that a product meets certain standards of

sustainability (Schippmann et al., 2006). Accordingly, eco-labelling of the target species

should be supported for creating a new market where none previously existed and also

increasing income generation at source level in the national park (Cetinkaya, 2006). In the

framework of this instrument, it is expected to contribute to ensuring product safety,

strengthening market security, providing stable incomes for the poor, increasing information

on MAPs both for producers and consumers, promoting competitiveness for environmentally

friendly products, and thus reducing the pressure of wild-collection on the wild populations.

Support for small-scale cultivation in home gardens

Recognizing that small-scale cultivation requires low inputs (Agelet et al., 2000; Schippmann

et al., 2002), small-scale cultivation of MAPs in home gardens can be an effective

conservation option to contribute to reducing the impact of harvesting on the wild

populations of the target species and also to generating alternative income and employment

opportunities for the rural poor and marginalised groups (Cetinkaya, 2006). For example, the

local people in the villages of Çaltepe and Çukurca have cultivated two species of

oregano/kekik (e.g. Origanum onites L. and Satureja cuneifolia Ten) in the vicinity of their

houses. Successful results have been achieved in cultivation. However, low market prices

caused a halt to this cultivation recently. Lack of the marketing mechanism is the major

constrain to the development of small-scale cultivation in home gardens. Therefore, the

marketing mechanism for MAPs should be established and developed for ensuring

satisfactory prices and reliable market conditions for the collectors and thereby the long-term

effectiveness of small-scale cultivation.

Establishment of the marketing mechanism

Development of the marketing mechanism for the species in trade is required to reduce the

impact of monopolization, provide a secure marketing structure and channels, and stable

income for the rural poor. Considering this, there is a need to establish responsible trade

practices; thereby creating a benefit that in turn may produce incentives for the conservation

of the species and their habitats. Within this framework, put the chain of middlemen out of

the system can provide and promote the cost-effectiveness in marketing (Figure 4).

21


Production level

Collectors &

Family-based cultivation

Roles: Resource and land management

Sustainable collection and cultivation practices

Processing &

marketing level

The cooperative of

Çaltepe

Roles: Primary processing and

access to markets

Value added packaging and products

(organic certification)

Trade level

Trade companies

Roles: Distribution to markets (herbalist shops

etc.) and direct and/or indirect trade

Figure 4. Marketing mechanism developed for trading MAPs

The community-based cooperative of Çaltepe can take an important role for marketing of

MAPs. The cooperative was established recently to process, package, and market the target

species. It is considered that adding value to products – that is, eco-labelling can be an

important tool to improve traceability in trade and to increase income at source level. For

example, through such a marketing mechanism, the plant material harvested from the wild

can be processed, packaged, and sold directly to supermarkets, shops, herbalists, and

pharmacies. This mechanism can assist in reducing the impact of monopolization,

strengthening the bargaining power of collectors with middlemen traders and increasing

income at household level. In addition, raising the awareness of the collectors about the real

market prices is necessary to reduce the impact of monopolization. Successful management

of the marketing mechanism would contribute to strengthening the financial capital – that is,

the level of cash income and savings could be increased.

Definition of access rights to MAPs

Access rights to MAPs resources should be defined to minimize unwise consideration of the

collectors for the sustainable use of MAPs. Contracts between the National Park Authority

and collectors (suggested by the collectors) can be an effective tool to regulate the access to

MAPs resources. This challenge would contribute to improving the confidence between the

National Park Authority and the local people, regulating the wild-collection of MAPs,

enhancing the social capital of livelihoods that would empower the local people in decision

making and participatory processes.

22


Support for alternative economic incentives

Alternative economic incentives (e.g. ecotourism) should be supported for enhancing MAPsbased

local livelihoods in the national park. In addition, income diversification should be a

strategy to create a positive incentive that helps the poor to deal with contingencies (e.g.

when market prices of MAPs products fall) and accumulate the capitals to improve their

livelihoods.

Köprülü Kanyon is located near several tourism destinations and has great ecotourism

potential due to its outstanding natural components. However, the major tourism activities

such as rafting and trekking are operated by outsiders. This situation has led to flow of the

revenue generated out of the national park. Therefore, the following alternative economic

incentives are recommended for increasing revenue, employment opportunities, and

awareness of the biodiversity: charges for ecotourism operators, park entry fees, and support

for traditional agricultural practices (e.g. growing olive, grape and almond) (Cetinkaya, 2006).

Strengthening community participation and raising awareness

Community participation is an important tool to achieve success in natural resource

management. Therefore, many UN agencies and the World Bank support the community

participation programs in projects to achieve their goals. Organization and implementation of

community participation programs in Köprülü Kanyon should be strengthened to empower

the local people in decision making over natural resources. In addition, the National Park

Authority should organize training programs relating to favourable harvesting and processing

techniques of the MAPs targeted. Both initiatives would help empower the collectors in

dealing with external parties (e.g. middlemen), to raise their awareness of the market and

non-market values of MAPs, to develop and appropriate livelihood strategies and to increase

human and physical capitals.

9. Conclusion

This research was carried out to determine the trends and challenges in the sustainable use of

MAPs in Köprülü Kanyon National Park through considering institutional, economic, and

population factors that directly and/indirectly affect the sustainability of these resources.

Assessment of the factors shows that the current trend in the wild-collection of MAPs is

towards the unsustainable use of these resources due to the numerous reasons discussed in the

framework of the research (e.g. market failure, the high degree of dependence upon MAPs,

23


the absence of management plan, marketing mechanism and harvest quotas for the target

species). This perception is based on the findings of the research; however, specific data on

the biological factor (e.g. monitoring of the populations and habitats of the target species) is

particularly necessary to measure whether the wild-collection of MAPs has conducted in a

sustainable manager. Based on the findings of the research, some conclusions and lessons

learnt are presented below.

1. Development of a strategy for the sustainable use of MAPs at the national level is

required. The strategy should address conservation, use, commercial trade, processing,

and production of MAPs in trade. Within this framework, a special priority should be

given to endemic, threatened, economically valuable, and culturally important species.

2. As discussed earlier, the conservation and sustainable use of MAPs is a subject for the

Ministry of Environment and Forestry and Ministry of Rural Affairs. However, this

situation leads to neglect and failure (e.g. lack of a marketing mechanism for the

species in international trade). For this reason, an effective cross-sectoral policy is

required to facilitate coordination between Ministries and also avoid obstacles for the

sustainable use of MAPs. For example, establishment of a single Committee or a

Board may be an effective solution to contribute to institutional promotion at the

national level. The advisory committee should be responsible for all matters relating

to MAPs such as strengthening in situ and ex situ conservation, assessment of demand

and supply for species, and imposing export restrictions.

3. Establishment of Medicinal Plant Conservation Areas (MPCAs) should be supported

to ensure the long-term conservation of gene pools of MAPs in the country.

4. Although the wild-collection of MAPs has been one of the main economic activities

of the local people in the national park, special priority has not been given to develop

a management mechanism for regulating the use of these plants in the scope of the

GEF project. Therefore, design and implementation of a Small Grant Program (SGP)

of the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) could be beneficial in terms

of biodiversity conservation and reduction of poverty – two fundamental objectives of

the CBD and the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) (United Nations, 2000).

The project should be multifunctional in terms of supporting the conservation,

management, cultivation, and market development for the species with higher

ecological, economic, and social interests. In addition, the project should be backed

up with access to easy rural credits, technical guidance, monitoring, capacity

development, and marketing services. However, a special priority should be given to

strengthening grassroots organizations, such as the local communities, who are the

ones to decide at source level. For this reason, a participatory approach should be

pursued to empower the local communities with the aim of extending accountability

to them and creating a positive synergy to be aware of importance of the sustainable

use of MAPs resources.

5. The protected area system in Köprülü Kanyon is ineffective to control the sustainable

use of MAPs in the national park at present. Considering the production capacity of

each target species, design and implementation of non-harvest zones can be an

effective conservation measure to rehabilitate degraded habitats.

6. The wild-collection of MAPs has caused emerging MAPs-based livelihoods in the

national park. The results of the survey show that a sustainable livelihood strategy

24


ased upon-MAPs is needed to bring a positive synergy in terms of the sustainable

use of MAPs in the national park, considering MAPs as natural capital has led to the

emergence of human (e.g. temporary employment opportunities), social (e.g. informal

institution and traditional knowledge), and financial capitals (e.g. generation of

income) to lift local livelihoods out of poverty.

7. The informal institution relating to access rights to MAPs resources should be

respected and recognized in the management plan for the target species, as it is crucial

to regulate the collection of the species from the wild. In addition, such institutions

generally cause the emergence of sustainable development strategies over time.

25


Reference

A, Agelet, M.A Bonet & J Snader. (2000). “Homegardens and their role as a main source of

medicinal plants in mountain regions of Catalonia (Iberian Peninsula)” Journal of Economic

Botany 54 (3), 295-309pp.

Antalya Orman Bölge Müdürlüğü. (1993). “Manavgat Orman İşletme Müdürlüğü Köprülü

Kanyon Milli Parkı Amenajman Planı (1984-93): I Yenileme”. Antalya, (In Turkish).

Arancli, S. (2002). “Biodiversity and natural resource management in Turkey”,

Environmental connectivity: Protected areas the Mediterranean Context, International

conference in Malaga, Spain. From

http://www.iucn.org/places/medoffice/CDMURCIA/pdf/espanol/conferenciasprevias/conecti

vidad/presentations/Bio_manag_turkey.pdf

Ayaşlıgil, Y. (1987). ”Der Köprülü Kanyon Nationalpark-Seine Vegetation und ihre

Beeinflussung durch den Menschen”. Dissertation. Techn. Universitat München-

Weihenstephan (In German).

Ayaşlıgil, Y. and Dunme, F. (1993). “Prospect of Koprulu Kanyon National Park for meeting

both conservation targets and people needs for development”. Landscape and urban planning

No 24. pp.143–151.

Babadogan, G and Koc, D. (2005). “Organic agriculture in Turkey 2004”. From

http://www.organiceurope.net/country_reports/turkey/default.asp

Centre for Research, Planning and Action. (2004). Laws and regulations to conservation,

trade and use of medicinal plants. Factsheet 6. From

http://www.herbalcerpa.org/LP.7.12.htm

Cetinkaya G. (2006). “Sustainable use of medicinal and aromatic plants in Köprülü Canyon

National Park, Turkey”. Journal of Biodiversity 7 (3&4), 31-36 pp.

Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD). From http://www.biodiv.org/default.shtml

Convention on the Conservation of European Wildlife and Natural Habitats (The Bern

Convention). From http://europa.eu/scadplus/leg/en/lvb/l28050.htm

Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of wild Fauna and flora (CITES).

From http://www.cites.org/

DFID. (1999). “Sustainable livelihood guidance sheet (2.1.)”. From

http://www.livelihoods.org/info/guidance_sheets_pdfs/section2.pdf

Edwards, S.R and Musiti, B.W.W (2001). “Achieving sustainability for resource managers

and government officials”, IUCN. From

http://www.iucn.org/themes/sustainableuse/docs/valeurs/valeurs_manual.PDF

Ege İhracatçılar Birliği. (2006). “Ege ağaç mamülleri ve orman ürünleri ihracatçıları birliği

baharat ihracat raporu”. Izmir (In Turkish).

26


Ekim T, Koyuncu M, Vural M, Duman H, Aytaç Z, Adıgüzel N. (2000). “Türkiye bitkileri

kırmızı kitabı (Eğrelti ve tohumlu bitkiler) – Red data book of Turkey (Pteridophyta and

Spermatophyta)”, Turkish Association for the Conservation of Nature. Ankara. 246 p. (In

Turkish).

European Council Directive 92/43/EEC (EC Habitats, Fauna and Flora Directive). From

http://ec.europa.eu/environment/nature/nature_conservation/eu_nature_legislation/habitats_di

rective/index_en.htm

EU Traditional Herbal Medicinal Products Directive (Directive 2004/24/EC). (2005). From

http://www.herbsociety.org.uk/legislation.htm

FAO. (2002). “Land tenure and rural development”. FAO land tenure studies. From

http://www.fao.org/sd/2003/IN0501_en.htm

Hamilton, A. (2003). “Medicinal plants and conservation: issues and approaches”. From

http://www.wwf.org.uk/filelibrary/pdf/medplantsandcons.pdf

İstanbul İhracatçılar Birliği. (2005). “Istatistik raporu 2005”. İstanbul (In Turkish).

Lange, D. (1998). “Europe’s medicinal and aromatic plants: their use, trade and

conservation”. TRAFFIC International, Cambridge.

Lange, D. (2002). “The role of east and southeast Europe in the medicinal and aromatic

plant’s trade”. Newsletter of Medicinal Plant Conservation (IUCN). Volume 8. From

http://www.iucn.org/themes/ssc/sgs/mpsg/news_download/mpc8.pdf

Lipton, M. (1991). “Growing points in poverty research: labour issues”. International

Institute for Labour Studies Discussion Paper 66, Geneva.

Medicinal Plant Specialist Group. (2007). “International standard for sustainable wild

collection of medicinal and aromatic plants (ISSC-MAP)”. Version 1.0. Bundesamt für

Naturschutz (BfN), MPSG/SSC/IUCN, WWF Germany, and TRAFFIC, Bonn, Gland,

Frankfurt, and Cambridge (BfN-Skripten 195). From

http://www.floraweb.de/proxy/floraweb/MAP-pro/Standard_Version1_0.pdf

Meine, C. (1988). Bulgaria's Biological Diversity: Conservation Status and Needs

Assessment, Biodiversity Support Program. From

http://www.worldwildlife.org/bsp/publications/europe/bulgaria/bulgaria20b.html

Official Gazette. (1989). “Law on the collection, production and export of natural flower

bulbs”. 24 January 1989 No.20059.

Orman Bakanlığı. (1971). “Köprülü Kanyon Milli Parkı Uzun Devreli Gelişme Planı”.

Ankara. 73 p. (In Turkish).

Özçelik, H., Deligöz, A., Fakir, H., Tanrıverdi, F. (2006). “The study of inventory flora of

Koprulu Canyon National Park (Antalya-Isparta)”. GEF- II Project final report.

27


Özgüven M, Sekin S, Gürbüz B, Şekeroğlu N, Ayanoğlu F, Ekren S. (2005). “Tütün, tıbbi ve

aromatik bitkiler üretimi ve ticareti”, the congress of Türkiye Ziraat Mühendisliği VI. Teknik

Kongresi; 2005 January 3-7; Turkey. Ankara. p 481-501. (In Turkish)

Özhatay N, Koyuncu M, Atay S, Byfield A. (1997). “The wild medicinal plant trade in

Turkey”. Dogal Hayati Koruma Dernegi (DHKD), Istanbul, Turkey. 111 p.

Schippmann U, Leaman D.J, Cunningham A.B. (2002). “Impact of cultivation and gathering

of medicinal plants on biodiversity: Global trends and issues”. Published in FAO:

Biodiversity and the ecosystem approach in agriculture, forestry and fisheries. Inter-

Departmental working Group on biological Diversity for Food and Agriculture. Rome 12-13

October 2002. Rome. From ftp://ftp.fao.org/docrep/fao/005/aa010e/AA010E00.pdf

Schippmann U, Leaman D and Cunningham A.B. (2006). “A comparation of cultivation and

wild collection of medicinal and aromatic plants under sustainability aspects”. Jour of

Springer 2006. http://library.wur.nl/frontis/medicinal_aromatic_plants/06_schippmann.pdf

Taşağıl Orman İşletme Müdürlüğü. (2006). 2006 statistic data of the General Directorate of

Forestry, Antalya (In Turkish).

Türkiye İhracatçılar Birliği. (2004). “Türkiye geneli ihracat kayıt değerleri”. Ankara (In

Turkish).

Türkiye İhracatçılar Birliği. (2005). “Türkiye geneli ihracat kayıt değerleri”. Ankara (In

Turkish).

United Nations. (2000). Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). From

http://www.un.org/millenniumgoals/

World Atlas Travel. From http://worldatlas.com/webimage/countrys/asia/tr.htm [cited 2007

Apr 21].

World Health Organization (WHO). (2002). “WHO Traditional Medicine Strategy 2002-

2005”. Geneva. From http://whqlibdoc.who.int/hq/2002/WHO_EDM_TRM_2002.1.pdf

Zaccagnini., E.M, Cloquell., S, Fernandez., E, Gonzalez., C, Lichtenstein., G, Novaro., A,

Jose Luis Panigati., J.L, Jorge Robinovich., J, and Tomasini., D, (2000). “Analytic

framework for assessing factors that influence sustainability of users of wild living natural

resources”. IUCN. From http://www.iucn.org/themes/sustainableuse/docs/ll/llannex1.PDF

28


Appendix

Harvest volume and trade value of the target species in each village

Koyun adi Turun adi Harvest volume Trade value (USD)

(Tonnes)

Karabuk Ceratonia siliqua L. 90 44,500

Sub-total 90 44,500

Altinkaya Origanum minutiflorum O. Schwarz et & P.H. 40 26,666

Davis

Origanum onites L. 4 2,666

Satureja cuneifolia Ten.

1 0,666

Satureja thymbra L.

Salvia tomentosa Miller 7 4,666

Sub-total 52 34,664

Ballibucak Origanum onites L. 24 16,000

Satureja cuneifolia Ten.

4 2,666

Satureja thymbra L.

Salvia tomentosa Miller 4 2,666

Sideritis condensata Boiss. Heldr. apud Bentham

4 2.666

Sideritis stricta Boiss. & Heldr.

Laurus nobilis L. Personal use -

Tilia platyphyllos Scop. 0,6 2,400

Urtica dioica L. Personal use -

Sub-total 36,6 26,398

Caltepe Origanum minutiflorum et O. Schwarz & P.H. 150 99,400

Davis

Satureja cuneifolia Ten.

5 4,333

Satureja thymbra L.

Salvia tomentosa Miller 5 4,367

Origanum onites L. 15 8,800

Sideritis condensata Boiss. Heldr. apud Bentham

2 1,336

Sideritis stricta Boiss. & Heldr.

Myrtus communis L.

100 29,300

subsp. communis

Laurus nobilis L. 3 1,400

Tilia platyphyllos Scop. 0,2 0,00

Urtica dioica L. Personal use -

Vitex agnus-castus L. Personal use -

Sub-total 280,2 149,736

Eskibeydilli

Origanum minutiflorum et O. Schwarz & P.H.

Davis

Origanum onites L.

Salvia tomentosa Miller

Satureja cuneifolia Ten.

Satureja thymbra L.

Sideritis libanotica Labill. subsp. linearis

(Bentham) Bornm.

Sideritis stricta Boiss. & Heldr.

Tilia platyphyllos Scop.

Hypericum scabrum L./ H. perforatum L.

The wild-collection of oregano-kekik

has been stopped in this village as the

collectors have observed a significant

reduction in the populations of species.

Other species are only collected for

personal use.

Cukurca Origanum onites L. 4 2,603

Sideritis libanotica Labill. subsp. linearis 2 1,333

(Bentham) Bornm.

Salvia tomentosa Miller 5 3,333

Satureja cuneifolia Ten.

2 1,333

Satureja thymbra L.

Sub-total 13 8,632

FINAL TOTAL 471,80 263,930

29


Locations of the wild-collection of the target species in each village

Name of village Botanical name of MAPs Location of harvest

Karabuk Ceratonia siliqua L. In the vicinity of the village

Altinkaya

Origanum minutiflorum

Over 1200 m

O. Schwarz & P.H. Davis

Origanum onites L In the vicinity of the village up to 1200 m.

Satureja cuneifolia Ten.

In the vicinity of the village

Satureja thymbra L.

Salvia tomentosa Miller

Ballibucak Origanum onites L. Taş yayla

Satureja cuneifolia Ten.

Satureja thymbra L.

Gücük yaylası, Taş yayla, Kırıcı ova,

Avşar mevkii

Salvia tomentosa Miller

Kestanelik mevkii and in the vicinity of the

Sideritis condensata Boiss. Heldr. apud

Bentham

Sideritis stricta Boiss. & Heldr.

Laurus nobilis L.

Tilia platyphyllos Scop.

village

Kar çukuru, İt burnu, Keterez yaylası

Urtica dioica L.

In the vicinity of the village

Caltepe

Origanum minutiflorum

O. Schwarz & P.H. Davis

Over 1200 m; Yalak güzlesi, Hopbilla,

Kuyucakbası

Satureja cuneifolia Ten.

Satureja thymbra L.

Elmalı yaylası, in the vicinity of Tol and

Gaziler mah.

Salvia tomentosa Miller

Elmalı yaylası and in the vicinity of the

village

Origanum onites L.

Elmalı, Kuyucak, Golcuk and Ketrez

yaylaları, and along the Köprü River

Sideritis libanotica Labill. subsp. linearis In the vicinity of the village

(Bentham) Bornm.

Sideritis condensata Boiss. Heldr. apud

Bentham

In the vicinity of the village and western

part of the Köprü River

Sideritis stricta Boiss. & Heldr.

Myrtus communis L. subsp. communis In the vicinity of the village

Laurus nobilis L.

In the vicinity of the village

Tilia platyphyllos Scop.

Elmalı yaylası and Kefrez bölgesi

Urtica dioica L.

Elmalı, Golcuk and Keperez yaylaları and

in the vicinity of the village

Vitex agnus-castus L.

In the vicinity of the village

Eskibeydilli Origanum minutiflorum

O. Schwarz & P.H. Davis

Çimenova, Şanlı, Kızılova, Burçlu tepe, in

the vicinity of the village

Origanum onites L. In the vicinity of the village under 1000 m.

Salvia tomentosa Miller

Satureja cuneifolia Ten.

Between 0 – 2000 m

Satureja thymbra L.

Sideritis libanotica Labill. subsp. linearis In the vicinity of the village

(Bentham) Bornm.

Sideritis stricta Boiss. & Heldr.

Tilia platyphyllos Scop.

Gölcük and Sağırlar mevkii

Hypericum scabrum L./H. perforatum L. In the vicinity of the village

Cukurca Origanum onites L. In the vicinity of the village

Sideritis libanotica Labill. subsp. linearis

(Bentham) Bornm.

Sideritis stricta Boiss. & Heldr.

Salvia tomentosa Miller

Satureja cuneifolia Ten.

Satureja thymbra L.

30


The United Nations University Institute of

Advanced Studies (UNU-IAS) is a global think tank

whose mission is “to advance knowledge and

promote learning for policy-making to meet the

challenges of sustainable development.” UNU-IAS

undertakes research and postgraduate education

to identify and address strategic issues of concern

for all humankind, for governments, decision

makers and, particularly, for developing countries.

The Institute convenes expertise from disciplines

such as economics, law, social and natural sciences

to better understand and contribute creative

solutions to pressing global concerns, with

research focused on the following areas:

• Biodiplomacy

Sustainable Development Governance

• Science and Technology for Sustainable Societies

• Education for Sustainable Development

Sustainable Urban Futures

• Traditional Knowledge

More magazines by this user
Similar magazines