Status of the UNFCCC
Negotiations: Outcomes of the
Bonn Climate Change Talks,
Associate, Climate Change and Energy
• First round of negotiations leading up to COP 15.
• Main objective of Bonn talks was to work towards
• No real surprises or tangible results, but none
– Narrowed gaps and made progress to new agreement.
– Debut of Obama administration on international stage.
– Some acrimony on final evening of negotiations under
AWG-KP over developed country targets.
Recent Climate Change Events
• Recent climate change events and findings
– Second lowest amount of Arctic sea ice coverage
during winter 2008-09.
– Ice bridge between Antarctic Peninsula and Charcot
Island disintegrated April 2009.
– Garnault review (2008) predicts exceptionally hot
summers for Australia to occur every one or two
years, making drought conditions virtually permanent.
– Current Pine Beetle infestation 10 times larger than
• GHG emission reductions are at the heart
at the negotiations and take place in both
AWG-LCA and AWG-KP.
– AWG-LCA: a long-term goal for emission
reductions as one issue of the “shared vision”
– AWG-KP: negotiating the emissions reduction
required by Annex I Parties under the Kyoto
Protocol in the subsequent commitment
period (after 2012)
• Mitigation by developed countries focused on
nature and definition of commitments.
• Mitigation by developing countries.
– Focus on NAMAs, MRV.
– Differentiation between developing countries
• REDD - Convergence on REDD+ mechanism.
• Sectoral approaches, role of markets, response
mechanisms, catalytic role of convention also
• Discussion focused on scale of emission reductions by
Annex I in aggregate
– No agreement reached.
– Secretariat to compile existing Annex I Party pledges.
• Approach not received well by developing countries.
Desire more principled approach.
• Flexibility mechanisms
– Potential expansion of and improvements to market
– Canada proposal for assuming zero emissions or removals for
cases of carbon saturation in cropland management.
AWG-LCA and AWG-KP
• Controversial discussion on linkages between AWGs.
– Developed countries emphasized need to
– Some parties indicate unwillingness to negotiate
targets in AWG-KP due to lack of US/China
– Faced heavy developing country criticism.
– Concern for “spillover” into AWG-LCA talks.
• Framework for adaptation has begun to take
– Discussions focused on matching adaptation support
with finance and technology, and capacity building
• Developing countries want adaptation funding to
be new, predictable and additional to ODA; with
governance under COP.
• Developed countries stressed need for mutual
accountability, robust governance principles and
coherence with other institutions.
• Technology and financing discussed as one issue
under AWG-LCA. Issues closely linked.
• Need for a balanced approach to mitigation and
• Discussion of R&D activities and needs.
• Options on how to address intellectual property
– Licensing, patent pooling, exclusion from patents,
flexibilities in IPR system, exemptions.
• No consensus on scale, mobilization, governance or
proportion (public-private) of funds.
• Discussion of various party proposals.
– Mexican Green Fund.
– Norway: Carbon credit revenue.
– South Korea: Crediting NAMAs.
– Switzerland: Carbon tax of US$2 per tonne.
• LDCs have called for US$2 billion to finance adaptation
• China observes that carbon market revenues are just one
option and should not replace other responsibilities.
– Example of softening Chinese rhetoric.
Moving towards Copenhagen
• Both AWGs plan to meet five more times over
– June: Bonn.
– August: Bonn.
– September/October: Bangkok.
– November: TBD.
– December: Copenhagen.
• June 1-12 meetings will include 6 th session of
AWG-LCA, 8 th Session of AWG-KP, 30 th session of
SBTSA and SBI.
Submissions to AWG-LCA
• Prior to June countries have been asked to submit views
on variety of topics to UNFCCC bodies.
• Excerpts on negotiating text and/or agreed outcome:
– USA: committed to agreement in Copenhagen based on “robust
targets and ambitious actions that will be embodied in US
– Canada: All parties to submit GHG reduction or limitation
pathways to COP. All parties must submit national inventories of
anthropogenic emissions to the COP. Quantified emissions
limitation or reduction commitments for 2020.
– China: Mid-term emission reduction target for developed Parties
of 40% below 1990 levels by 2020.
The United States and
• Despite not being able to contribute significantly given lack
of time to develop a mandate, US shows tenor of
– Standing ovation from NGO community to senior official from
State Dept. at briefing held by U.S. Government.
– New attitude and positive tone.
– Positive signs from Obama administration (large “green” stimulus
component, domestic cap-and-trade talks).
– Will still take time to develop international negotiating positions.
– Bottom up approach likely to be required.
• Many other countries waiting for U.S. plan to better
determine their strategies.
• Number of issues to be resolved between
now and Copenhagen.
• Will new agreement be a successor to the
KP or a new Protocol or treaty?
• Real risk that final deal may not be reached
at COP 15 or that only a framework agreed
to with details to be ne