Plug-in Hybrid & Battery Electric Vehicles for - Utility Variable ...

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Plug-in Hybrid & Battery Electric Vehicles for - Utility Variable ...

Plug-in Hybrid & Battery Electric Vehicles

for Grid Integration of Renewables

Presented at

Utility Wind Integration Group

Radisson Hotel Reagan National Airport, Arlington, VA

April 5-7, 2006

17 March 2006

Willett Kempton

University of Delaware


High Penetration Wind:

An imperative

Global climate change. Evidence in the past two

years suggest far more risk than before.

Peak oil production; demand from China and India

soaring; $200B/year in Middle East wars.

US economy extraordinarily vulnerable to external

supply and distant politics.

Wind energy plentiful at competitive prices, but

penetration limited by fluctuating supply.


Wind Resources of

US Mid-Atlantic

m Excl GW

0-20 .46 60

20-50 .40 117

50-100 .10 153

Total 330

End-use

GWavg

Elec. load 73

Lt. veh 35


Rethinking the basics

There will be lots of no-CO2 electricity at per kWh

(energy) prices lower than today, especially off-peak

Electricity storage or backup (e.g. ancillary services

markets) will be in much greater demand than today

(but hopefully also cheaper per MW-h)

Where can we find storage in the energy system?

How can we use lots of cheap electricity at times

dictated by the grid operator (ISO or TSO)?


What energy carrier for

light vehicles?

Liquid fuel densities needed for heavy equipment,

aviation, high duty-cycle vehicles (e.g. taxi) -- the bulk

of liquid fuel can be replaced with electricity

gasoline & H2 are low efficiency for well-to-wheels, e-

very high (e.g. 30% versus 80%)

e- as carrier, Li- based batteries as storage for most

applications


An Unexpected Synergy

Wind as the energy source and electricity as the

carrier for vehicles

No new transportation corridors or fuel

infrastructure needed

Smart interaction between vehicle fleet, grid and

intermittent renewables

Very large, low-cost storage for renewables

Vehicle to Grid power (“V2G”) as a bridging

technology.


Vehicle to Grid

Arrows indicate direction of power flow


V2G Basic Math

Average car driven 1 hour/day --> time

parked is 23 hours/day

Daily average travel: 32 miles

Practical power draw from car: 10 - 20 kW

US power generation=811 GW; load=417 GW

US 191 million cars x 15 kW = 2,865 GW


How Much Power?

Denmark UK USA

Avg. Electric

Load (GW)

Light vehicles

(10 6 )

Vehicle GW

(if electric drive

@ 15 kW each)

3.6 40 417

1.9 28.5 191

29 427 2,865


How Much Power?

Denmark UK USA

Avg. Electric

Load (GW)

Light vehicles

(10 6 )

Vehicle GW

(if electric drive

@ 15 kW each)

3.6 40 417

1.9 28.5 191

29 427 2,865

... power in cars >> generation or load


Calculating V2G power

V2G power is the lowest of 3 factors:

Wiring & plug at parking location, prepare

for mass markets by assuming residential,

say, 240VAC @ 80A ≈ 20 kW

Internal Power Electronics to motor

(typical 100 kW)

Stored energy ÷ time

Note: our equations are general to all:

battery, hybrid/batt, hybrid/moto-gen, FC


Value is high

A/S $12 B in US in 1996, 80% regulation

Average PJM regulation contract price in

2003 was $38.33 $/MW-h

Single vehicle, 15 kW, available 18 h/d, A/S

reg -> $3777 revenue/year

PJM contracts 1 MW, so, need an aggregator

(e.g., Delmarva Power, Verizon Cellular or ...)


What vehicles?

Business model demonstration: sets of

60-100 cars

Reassembly vs. OEM

Need an appropriate plug-in vehicle

(battery or PHEV)

Next, compare some vehicles ...


Revolution in Battery

Technology

Today’s automotive starter batteries: Leadacid

RAV4 EV (and Toyota Prius hybrid battery):

Nickel Metal-hydride

New batteries based on Lithium, Li-ion or Lipolymer:

5x lighter for same energy!

These advances make possible large battery

storage for vehicles.


Which atom would you schlep?


Which atom would you schlep?

Pb=207.2


Which atom would you schlep?

Pb=207.2

Ni=58.9


Which atom would you schlep?

Pb=207.2

Ni=58.9

Li=6.9


3 battery vehicles, 2

with V2G built-in


Venturi Fetish

58 kWh Li-ion

180 kW

400 km range

standard:

WiMax 802.16

2 Intel chips

Oracle 10G

iPod

V2G

0-100 km/h in 4.5 sec, max 170 km/h

19 Sep 05 press release:

http://www.internetnews.com/ent-news/article.php/3549956


Mitsubishi Colt platform

In-wheel motor

13 kWh Li-ion, 2 x 20kW in-wheel motors;

goes on sale in Japan 2007


Toyota Scion conversion by AC Propulsion

“We plan to manufacture safetycertified

electric vehicle conversions

and sell them to retail and fleet

customers. The conversions will be

based on the Scion xA and xB, the

new sport compact vehicles built by

Toyota...


Toyota Scion conversion by AC Propulsion

“We plan to manufacture safetycertified

electric vehicle conversions

and sell them to retail and fleet

customers. The conversions will be

based on the Scion xA and xB, the

new sport compact vehicles built by

Toyota...

“We plan two models, a base

model, and a premium with a

larger battery. The base model

will outperform the RAV4 EV

and is expected to sell for

about the same price.”


Regulation from hydro


Regulation from V2G (drive, charge & A/S)


But, don’t we need to

wait for the big OEMs?


Transition Strategy

Start simple: Battery now, e-hybrid later

Small fleets: 100 car V2G fleet = 1 MW;

demonstrate V2G business models

Production in several regions, develop technology,

drive down component costs

Develop standards for V2G (e.g. response time,

metering, at least 10 kW/car, drawdown limits,

etc)

THEN we need the OEMs, low-cost production at

> 50,000 cars/year


A sequence of markets

High value regulation great for buying down

initially high vehicle cost

About 1 - 3% of the vehicle fleet saturates

regulation, up to perhaps 4-5% saturates other

A/S, then start selling peak power

As V2G costs drop and A/S & peak saturate,

start selling storage for intermittent renewables

(8-38% of fleet enables 50% wind!)

Next, busineses: 1 car A/S, fleet, assembly


Effect of EVs with V2G on Grid

Infrastructure Requirements

• 50% of cars as EVs increase electric load ?

100 Million cars

x 15,000 Miles per year / 4.8 Miles per kWh

= 312 Billion kWh per year at off-peak times

= 7 % of 2020 total national load

• With V2G, these EVs also provide a huge power resource:

100 M cars * 15 kW * 0 .5 avail. = 750 GW of DG

> 70% of 2020 national electric power capacity!

Conclusion: Even 50% of cars as EV, IF they have V2G,

probably REDUCE grid infrastructure requirements

(Using “back of the envelope ” method from W. Short, NREL, 2005)

From Tomic & Kempton, 2005


Vision

One-half vehicle fleet is electric drive: battery plus

plug-in hybrid

One-half of electric energy from wind, eventually

other renewables

Climate change is greatly slowed down; US can

survive (a while) without foreign oil

CO2-free electricity, high-penetration intermittent

renewables, and CO2-free transportation: an

unexpected and dramatic synergy


For More Information

• http://www.udel.edu/V2G

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