7

soi.wide.ad.jp

!"#$%&'(

)*+,-./012

Why IETF worked on IPv6 ?

Urgent Issues to Solve before IPv6 deployment

• Running out of IPv4 address

• Growth of routing entries in the router

Short Term Solution

• CIDR; Classless Inter-Domain Routing

• NAT; Network Address Translation

1

2

IPv6 vs. IPv4

• Enlargement of IP address space, i.e., four times larger

– 32 bits ! 128 bits

• 32bit 4,294,967,296 (4 Billion)

• 128bit

340,282,366,920,938,463,463,374,607,431,768,211,456

• Simpler header format for higher processing

– Remove header checksum and fragmentation

• Hierarchical address allocation

• Multicast function is built-in

• Mobile function (Mobile IPv6) is built-in

• Security (i.e., IPSec) is inherit

– Authentication and Encryption

IPv4 header

Ver HL TOS Total Length

Identification Flag Fragment

Offset

TTL Protocol Header Checksum

Source Address

Destination Address

Options

IPv4

Padding

• Plug&Play, i.e., auto-configuration

3

4

Ver Traffic

Class

Payload Length

IPv6 header

Flow Label

Next Hop Limit

Header

Source Address

Destination Address

IPv6

• Red colored fields

experiences name

change from IPv4 to

IPv6

• Fixed length header

length

5

Host and Network auto-configuration

• For Host

– Stateless Address Auto Configuration

– Auto-configure; IP address and route(s)

– Implement as an NDP

– EUI-64 for host-id

• For Network

– Implement as DHCP

– Auto-configure; Network Prefix

Plug&Play !

Host

Router

DHCP

Router

Network

(e.g., SOHO)

RA

Host

6


ïñóòôöõúùû(ü

• NAT(K†ú

– 2°¢£§J/2

– •(Accounting), ß®òLM©´¨ù?

• ÆØßɱ¥ (K†ú

• ¥Ck/ (K†ú

• èµJk/

– IPv6 õªºùæø¿ßú

¡¬ IPv6 öõ߃ß?

7

8

Internet Today

ÑÖ68956'“9Ö


,-./012'Ì”KÓ'

ÌvKÓ''dÔäã5â'Õfl5;'Ÿ58=ä6å'!'mÔäáàÔ'Õfl5;'Ÿ58=ä6å'

'''!';ä8'ä;Ô7'Ñä6'’Ôäã5â'ã7ã85Ü

''''u'„ÒÚ(ÛõKÙd"ı!"'

Internet Access Requirements Forecast

25

Business Internet Access

ÌwKÓ''!"'Ñä6'34567ä;5ın:ÔÔ:ä;ã'

''''!';ä8'ä;Ô7'Ñä6'65ã5à6’956ã''

''''u'g’àÔàá:Ô:87ˆ'Ã5Ô:àá:Ô:87'˜'ÃäáÖã8;5ãã''

Dial-up

ÌÄKÓ''!"'Ñä6'3unÖã:;5ãã'

5

'''''!';ä8'ä;Ô7'Ñä6'9äáá7ı65ã5à6’9'

'

0

Ì”KÓ''n6äàâáà;âıeá:¯Ö:8äÖãıfäá:Ô5'làÔ=à7ã'’ä;;5’85âh

'''''!';ä8'ä;Ô7'Ñä6'’äÜflÖ856ã

''''u'gÜàÔÔ'Ÿäâ5ã'

Source: Banc of America Securities LLC, Industry sources, 1998

''''u'˘5856äÿ

– !gÀŸ'n⁄¤0£ ‹>‘œœ'lã5’h' ÷wv›Äÿ

– fiZlv›“fáflãh Äwœœ'Yã5’h ÷“ć

– 38956;58lvœfáflãh ”‘œ''lã5’h ‘‡

– fi·l”“fáflãh vœ>'lã5’h v›‹‘‡ ÍÎK

– ÕduÄlv““fáflãh Äv'lã5’h œ›“‡

‡¨Ï

±˚¸»˝ ú˛ú˛ IPQ

• k£.,‚„‰

– v'oáflã'–'vœoáflã µ2

– vœoáflã'uvœœ'oáflã' ÂÊ

– vœœoáflãu'vfáflã ëílÁË¡h

– vœfáflã'uvœœfáflã ëílÈË¡h

ÍÎK

‡¨Ï

17

18


±˚¸»˝ ú˛ú˛ IPQ

j˝k¿lm

19

,-./012K=Ûú[\

/ ߃O˝]ßù(üüü/

• ˇ! nopqúùr ^ ns3r O

– tuòvwòxy KYz

– {1/#||}K~Q (ÄÅFOKÇÉ)

• nç,E/rÑ/ ^ nk£rÑ/

O

– “Å” ´pÖÜ ?áù àâ

– =Ûú{1äã OK [\

• e.g., êòå}(é/çé)òé1èòê„

ˇ!(Information)öõò" ?

• #$

• ´% / &'

• «(

• ‡)

• *+

• ,

-ù./K-ù0123

4 ./= (5ù6óßù

./

1. 789&:

ˇ!ìK˝K;


Internet

“end-to-end model”

End system

End system

Internet

End system

What happen if ..

End system?

Internet ?

Routers in the

Internet

Intermediate nodes

•Proxy server

•Firewall

•Protocol translator

middle 25

26

•Dial-up

End system

Enclosure by

the intermediate nodes

Internet

End system

Private Closed

Network

27

]ùì˝K

• NAT, Proxy ©òAd Hocߪº

• íG/E£É±Ksò

ô IP Version 6 (128 bits ɱ)

• Intermediate Proxy

– =˚ö0õúù

– 2°¢£§J/-íKùüüüüüü

• Transparent firewall ( `-Éû2OKèµJk

/MüKYz

ô èµJk/©†°`-É`-É

28

NAT/Proxy,,,, avoid identify

the real end-host….. "

End system

Internet

End system

Private Closed

Network

29

¢£õ§•OWßhßc

E2E = P2P = ‡®§‚

• ,-./012 PQ‡®§‚

• Back & Forth between P2P and Client-Server

– ©ök Robust ?

– ©ök ´9 ?

– ©ök ¨æ5ú ?

• NTT CommunicationsÆØIDC^K

±

– (õ˝òßú “Single Point of Failure”

– ç/EMüK‡®Qóù¥µ

30

– ç/˚K‡®Q(=P2PQ)Kdf


,-./012§‚Kï

)*+,-./012

1. `-É`-Éja£Kbc

2. `-ÉèµJk/Kdef

3. ghif(Peer2Peer)

(1) “End-to-end principle”

(2) “IP over everything”

(3) “Connectivity is own reward”

(4) “We believe in running code”

INET92@Kobe by Dr.David D. Clark

“We reject kings, presidents, and voting;

we believe in rough consensus and running code”

31

32

,-./012§‚Kï

! Security9ó© ©3ú3û(

(1) “End-to-end principle” ! P‡O5¨ !

(2) “IP over everything” ! ߃ök¿3

(3) “Connectivity is a Disaster with Security”

(4) “We believe in running code”

û¨OKèµJkƒSj


• Perimeter Defense / Boarder Protection

perimeter

ÖK«»

What is the perimeter of this polygon? ûK… bKÖK«»©©KÀ^ú.

à YÕ錜4–2Xß©Ö—`â“A” ‘Yœã`.

New College English-Japanese Dictionary, 6th edition (C) Kenkyusha Ltd. 1967,1994,1998

[ªóêº/Åàâ]

1. æ£⁄k- 8I

2. Stand-alone Portable Gear

â“A

Internal network

! ø1¿ Firewall Model ©wò¡¬ü !!!

33

Y’÷ÿäã`

34

DEKŸ⁄K¤°1‹21‹

¬›

Y·`fiflK

·‚

Internal network

)*+,-./012

1. `-É`-Éja£Kbc

2. `-ÉèµJk/Kdef

3. ghif(Peer2Peer)

YZ`fiflK‡:

YÅ`fiflKck@Û

35

36


One for All, All for OneOKî„

ˇ!,-C°K‰Â

• I J/ IN(Bi-directional; One & All)

– ’÷óÊPPÁ9

• ç/E/ °,-2 N

(Uni-directional, One for All)

– ç/˚;


Technical Alternatives

• nGET Moneyr vs nSAVE Moneyr

• nInfrastructurer vs nIndividualr

• nReliabler vs nRobustr

• nAnaloguer vs nDigitalr

• nSeam-fullr vs nSeamlessr

Information CENTER

Automobile ITS today

Input Device Infrastructure (sensor, camera and others)

auto

mobi

le

Very expensive infrastructure

Huge sized

for input

and output

‘Center’

Output device infrastructure (signals, desplay and transmitter)

43

Auto

mobi

le

44

VI – Vehicles with the Internet

Probe Information System (Traffic)

45

46

Probe Information System (Rain condition)

!"4>OKÓpßúÔ

47

fiÒ;< 2Ú.P}é

48


Networking goes into Ad-Hoc

aka. Client-Serve ! Peer-to-Peer

• Static

• Stable

• Mobile

• Ad Hoc

yòj/É

Infrastructure vs Ad-Hoc

BAÛÙı

è

ˆ,-2

Scalable

AAA, Anti-DOS, IDS/Tracing,

!;â5fl5;â5;8

ngglnàã:’'g564:’5'g58h

!;Ñ6àã86Ö’8Ö65

ngg

Date-Eracing/Protecting 49

50

Technical Alternatives

• nGET Moneyr vs nSAVE Moneyr

• nInfrastructurer vs nIndividualr

• nReliabler vs nRobustr

• nAnaloguer vs nDigitalr

• nSeam-fullr vs nSeamlessr

Reliable vs Robust

• Autonomous Path Selection

– Multi-Homing/Addressing

– Policy Routing

• Digital-link independent networking

– Safety ness by heterogeneous networking

• Architecture and Protocol Design assuming

the unreliable devices

• Anti-Interference Architecture/Protocol

51

52

Discussion on Emergency Call

• “Reliable”(expensive) dedicated emergency system

(*) Voice is important (?)

• Robust “shared” emergency information system

(*) main player is digital information

(e.g., location from GPS, Auto-ID

Mobile IP Gadgets

• IEEE802.11 + VoIP

– Also, IEEE802.20, 15, 16

– Aggregator business

(*) cost-reduction and robustness

• Cell-Phone;

– Portable telephone number

– Separation of signaling (i.e., rendezvous )

and Data transmission

– Too expensive bit cost, against wirelessLAN

53

54


Technical Alternatives

• nGET Moneyr vs nSAVE Moneyr

• nInfrastructurer vs nIndividualr

• nReliabler vs nRobustr

• nAnaloguer vs nDigitalr

• nSeam-fullr vs nSeamlessr

Analogue vs Digital

• Independent from datalink technology

• Semantics is only valid at the end-station

• Information has links

• Introduction of “Commons” in RF biz

55

56

Technical Alternatives

• nGET Moneyr vs nSAVE Moneyr

• nInfrastructurer vs nIndividualr

• nReliabler vs nRobustr

• nAnaloguer vs nDigitalr

• nSeam-fullr vs nSeamlessr

Technical Alternatives

• nGET Moneyr vs nSAVE Moneyr

• nInfrastructurer vs nIndividualr

• nReliabler vs nRobustr

• nAnaloguer vs nDigitalr

• nSeam-fullr vs nSeamlessr

We need correct selection

57

58

TIPS for System Deployment

• Avoid the locality for larger market scale

– Readiness for global connectivity, though local

deployment is important for business bootstrap/startup

• Global connectivity is not mandatory at the beginning.

• Global-ID vs. Local-ID

• Every object, including human-being will move

around over the globe

• Global business from multi-national business

• We need security, but there is no perfect security

• Heterogeneity is important for robust operation

59

"à68'!!

!"4>K[\ó˜ù¯˘

60


Tail-Wind We have to realize for “Broken IPv6 Deployment down of”

• User/Host is stupid

• Fixed >> Portable

– Mobility and plug-and-play

• Client Server System

– Return to peer-to-peer system, but different scale

• Monopoly

– Layer 1/2 ! Layer 3(IP) ! Service Aggregation

• Firewall Operation

– End-to-end security

– Collaborating with network

61

µ/H-ˆ/0-2K¯˘

• ˇ!\"

• %&#$Q

• %Ë\"

– 012&/ MN

– 012&/ /‹k

• Íò'/Y(

– Y'±)£

– Production Quality

– Commercial Quality

! )*+Oü

! ,-.È MüOü

! /00123K45

! Into production/commercial

! Booth-strapping

! ’6

! 78 ’6

! z9P2:

62

À545ÔäflÜ5;8'äÑ'däÜflä;5;8ã

lvh

4 Operating System

(1) Microsoft Windows

- Windows XP and 2000 (and CE)

- 6to4(public), TEREDO(private), ISATAP(Intranet)

- Developer tools ; winsock, visual studio, etc

(2) Apple MAC OS X2

(3) UNIX with KAME Stack

Free-BSD, BSDI, NetBSD, OpenBSD

(4) SUN Solaris 8 and 9

(5) LINUX powered by USAGI

(6) TRON by Access

(7) other embeded OS (e.g., VxWorks, Elmic)

63

˙òUNIX˚C2¸˝~1˛/

ö

• sendmail

• Exim

• BIND9

• Apache

• mini_httpd

• WWWOFFLE

• ProFTPD

• Pure-FTPd

• OpenSSH

• NET-SNMP

• GNU Zebra

• OpenLDAP

• Xinetd

• Fetchmail

• XFree96

• Mozilla

• LFTP

• w3m

• Sylpheed

• mnews

• Xemacs

• Netcat6

• Emacs-21

• Canna

• IPv6-Quake

• BitchX

• xchat

• MPEG123

• MIPL

• Jipsy

• pTRTd

• Tcpd

• Ethereal

64

Windows˚C2¸˝~1˛/

ö

• Apache

• Bluberry

• Fnord

• Exceed

• 3-dgree

• 46Bouncer

• Active Perl

• Cygwin

• DTCP

• EdMax

• FFFTP

• ruby

• SDR

• Toolnet6

• VLC

• Wget

• Orenosv

• SPA

• Kvirc

• Meadow IPv6

• NcFTP

• nPOP

• SSH

• NTEmacs

• Papaya

• Portforwarder

• RAT

• Roxas

• SDR

• TeraTerm

• VIC

• Winbiff

0;9ß ¯˘

• Mozilla

65

66


Recent Big News around IPv6

IPv6

Starting the smell of “money”

Å]K`-ö-/0&:0

67

• /0

– 0123(DoD) 2008aOó IPv6óå2

• 2005a : IPv6d

• 2008a IPv4 d^?¨ù

– ˙@3(DoC) IPv6å2UAB¥

– /0©òìßɱZÿ´%

• CD

– BA(3GPP)K,-./012jE,£OK[

\

– NATO:u(ÛE/00123(KFL(ª

óòG0òÉ,J)

68

Recent Big News around IPv6 (cont’)

• :0

– HI‹Gö˝ 2 CNGI (China Next Generation

Internet) ‹Gö˝ 2K"J

– Æ0{012&/ MN)-K/KIPv6

L

– BA(e.g., 3G)òúE VoIP ç/˚

• M0

– IPv6òúõòz9K,-C°K¢G/ÉE

-ÉQ*…

• ,-ÉòNO

69

– /0(.:0)K`-ö-(ÛõK[\

Force Transformation

The Global

Information

Grid

“… adopt ‘post before process’ intelligence and information concepts,

achieve data level Interoperability; and deployment of “net-ready”

nodes of platforms, weapons and forces.”

•IP convergence layer

•Exploding sources of data

Net-Centric Operations

•A New Generation of Applications

•Increased Use of Reach back and

Virtual Presence

70

Global “Geospatial” Grid

IPv6 Address Grid

Mobile & Ad-Hoc Communications

Satcom

GPS

X.500

High-Order

Net Bits

Coordinates

MOBILE & AD-HOC

COMMUNICATIONS

Mobile

Force

71

72


RF-ID/IC card/Ñ-chip

• Device informing the global

identifier for human or equipment

– Can be used to obtain location info.

– Authentication of objects

• Inventory management

Humberger

Meat

Cow

Feed grain

RF-ID

MYCOM PC WEB

http://pcweb.mycom.co.jp/news/2

001/07/05/22.html

IC card

ú@Ûõܲ3üüüü

• Ç°/±˚WXÛEj

– (˝ÀòòòkÛú #|öEü

– 3¤KlNöõK-pÛEmnü

• 60‘s ±˚òopqòrsM

• 70‘s 3C; Ç°/±˚ò /°/òP}é

• 80‘stu ˚ayò¸v/ æ-ò?@

• 80‘s`uw90’stu &/‹GòHI/òFAX

• 90a+`uw ~H-òLMòaöÇi

• û¨^ ????

RF-ID

tag and reader

73

74

ú@Ûõܲ3üüüü

• (Ç°/)±˚WXÛEjKxy

– SFK*“öE˝KOòd\@õÀù (3¤K)lN

©?

• sú5úa‹±, (Minority Report)

• ˚ayóñ

• (z{ÚK) |}M

• LM˚ay„‰

• @ùH-IJ/.

• xyßêºKZÿ

• xyß~

• G12

• | GKºÄÅ

• Z–ÇP}é

• ë¡(Éÿ)å}

• .,‚æ§-

†‰òYzÛõúù˝K

-ùø¿ƒüüü

75

RFID(©P

• Radio Frequency IDentification

• T8QR¥µ%&

РScm-SmKT@Ÿ

– IDK´%òa/.KUÜVì

– ˝K5Å©ûóW9ùXÿ

76

YN9ß~1§¢.íòk/Kò

°,.

• ?Fj˛Z G1 ©[»Óó˛öõk/K^.íO


èÖ8äu!À'g7ã85Ü'èflflÔ:’à8:ä;ã

Idetification

%Ë¿ˇ!Kêë(ƒS

·‚1í

ç‹°,⁄˝/-æ0/öi-2

9qƒS

îS1ïOKyò

mò»ƒK2æ2

ID: 0123456789

ꄃS

2±/ç˚k4§‚

ñó1í

NAVI

êºìOKyò

K˚µ.4

H-IJ/-í

79

`-.,i-2


• IPv6%&KÖÜ

– `-É`-Éja£Kbc

– H8IàâKŒá%&

• aö.£ˇ!Kïà[\

– k£Ñ/,-./012OK[\(ïâK

äüü)

– ãå&ç7[\

• õK{1‡éOK[\

– #|ò{1|}K~Q(ÈSQ

– k£Ñ/OK,-./012K[\

80

±ˆ/2;@ (ôö 8õ31

ú)

• ùAKûüK•›:^C]ò-ùú©òP

‡O,-./012ó˜ù•›¥Ûõò

A4O6Œù†O!°Ûß»úü

– Internet Protocol

– ¢£(,-./012

– èµJk/

– æ£⁄µ¤2

– y-°,-§/‚ §‚

– jE,£,-./012

– IPv6%&

(*) îK•

Peer-to-Peer§‚ò0ß(H--Jê„ò

aö.£œ†ÓòWinny˜F

81

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