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Diapositiva 1 - European Soil Portal - Europa

RIO CONVENTIONS’

ECOSYSTEMS AND CLIMATE CHANGE PAVILION

Nagoya, Aichi Prefecture, 18 - 29 October 2010 1

Soil ecosystem based approaches providing

win-win-win solutions for climate change,

biodiversity and desertification

Luca Montanarella

European Commission - Joint Research Centre (JRC)

IES - Institute for Environment and Sustainability

Ispra - Italy

http://ies.jrc.ec.europa.eu/

http://eusoils.jrc.ec.europa.eu/library/themes/biodiversity/

Promoting synergies between biodiversity, climate change and land management


Soil, the skin of the earth

Nagoya, 18 - 29 October 2010 2

Promoting synergies between biodiversity, climate change and land management


Soils at the interface between

Atmosphere, Hydrosphere, Lithosphere and Biosphere

3

Soil defined as the top layer of the earth’s crust situated between the bedrock and the surface.

source: L.P. Wilding & H. Lin, 2006

source: E. Micheli


Recognizing the multiple functions of soils

Soil defined as the top layer of the

earth’s crust situated between the

bedrock and the surface.

4


Soil Protection is a cross-cutting issue between the three Rio

Conventions

5

Climate Change

Cancun, December 2010

COP 16

Nagoya, October 2010

COP10

SOIL

SOIL

PROTECTION

Changwon, October 2011

UNCCD

COP 10

CBD

Biodiversity

Desertification


The role of the soil carbon pool within the global carbon

geochemical cycle

6

Global

carbon

pools

Hillel and Rosenzweig, 2009


Soil Organic Carbon Stocks Assessment

7

Source: JRC-IES


Global land degradation: Map of human induced

soil degradation (GLASOD, 1990)

8


Global land degradation assessment based on global change in

net primary productivity between 1981 and 2003 (source : ISRIC)

9


Countries affected by desertification

according to UNCCD ratification

10


Soil C Dynamics

11

Relative Magnitude of SOC Pool

100

80

60

40

20

land use

conversion

subsistence

farming,

none or low

off-farm

input, soil

degradation

new

equilibrium

adoption of

RMPs

soil C sink

capacity

Rate

ΔX

ΔY

Maximum

potential

Attainable

potential

Accelerated erosion

Innovative

technology II

Innovative

technology I

0

20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160

Time (Yrs)

Fig. 3 A schematic of the soil C dynamics upon conversion from a natural to agricultural

ecosystem, and subsequent adoption of recommended management practices

(RMPs). In most cases, the maximum potential equals the magnitude of historic C

loss. Only in some soil-specific situations, the adoption of RMPs can increase SOC

pool above that of the natural system. An example of this is acid savanna soils of

South America (Llanos, Cerrados) where alleviation of soil-related constraints can

drastically enhance the SOC pool.

Source: R. Lal, 2008


Soils rich in organic carbon are rich in biodiversity

5,000

100 - 500 species

Mammals!

moles, mice…

Acari

(25000)

12

Estimated number of species

Others (6200)

Bacteria

(3200)

Fungy

(35000)

100,000

100- 500 species

500 m

10-50 species

INSECTS- ARACHNIDS

WORMS- MOLLUSCS

PROTOZOA - NEMATODES

PLANTS ROOTS

BACTERIA FUNGI

10,000

50-100 species

Collembolla

(6500)

Nematodes

(5000)

Protozoa

(1500)

Algae (2500)

100,000,000,000

10,000 species

50 km filaments

500-1000 species

Erika Micheli


The economic value of soil biodiversity

13

Activity

Soil biodiversity involved in such activity

World economic benefits of

biodiversity (x $10 9 /year)

Waste recycling

Various saprophytic and litter feeding

invertebrates (detritivores), fungi, bacteria,

actinomycetes and other microorganisms

760

Soil formation

Diverse soil biota facilitate soil formation,

e.g. earthworms, termites, fungi, etc

25

Nitrogen fixation

Biological nitrogen fixation by diazotroph

bacteria

90

Bioremediation of

chemicals

Maintaining biodiversity in soils and water is

imperative to the continued and improved

effectiveness of bioremediation and

biotreatment.

121

Biotechnology

Biocontrol of pests

Pollination

Nearly half of the current economic benefit of

biotechnology related to agriculture involving

nitrogen fixing bacteria, pharmaceutical

industry, etc

Soil provide microhabitats for natural

enemies of pest, soil biota (e.g. mycorrhizas)

contribute to host plant resistance and plant

pathogens control.

Many pollinators may have edaphic phase in

their life-cycle

6

160

200

(from Pimentel et al., 1997)

Total

1,542


The discovery of Rapamycin in the soils of Easter

Island

14


Synergies among the “Rio Conventions”

15

Millennium Ecosystem Assessment


Soil protection provides win-win-win solutions:

Mitigate climate change, reduce desertification

and protect biodiversity!

Nagoya, 18 - 29 October 2010 16

THANK YOU

Promoting synergies between biodiversity, climate change and land management

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