EFFECTS OF ORGANIC FERTILIZERS ON GROWTH AND YIELD ...

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EFFECTS OF ORGANIC FERTILIZERS ON GROWTH AND YIELD ...

EFFECTS OF ORGANIC FERTILIZERS ON GROWTH AND YIELD OF

MINT (Mentha piperita)

BY

DARAMOLA, OLUMIDE SAMUEL

MATRIC. NUMBER: 06/1595

SUBMITTED IN PATIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR

THE AWARD OF BACHELOR OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE

DEPARTMENT OF HORTICULTURE

COLLEGE OF PLANT SCIENCE AND CROP PRODUCTION,

UNIVERSITY OF AGRICULTURE, ABEOKUTA, OGUN STATE

JUNE, 2011


CERTIFICATION

This is to certify that this study titled “Effect of organic fertilizer on growth and yield of Mint

(Mentha piperita)” carried out by DARAMOLA, Olumide Samuel with Matriculation number

2006/1595 meets the regulation governing the award of Bachelor of Agriculture Science degree

and is approved by the Department of Horticulture, University of Agriculture Abeokuta, Nigeria.

Mrs T.T Joseph - Adekunle

Date

SUPERVISOR

Prof. J. G. Bodunde

Date

HEAD OF DEPARTMENT


DECLARATION

I hereby, declare that this project was written by me and it is a record of my own research work.

It has not been presented in any previous application for degree of this or any other University.

All citations and sources of information are acknowledged by means of references.

_________________________

DARAMOLA Olumide Samuel

_____________________

Date


DEDICATION

This work is humbly dedicated to God Almighty who has always shown mercy unto me, all my

benefactors and to all servants of God called to live and serve by faith, known or unknown, seen

or unseen


ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

I am grateful to my caring and loving parents Evangelist A.O and Mrs. V.F. Daramola, who

have proved to be virtuous in giving to me their unrelenting financial, moral and spiritual

supports throughout my academic programme in the University.

My profound gratitude also goes to my supervisor, Mrs T.T Joseph-Adekunle for her love

and motherly care to me from the commencement of the programme to its completion.

I also appreciate the unflinching support of the Head of department Prof. J.G. Bodunde and

all the lecturers of the Department of Horticulture Dr M.O Okelana, Dr. A. W. Salau, Dr. L .A

Hammed, Dr. Makinde, DR. Olubode, Mr. M.O Olosunde and Dr. Mrs P.M Olorunmaye, from

the Department of Plant Physiology and Crop Production, who have contributed towards the

successful completion of my study from the department. I also appreciate the assistance of Dr.

(Mrs) Bodunde (GREEC)

Special thanks to my friends especially Popoola, Ibukun Olukorede, Bayo, Tolani, Debo,

Temiloluwa, Tola, Taiwo Muyiwa, Funmibi, Hannah, Hellen.

Finally my heartfelt gratitude goes to my siblings, Esther, Tosin and Tope for their love,

support and care.

May God bless you all.


ABSTRACT

A pot experiment was conducted to determine the effect of Tithonia compost and

Organomineral-fertilizers on the growth and yield of Mint (Mentha piperita). Mint vine cuttings

of 3cm were planted into 5kg soil with 1kg, 2kg Tithonia and 250g, 500g Organomineralfertilizers

application respectively. Application of organomineral fertilizer and tithonia compost

significantly enhanced vegetative growth parameters, the fresh as well as dry weight of Mint.

The effect was maximal with the application of 500g organomineral fertilizer with respect to the

number of leaves, number of tendrils and the dry weight as compared with other application

rates. However, application of 2kg tithonia enhanced vine growth better compared to other

treatments. Similar trend was also obtained for the yield/ biomass production of Mentha piperita.

Application of 1kg, 2kg tithonia compost and 250g, 500g, organomineral fertilizer gave a better

biomass yield as compared with the control. However, Application of 250g and 500g of

organomineral fertilizer produced the same response with respect to dry weight as there was no

significant difference between the two application rates.


CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.0 Introduction

Mentha is a genus of aromatic perennial herbs belonging to the family Lamiaceae, of over 200

genera distributed mostly in temperate and sub-temperate regions of the world. The number of

taxonomically valid species in the genus remains a matter of speculation as members freely cross

amongst themselves, producing many intermediary forms(Hedge, 1992, Dorman etal 2003).

Most of the commercially important mints are hybrids. Mentha piperita, the peppermint, is a

sterile first generation hybrid between M. spicata and M. aquatica (Hefendehl and Murray,

1972).

Several mints of species are industrial crops, a source of essential oils enriched in certain

monoterpenes that are widely used in food, flavour, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries.

Also different species of mint are used across the globe for their medicinal and culinary

properties. Mint is usually taken after a meal for its ability to reduce indigestion and colonic

spasms by reducing the gastrocholic reflux. Less well recognized is peppermint’s potential role

in the management of numerous medical problems, including colonoscopy (Spirling and

Daniels,2001). Peppermint oil is the major constituent of several over the counter remedies for

symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Results of clinical trials indicated that it could be

efficacious for relief in IBS (Pittler and Ernst, 1998)

The genus Mentha has a large number of species that differ widely in their characteristics and

ploidy level. Since they are often perennial and produce suckers, Mentha species reproduce both


y reproductive and vegetative means. However, the purity of cultivars is maintained by

vegetative means of propagule generation. Mint species are widely distributed and are prone to

attack by a variety of diseases and pests.

Plate 1

Mint plant (pineapple mint)


Plate 2 Mint plant (Mentha piperita)


Plate 3 Mint plant (Spear mint)


Plate 4 Chocolate Mint in the garden


1.3 Important Mint species

Commercially, the most important mint species are peppermint (M. piperita), spearmint (M.

spicata), and corn mint (M. canadensis.). From these species, corn mint is cultivated only

because of oil production (Small 1997, Oudhia 2003). Peppermint (M. piperita.) oil is one of the

most popular and widely used essential oils, mostly because of its main components menthol and

menthone (Gul 1994). Corn mint is the richest source of natural menthol (Sharma & Tyagi 1991,

Shasany et al. 2000). Peppermint oil is used for flavouring pharmaceuticals and oral

preparations, such as toothpastes, dental creams, and mouth washes. It is also used as a

flavouring agent in cough drops, chewing gums, confectionery and alcoholic liqueurs. It is used

in medicines for internal use. Its pleasant taste makes it an excellent gastric stimulant (Budavari

et al. 1989, Gupta 1991).

1.4 Uses of Mint species

Peppermint oil is used for flavouring pharmaceuticals and oral preparations, such as toothpastes,

dental creams, and mouth washes. It is also used as a flavouring agent in cough drops, chewing

gums, confectionery and alcoholic liqueurs. It is used in medicines for internal use. Its pleasant

taste makes it an excellent gastric stimulant (Budavari et al. 1989, Gupta 1991). Mint leaf, fresh

or dried, is the culinary source of mint. Fresh mint is usually preferred over dried mint when

storage of the mint is not a problem. The leaves have a pleasant warm, fresh, aromatic, sweet

flavor with a cool aftertaste. Mint leaves are used in teas, beverages, jellies, syrups, candies, and

ice creams. In Middle Eastern cuisine, mint is used on lamb dishes, while in British cuisine and


American cuisine, mint sauce and mint jelly are used, respectively. Mint is a necessary

ingredient in Touareg tea, a popular tea in northern African and Arab countries. Alcoholic drinks

sometimes feature mint for flavor or garnish.

The substances that give the mints their characteristic aromas and flavors are menthol (the main

aroma of Peppermint and Japanese Peppermint) and pulegone (in Pennyroyal and Corsican

Mint). The compound primarily responsible for the aroma and flavor of spearmint is R-carvone.

Mints are used as food plants by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species including Buff Ermine.

Other important uses of Mint include

Medicinal and cosmetic

Mint was originally used as a medicinal herb to treat stomach ache and chest pains, and it is

commonly used in the form of tea as a home remedy to help alleviate stomach pain. During the

Middle Ages, powdered mint leaves were used to whiten teeth. Mint tea is a strong diuretic.

Menthol from mint essential oil (40%–90%) is an ingredient of many cosmetics and some

perfumes. Menthol and mint essential oil are also much used in medicine as a component of

many drugs, and are very popular in aromatherapy. Menthol is also used in cigarettes as an

additive, because it blocks out the bitter taste of tobacco and soothes the throat. The strong, sharp

flavor and scent of mint is sometimes used as a mild decongestant for illnesses such as the

common cold. In Rome, Pliny recommended that a wreath of mint was a good thing for students

to wear since it was thought to "exhilarate their minds".


Insecticides

Mint leaves are often used by many campers to repel mosquitoes. It is also said that extracts from

mint leaves have a particular mosquito-killing capability. Mint plants planted near doorways help

drive ants away. Mint oil is also used as an environmentally-friendly insecticide for its ability to

kill some common pests like wasps, hornets, ants and cockroaches.

Aromatherapy

Known in Greek Mythology as the herb of hospitality, one of the first known uses for mint in

Europe was as a room deodorizer. The herb was strewn across floors to cover the smell of the

hard-packed soil. Stepping on the mint helped to spread its scent through the room. Today, it is

more commonly used for aromatherapy through the use of essential oils.

1.4 Justification

Though Mint is a temperate crop, some species have been found to be adaptable to the tropical

environment. The inherent uses could however be exploited in tropical environment, hence the

study was conducted to access the effect of organic fertilizer which is readily available, cost

effective and environmentally safe on the growth and yield of Mint.

1.5 Objectives



To evaluate the effect of organic fertilizers on the growth of Mint

To access the effect of organic fertilizer rates on herbage yield of Mint


CHAPTER TWO

LITERATURE REVIEW

2.0 Origin and distribution of mint species

Mint descends from the Latin word mentha, which is rooted in the Greek word minthe,

personified in Greek mythology as Minthe, a nymph which was transformed into a mint plant.

The word itself probably derives from a now extinct pre-Greek language. In Central and South

America, mint is known as hierbabuena (literally, "good herb"). In Lusophone countries,

especially in Portugal, mint species are popularly known as Hortelã. In many Indo-Aryan

languages, it is called Pudīna. The taxonomic family Lamiaceae is known as the mint family. It

includes many other aromatic herbs, including most of the more common cooking herbs,

including basil, rosemary, sage, oregano, and catnip.

The genus Mentha (Laminaceae) is composed of 19 geographically widespread species and 13

named hybrids (Chambers & Hummer 1994). Peppermint, M. x piperita, is native to Europe and

it has become both cultivated and naturalised in the USA, India, China, the former USSR, Italy,

France and Hungary. Its essential oil is considered industrially important (Lawrence 1985,

Tucker 1992).


Mentha is distributed mostly in temperate and sub-temperate regions of the world. The number

of taxonomically valid species in the genus remains a matter of speculation as members freely

cross amongst themselves, producing many intermediary forms. Polyploidy has also played an

important role in the process of speciation in this genus. Most of the commercially important

mints are hybrids or amphiploids. M. piperita, the peppermint, is a sterile first generation hybrid

between M. spicata and M. aquatica (Hefendehl and Murray, 1972).

Mint cultivation is widely distributed. The United States of America is the main producer of

peppermint and spearmint oils. The peppermint (M. piperita) is cultivated on a large scale in the

states of Oregan, Indiana, Idaho, Ohio and Michigan (Chambers and Hummer, 1992), 12 Bhat et

al. whereas spearmint cultivation is localized in Indiana and Michigan. Spearmint is also

cultivated in France, the United Kingdom, Italy, Yugoslavia, Hungary, Bulgaria, Russia, South

Africa, Thailand and Vietnam. Bergamot mint is commercially cultivated in China, Taiwan and

India, and menthol or Japanese mint in India, China, Taiwan, Thailand, Japan and Brazil.

2.1 Mint essential oil compositions

Mints are cultivated for their essential oils, yielded by distillation of over-ground herbaceous

foliage. The oil contains a large variety of aromatic chemicals in varying composition. The oils

and their fractions are in great demand world-wide. Peppermint (Mentha x piperita L.) oil is one

of the most popular and widely used essential oils, mostly because of its main components

menthol and menthone. flavouring. mint is the richest source of natural menthol (Sharma &

Tyagi 1991, Shasany et al. 2000). Carvone-scented mint plants, such as spearmint (M. spicata),


are rich in carvone and are widely used as spices and cultivated in several countries (Kokkini et

al. 1995).

2.3 Cultivation

Mints are mainly propagated vegetatively rather than by seeds. Only some mints, such as M.

arvensis L., M. pulegonium L. and M. spicata L., are propagated by seed (Galambosi 1995).

There are many reasons for the vegetative propagation of mint. According to Hornok (1992), the

peppermint as a hybrid seldom produces seeds able to germinate. For this reason, propagation is

used exclusively with vegetative parts such as green shoots, underground stolons and rooty

turions. In cutting propagation, 10–15 cm long shoots are cut from the mother plant and lower

leaves are removed. The shoots are planted in a growth medium consisting of a mixture of

sterilized sand and peat. Critical factors are humidity and relative humidity of 95–98% for 2–4

weeks. The temperature should be kept at 25–30o C. When the plants are rooted, they are ready

for transfer outdoors (Galambosi 1995). The expenses and labour involved in, the cutting method

of propagation make it unpopular for extensive cultivation (Hornok 1992). In cutting propagation

during spring, the yield was 20–30% less than that in traditional propagation by underground

stolons, though cutting propagation was more economical (Földesi & Havas 1979). When the

apical stem (the apical 5 nodes of aerial stem), basal stem (the basal 5 nodes of aerial stem),

sprouted stem (midstem carrying new auxiliary buds), green stolon (growing parallel to the soil

surface) and etiolated rhizome (growing below the soil surface) were employed as the source of

single-node cuttings, maximum rooting percentage was obtained using etiolated rhizome,

followed by green stolons (EL-Keltawi & Croteau 1986). Propagation with green cuttings cannot


e utilized in the case of large-scale cultivation due to high costs and a high demand for manual

labour (Hornok 1992). The propagation material, mostly used in the multiplication of

peppermint, consists of stolons grown in the soil (white) or on the surface (green) or from 8–10-

cm high turions developed from underground stolons (Hornok 1992). The satisfactory

development of stolons during intensive cultivation is hindered by several known and unknown

factors. The mass of roots increases with the age of the plant but the quantity of the liveable

stolons decreases (Zambori & Tetenyi 1988). Propagation by stolons is the most popular method

of mint propagation because it is the most economic. The mother plants are raised for the

propagation material and then they are chopped, spread and covered with soil. In practice, this

method succeeds in areas with long summers and in soil free of weeds, meaning that the use of

herbicides is necessary. If propagation is carried out at the beginning of summer, only surface

stolons (white) are used. The best size is 10–15 cm and best growth takes place in rows at a

width and depth of 10 cm (1999 a). However, Pank (1974) noticed that chopping stolons before

sowing significantly reduced the yield in comparison to 10–20 cm long stolons. The best result

was obtained when the stolons were separated and divided in to pieces by hand from the roots.

Nemeth & Pham (1995) studied the growth and development of the vegetative propagation

organs (the stolons), and concluded that the stolon number is depended on the species and in all

examined species the main of stolon branching occurs at the end of flowering.

2.4 Soil pH and soil nutrients

Cultivation techniques have a great influence on plant growth (biomass production) and the

quality and quantity of secondary metabolites. Soil pH is an important chemical property that


profoundly affects the growth and nutrient uptake by crops (Fageria & Baligar 1999). According

to Vander Wat et al., 1991, high acidity and low calcium severely impaired plant-root

development. Lime can raise the pH of acidic soils (Tan 1994). Liming can have many other

effects on the biochemical processes in the soil and on the yield and composition of different

plant species and varieties (Stevens and Laughlin 1996). Soil pH affects the availability of

several mineral nutrients, such as nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, sulphur, calcium,

magnesium, iron, manganese, boron, copper, zinc and molybdenum, and all of these nutrients are

available in the pH range of 5.5 to 6.5 (Taiz & Zeiger, 1998). Loss of plant available phosphate

in soils occurs by phosphate fixation, which is especially strong in acid mineral soils. Such losses

can be dramatically reduced by liming soils to a pH of 6–7 (Konrad 1997). Different levels of

soil Ph influenced the fresh and dry weight and the essential oil yield of peppermint (Shukla et

al. 1997, 1998).

Most authors report that significantly higher dry matter and essential oil yields for corn mint,

peppermint and spearmint were obtained with higher nitrogen application but that the application

of nitrogen did not affect the chemical composition of the essential oil (Atanasov et al. 1979,

Clark & Menary 1980 b, Slavov 1985, Singh et al. 1989, Saxena & Singh 1995). Other authors

have reported that a decrease in menthol and an increase in menthone and menthyl acetate in

peppermint and corn mint has been found with increased application of N (Duhan et al. 1977,

Duhan 1979, Hornok 1983). According to Kothari & Singh (1995), carvone and limonene

concentrations in Scotch spearmint (M. gracilis) were affected by levels of N, and in general, an

increase of N decreased carvone but increased limonene in oil. This is not quite in agreement

with Singh & Singh (1986) who reported that the application of N increased carvone in


spearmint oil. Marotti and co-authors (1994) used different levels of nitrogen and phosphorus in

peppermint trials. They reported that mineral fertilization seemed to increase the menthol content

of essential oil compared with untreated plants. Hornok (1974), in an experiment with

peppermint fertilization, stated that the most effect on yield was achieved first by the level of

nitrogen and second by the level of calcium. Phosphorus fertilization had no effect on yield.

However, a high quality of peppermint oil in any region requires the optimum use of fertilizer

and water to maintain herbage growth and delay maturity as long as possible so that the herbage

may be harvested with a minimum of flowers (Murray et al. 1988)

2.5 Harvesting time

Amount and composition of essential oil is strongly dependent on developmental stage of the

plant (ontogeny), and therefore harvesting time is one of the most important factors influencing

mint oil quality.

Harvesting a crop early or late resulted in a low yield of leaves as well as the essential oil content

because at an earlier or later stage of harvesting, the crop was immature or over mature resulting

in a poor yield of herb and oil content (Shah & Gupta 1989). According to Chalchat and coauthors

(1997), harvesting should be carried out after flowering to obtain oil that contains a high

amount of menthol. Ulseth (1994) found that the poorest oil quality was obtained from mints that

were in a stage of early blooming or were not yet blooming at all. Oil content in stems was very

poor and present only in younger parts (Croteau & Gershenon 1994). According to Clark and

Menary (1984), besides the timing of harvest, the numbers of harvests per year greatly influence

yield, and composition of oil. The essential oil from the first harvest was richer in menthol than


that of the second harvest. In the second harvest all the leaves were young with a higher

menthone and lower menthol content (Saxena & Singh 1995). Similarly, Court and co-authors

(1993) found that the amount of menthol increased as the plant matured. According to Ram and

Kumar (1999), there was a difference between the yield and quality of essential oil in seven mint

cultivars in the first and the second harvest. For corn mint, the maximum oil content was reached

during the flowering period; however, high temperature was found to decrease the oil yield

(Duriyaprapan et al. 1986). According to Ram and Kumar (1999), the oil content of the first or

second harvest of M. arvensis depends on the variety. The concentration of carvone in Scotch

spearmint was higher in oil of the first harvest compared with the second harvest (Kothari &

Singh 1995). There is a remarkable difference in oil composition between leaves at different age,

especially juvenile and mature leaves (Duriyaprapan & Britten 1982). A greater proportion of oil

is obtained from the leaves, especially from leaves at the upper part of the plant canopy, but not

at the top because leaves at the age of 0–2 weeks contributed 16% of leaf dry matter compared

with 27% of oil yield. This may explain why the maximum essential oil production of mint

plants is attained during the flowering period when almost no top growth occurs. The

intermediate and lower leaves reached their highest essential oil content at approximately the

time when plants were starting to bloom. The upper leaf pairs completed their development after

floral initiation (Burbott & Loomis 1967). According to Voirin and co-authors (1990), the young

(apical) leaves of peppermint mainly contained menthofuran, pulegone and menthone. Menthol

increased rapidly while menthone decreased in the older leaves. Menthone was higher in the

young leaves and menthol appeared as the main component of the oldest leaf.


CHAPTER THREE

MATERIALS AND METHOD

3.0 Experimental location

The experiment was conducted at the Fadama end of Organic Skill Demonstration Plot

University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Ogun state during the 2011 dry season.

3.1 Materials

Mint vines (obtained from FADAMA 2 vegetable growers in Iba Lasu Lagos State.), 15 pieces

of 40cm diameter perforated bowls, topsoil, Tithonia compost from Organic farm and

Organomineral fertilizer from Sunshine Organic Company Akure.

3.2 Methods

Soil and fertilizer analyses were carried out to determine the physical chemical properties Thirty

Core samples soil were taken from 0 -30 cm depth buked together, and representative sample

taken for analysis. Samples of both the Orgarnomineral and tithonia based compost fertilizer

were also analysed. The Mint vines were cut into bits of of 3cm, the pots were filled with 5kg

sieved soil and the fertilizers at the different rates homogenized with it. The mixture was watered

and allowed to stabilize for about a week. The cuttings were then planted into pots (40 cm in

diameter) and watered and growth and yield were monitored for 14 weeks. Fresh herbage yield

and dry weight were determined at the end of the 14 weeks. After the harvest, the fresh herbage


yield was weighed and oven - dried (at 65 0 C) for 72hour. The dry matter weight determination

was done using the sensitive weigh scale.

3.3 Experimental design

The experimental design was Completely Randomized design (CRD) with three replicates. The

treatments were 1kg, 2kg of Tithonia compost fertilizer and 250g, 500g of Organomineral

fertilizer and control.

3.4 Data collection and Statistical analysis

The parameters assessed weekly were the number of leaves, the number of tendrils (by count)

and the vine length using tape measure. Data collection started 4 weeks after planting.

Data collected were subjected to analyses of variance (ANOVA) and the separations of the

significant treatment means were done using the least significance difference at (LSD) at 5%

level.


CHAPTER FOUR

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

The experiment was conducted on a loamy sand soil with pH 6.80 containing N 0.45%, K

0.75%, Ca 8.78Cmol, Mg 2.62Cmol, Na 0.06 Cmol .

The Organomineral fertilizer and tithonia compost had pH of 8.10 and 6.30 respectively.

N(2.66%), (0.61%) respectively. The Organomineral fertilizer also contain P(2.19%), k(1.34%),

Ca(2.14%), Na(0.15%), Mg(1.07%), Organic carbon (47.00%), Fe(0.49%), Zn(247.00mg/l),

Mn(428.5mg/l), Cu(93.75mg/l) and SO4(1.27mg/l) e.t.c (Table 1)


Table 1: Soil and fertilizer physical and chemical properties

Nutrient Soil Tithonia Organomineral

N (%) 0.45 0.61 2.66

A.P (mg/kg) 39.00 69.00 2.19%

K (Cmol) 0.05 0.19 1.34%

Particle size (%)

Sand 7.75 85.50

Silt 19.20 11.70

Clay 2.80 2.80

Base Saturation (%) 99.05 99.85

Micro-nutrient

Cu(mg/kg) 0.38 0.58 93.75

Zn(mg/kg) 0.13 4.48 24.7

Fe(mg/kg) 3.30 0.98 0.49

Mn (mg/kg) 5.00 12.6 428.5

pH(mg/kg) 6.80 6.30 8.10

CEC(Cmol) 11.61 8.26


4.0 Number of leaves

Number of leaves increased with age from 4WAP to 10WAP. Application of 500g

organomineral fertilizer gave the highest number of leaves, which was significantly different

from application of 250g organomineral fertilizer (p≤0.05). Similarly, application of 2kg tithonia

was significantly different from application of 1kg tithonia. There was no significant difference

between the application of 2kg tithonia compost and 250g organomineral fertilizer (Table 2)

4.1 Vine length

Vine length increased from 4WAP to 10WAP. Application of 250g organomineral fertilizer gave

the longest mean vine length. There was no significant difference between the application of

250g orgarnomineral and 500g organomineral on the mean vine length (p≤0.05). Conversely,

there was significant difference between application of 1kg and 2kg tithonia base compost.

However, there was no significant difference between all the rates of application between 7WAP

and 9WAP until the 10WAP (p≤0.05) (Table 3)

4.2 Number of tendrils

Application of 500g organomineral fertilizer gave the highest number of tendrils, but was not

significantly different from application of 2kg tithonia fertilizer (p≤0.05). Application of 250g

organomineral gave a significantly higher difference from application of 1kg tithonia. However,

there was no ssignificant difference between application of 1kg tithonia and the control (p≤0.05).

(Table 4)


4.3 Fresh weight

Application of 500g organomineral gave the highest biomass yield, which was significantly

different from application of 250g organomineral fertilizer (p≤0.05). Conversely, there was no

significant difference between the application of 500g organomineral and 2kg tithonia base

compost fertilizer. However, all fertilizer application rates were significantly different from the

control (p≤0.05) (Table 5)

4.4 Dry weight

Application of 500g and 250g organomineral did not differ significantly with respect to dry

weight. (p≤0.05). Similarly, There was no significant difference between the application of 1kg

and 2kg tithonia base compost fertilizer. However, all application rates were significantly

different from the control experiment (p≤0.05) (Table 6)


Table 2: Effect of organic fertilizer on the number of leaves of mint (Mentha piperita)

Treatments/pot 4WAP 5WAP 6WAP 7WAP 8WAP 9WAP 10WAP

Control 74.3 a 88.0 ab 148.3 c 170.6 c 187.3 b 203.0 b 215.3 c

1kg T 39.0 b 61.0 b 167.3b c 203.3 bc 223.3 b 247.6 b 268. 6bc

2kg T 82.3 a 121.6 a 248.0 a 308.6 ab 403.3 a 422.3 a 422.6 a

250g OMR 96.3 a 131.3 a 218.3 ab 270.6 ab 392.6 a 319.6 ab 356.3 ab

500g OMR 88.0 a 116.3 a 148.3 c 283.3 a 392.6 a 413.3 a 438.3 ac

Means in the column with different letters are significantly different (p≤0.05).


Table 3: Effect of organic fertilizers on vine length of Mint (Mentha piperita)

Treatments/pot 4WAP 5WAP 6WAP 7WAP 8WAP 9WAP 10WAP

Control 74.3 a 88.0 ab 148.3 c 170.6 c 187.3 b 203.0 b 215.3 c

1kg T 39.0 b 61.0 b 167.3 bc 203.3 bc 223.3 b 247.6 b 268.6 bc

2kg T 82.3 a 121.6 a 248.0 a 308.6 ab 403.3 a 422.3 a 422.6 a

250g OMR 96.3 a 131.3 a 218.3 ab 270.6 ab 392.6 a 319.6 ab 356.3 ab

500g OMR 88.0 a 116.3 a 148.3 c 283.3 a 392.6 a 413.3 a 438.3 ac

Means in the column with different letters are significantly different (p≤0.05).


Table 4: Effect of organic fertilizer on numbers of tendrils of Mint (Mentha piperita)

Treatments/pot 4WAP 5WAP 6WAP 7WAP

8WAP 9WAP 10WAP

Control 5.0 a 9.3 b 13.3 b 24.6 b 27.6 b 33.0 b 35.6 b

Tithonia (1kg) 3.6 a 6.3 c 15.0 b 25.0 b 32.0 b 33.0 b 36.0 b

Tithonia(2kg) 5.3 a 9.6 b 18.3 ab 31.3 a 35.3 ab 37.3 ab 41.3 ab

OMR(250g) 6.0 a 13.0 a 24.0 a 43.6 a 48.0 a 52.0 a 55.3 a

OMR(500g) 5.6 a 10.0 b 20.3 ab 31.3 ab 38.0 a 44.3 ab 47.6 ab

Means in the column with different letters are significantly different (p≤0.05).


Table 5: Effect of organic fertilizer on biomass yield of Mint (Mentha piperita)

Treatment/pot

Fresh weight(g)

Control

59.6 c

Tithonia compost 1kg

67.6 ab

Tithonia compost 2kg

71.6 a

Organomineral 250g

66.3 b

Organomineral 500g

68.6 a

Means in the column with different letters are significantly different (p≤0.05).


Table 6:

Effect of organic fertilizer on dry weight of Mint (Mentha piperita)

Treatment

dry weight(g)

Control

16.3 b

Tithonia compost (1kg/pot)

18.6 ab

Tithonia compost (2kg/pot)

18.6 ab

Organomineral (250g/pot)

20.6 a

Organomineral (500g/pot)

19.6 a

Means in the column with different letters are significantly different (p≤0.05).


4.7 Discussion

Mint plants are one of the most interesting research plants; they are between medicinal and

aromatic plants. There is a numerous research on mint, however, only few reports are available

on local environmental conditions (Aflatuni et al. 1999 a). Several mint species, origins and

cultivars are cultivated around the world, but in this study only Mentha piperita..

Many studies have reported the increase of yield with liming (Shukla et al. 1997, 1998, Ernani et

al. 2002). In which the highest yield was achieved after the third year of liming with the liming

of 4 or 8 t ha-1 (soil pH 6–6.5) in fine sand .The average yield for three years shows that liming

with 4 t ha-1 gave almost the same yield as with 8 and 12 t ha-1.

Matusiewicz (1972) studied peppermint of the Mitcham variety in five combinations of soil pH,

ranging from 4.7 to 6.9 for 3 years. He concluded that the plants developed best and gave the

highest crop of plant material at soil pH ranging from 5.6 to 6.2. However this study shows the

effect of organic fertilizers on the growth and yield of Mintha piperita on soil of pH 6.8. From

this study it was observed that Application of organic fertilizers such as organomineral and

tithonia base compost fertilizer increased the growth parametars of Mint ( Mentha piperita) in

terms of number of leaves, vine length, number of tendrils, as well as the fresh and dry weight.

Such promoting effect was maximal with the application of 500g organomineral fertilizer with

respect to the number of leaves, number of tendrils and the dry weight as compared with other

application rates. Similarly, application of 2kg tithonia base compost fertilizer gave the highest

effect with respect to vine length. Thus the application of 500g organomineral fertilizer result in

positive impact on the biomass production of Mentha piperita. 1kg tithonia base compost and


250g organomineral fertilizer gave a better biomass yield as compared with the control

experiment. Application of 250g and 500g of organomineral fertilizer produced the same

response with respect to dry weight as there was no significant difference between the two

application rates.


CHAPTER FIVE

CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

Incorporation of tithonia base compost fertilizer at 1kg and 2kg rates per pot, orgarnomineral

fertilizer at 250g and 500g rates per pot have beneficial effects on plant growth, biomass yield

and dry matter yield. The increase was more pronounced at 2kg rate of tithonia and 500g

organomineral fertilizer which was not significantly different from each other with respect to the

biomass yield. The effect was less marked with 1kg and 250g of tithonia and organomineral

fertilizer respectively.

Application of organomineral fertilizer at 250g/pot did not differ significantly from those of

500g/pot with respect to dry matter yield. Therefore 250g/pot is considered as the optimum rate

for mint production in pot. However, this application is significantly better than application of

tithonia compost at 2kg/pot. Such rate of application is therefore recommended for dry matter

yield of mint in pot.


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