INTRODUCTION Adverse Drug Reaction (ADR) Definition (WHO): • Any response to a drug which is noxious and unintended, and which occurs at doses normally used in man for prophylaxis, diagnosis, or therapy of disease, or for the modification of physiological function . 1 Major cause of Morbidity and Mortality worldwide 2 • Most common cause of iatrogenic illness. 3 • Accounts for approximately 10% of the hospital admission in some countries. 4 1) Requirements for adverse reaction reporting. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization; 1975 2) Rield MA, Casillas AM. Adverse drug reactions: types and treatment options. Am Fam Physician. 2003 Nov 1;68(9):1781-90. 3) Ditto AM. Drug allergy. In: Grammer LC, Greenberger PA, eds. Patterson's Allergic diseases. 6th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2002:295. 4) WHO. Safety of Medicines. WHO/EDM/QSM/2002.2 [Online]; Available from: URL:http://whqlibdoc.who.int/hq/2002/WHO_EDM_QSM_2002.2.pdf
Adverse Drug Reaction 2 Non-Immunologic Immunolgic Predictable Pharmacologic side effect Secondary pharmacologic side effect Drug toxicity Drug-drug interaction Drug Overdose Unpredictable Pseudoallergic Idiosynchratic Intolerance Unpredictable (I) IGE-mediated (II) Cytotoxic (III) Immune-complex (IV) Delayed, cell mediated Specific T-cell activation Fas/Fas ligandinduced apoptosis Rield MA, Casillas AM. Adverse drug reactions: types and treatment options. Am Fam Physician. 2003 Nov 1;68(9):1781-90.