Climate Protection Atlas -

Climate Protection Atlas -

Climate Protection Atlas

Climate Protection Projects in the

Rhine-Neckar Metropolitan Region

Abridged edition


Special thanks to all who made this Climate Protection Atlas possible:

The members of the steering group of the project “Ensuring the Energy Supply” within the framework of the

future-oriented initiative “Rhine-Neckar Metropolitan Region”; Dr.-Ing. Karl-Heinz Czychon (GKM AG), Bernd

Klotter (GBG Mannheim), Prof. Dr. Wolfgang Kottnik (Mannheim University of Applied Sciences), Günther

Quaß (RNV GmbH), Dr. Hans-Jürgen Seimetz (Verband Region Rhein-Neckar), Oliver Storz (MVV Energie AG)

and Dr. Frieder Schmitt (MVV Energie AG) for the management of the individual topic-related projects; all staff

of the companies, local governments and associations who prepared and compiled contributions to this Atlas.

The preparation and printing of this Atlas were made possible by funds provided by the following companies

in the Rhine-Neckar metropolitan region:

ABB AG, Alstom Power Generation AG, Grosskraftwerk Mannheim AG, HEAG Südhessische Energie AG,

Stadtwerke Heidelberg AG, MVV Energie AG, Pfalzwerke AG, Technische Werke Ludwigshafen AG

Publisher and distributor

MVV Energie AG, Mannheim


Sabine Knapp, Heppenheim; Dr. Martin Pehnt (ifeu-Institut Heidelberg) ( “Exemplary Projects” and

“Intelligent Mobility Solutions”)

All those responsible for public relations in the sponsoring companies (“The Sponsors”), as well as staff of

the local governments (“Broad-based Support”, “Local Activities”, “Project Overview”, “Overview of Local

Government Initiatives”)

Oliver Prahl (MVV Energie AG, Mannheim)

Dominik Jessing (ifeu-Institut, Heidelberg), “Project Overview”, Addendum

Project development and management

Markus Duscha (ifeu-Institut, Heidelberg)

Dr. Doris Wittneben (MVV Energie AG, Mannheim)

Design and layout

ID-Kommunikation, Mannheim

Editorial production: Helmut Brodt, Susanne Haupt, Henner Holsmölle, Michael Kleinböhl


Hilde Dernbach and team, Bad Brückenau

Title page

Aerial photograph: Foto-Hauck-Werbestudios, Luftbild-Centrum Mannheim


Table of contents


The Rhine-Neckar Metropolitan Region in Germany and Europe


Exemplary projects




Renewable energy sources for the Rhine-Neckar metropolitan region

Biomass power plant, Mannheim

Geothermal power plant, Landau

Solar power plant, Bürstadt




Highly efficient buildings

The “Zero-Litre Office Building” Lu-teco, Ludwigshafen

3-litre building, Mannheim



Modern technology and innovative knowledge

Innovative insulation materials, Rhine-Neckar metropolitan region


Energy networks – making use of synergies

District heating across city limits, Mannheim and Heidelberg


Broad-based support

Municipal energy policy

Energy-optimised districts

The complete table of contents





The Rhine-Neckar Metropolitan Region in Germany and Europe

European metropolitan regions are densely populated urban regions of great social, economic, scientific and

cultural significance at the international level. Thanks to its exemplary infrastructure and the synergy of

science and industry, the Rhine-Neckar metropolitan region in southern Germany is one of the motors that

drive European economic development. Since April 2005 it has been one of Germany’s eleven metropolitan


The Rhine-Neckar metropolitan region is unique in Germany since it lies at the point of intersection of the

three Länder Baden-Wuerttemberg, Hesse and Rhineland-Palatinate, and is characterised by a unique mix of

innovative industry, brilliant science and a very high quality of life.

The Rhine-Neckar region has an area of some 5,637 square kilometres and is home to around 2.4 million

inhabitants. This makes it Germany’s seventh largest urban centre.

Geographically, the area is characterised by its favourable climatic conditions due to its location in the Rhine

flood plain and between the two low mountain ranges of the Palatinate Forest to the west and the

Odenwald Forest to the east. The two rivers, the Rhine and the Neckar, which join in the heart of the Rhine-

Neckar metropolitan region at the cities of Mannheim and Ludwigshafen, also shape the area. The Rhine-

Neckar metropolitan region combines history and culture with quality of life. Worms, as the town of the

Nibelungen Saga, the imperial cathedrals at Speyer and Worms, the world-famous Heidelberg Castle, and

Hambach Castle as the birthplace of German democracy are but a few of the sites that have witnessed


The region’s economic strength manifests itself in over 100,000 enterprises with more than 750,000

employees and a gross value added of almost 62 thousand million euros (2004). Ten of Germany’s largest

companies are located in this region. At the same time, it is home to many medium-sized companies. In

addition to service enterprises, the manufact uring sector plays an important role. Favoured by an excellent

infrastructure, enabling rapid access to global markets, the companies export almost 54 per cent of their


products, for instance, agricultural machinery,

power station technology, printing presses and

utility vehicles, to customers around the world. The

export share of the Federal Republic of Germany as a

whole is only some 40 per cent. Furthermore, the

Rhine-Neckar metropolitan region is home to Europe’s

largest cluster of chemical companies and, together with Munich and Berlin, is one of the three leading life

sciences locations in Germany. The region is also well placed as regards the key sectors energy and


In the latter two sectors, the Rhine-Neckar metropolitan region is one of the world leaders in the fields of

energy efficiency and management of natural resources. Also the use of renewable energies is broadly

developed as a result of the favourable natural conditions. Excellent examples are the world largest solar

power plant on one roof in Bürstadt, numerous plants for the use of biomass, a geothermal plant in Landau

and different water-power plants at the Neckar. The region’s economic success is closely associated with an

excellent scientific and research environment. Heidelberg University, for instance, is world-renowned for

medicine and Mannheim University is one of Europe’s highest ranking universities for economic sciences.

The quality of the total of 22 universities with their more than 83,000 students and numerous independent

research facilities make the region a leading source of innovators.

For the Rhine-Neckar metropolitan region the principal tasks of sustainable regional development that is fit

for the future also include the compatibility of economic growth and environmental protection. The

reduction of CO 2 emissions – one of the central goals of the Kyoto Protocol – is regarded here as an

important investment in the future. In the field of energy efficiency, in particular, environmental protection

and economic development have much in common. For manufacturers of chemicals and building materials,

for utility providers as well as for a large number of innovative small- and medium-sized companies in the

region, the planning, the implementation and the operation of energy-efficient buildings and installations as

well as the manufacture of energy-saving materials and components are important factors in their respective

businesses. At the same time, each of these economic success stories helps reduce CO 2 emissions and

protect the environment.



How can the future energy supply in the Rhine-Neckar metropolitan region be made climate-friendly and fit

for the future? What positive impacts does the Rhine-Neckar metropolitan region provide now already for a

climate-friendly use of energy sources both within and far beyond the region? This Climate Protection Atlas,

the first of its kind in Germany, provides initial answers to these questions.

How did the Atlas come about?

Resulting from the will of those responsible for the project “Sicherstellung der Energieversorgung in der

Metropolregion Rhein Neckar” (Ensuring the Energy Supply of the Rhine-Neckar Metropolitan Region) to

present the Rhine-Neckar region as a future-oriented energy-efficient region, since the beginning of the year

2006 over 70 experts from this region have been pooling their knowledge of successful climate-protection

and energy-efficiency projects. The experts from industry, local governments, universities and associations

worked together towards this goal with respect to six topics ranging from renewable energy sources, energy

efficiency in buildings, energy efficiency in industry, energy networks and intelligent mobility to technical

innovations for energy supply.

The idea of creating the Atlas was greatly welcomed. From the large variety of projects to choose from

especially prominent projects which had already been implemented were selected as exemplary for the

activities taking place in the Rhine-Neckar metropolitan region. Owing to the great importance of the topic

of transportation for climate protection, this field was assigned a section of its own headed “Intelligent

mobility solutions”. The variety of the available consultancy and education opportunities, assistance

programmes, activities addressing the public and networks of those playing an active role in the region

demonstrates how the region’s competence is being comprehensively utilised now already for the benefit of

the local authorities and their citizens. An overview of the measures for climate protection and a safe,

environmentally friendly energy supply as well as the presentations of the sponsors of this volume complete

the Atlas.

How to evaluate what has been achieved?

It can quite rightly be said that the Rhine-Neckar metropolitan region has excellent resources in terms of

knowledge and technology and gives climate protection the necessary impetus even beyond its borders. All


climate protection activities are at the same time, and will in future continue to be, a source of economic

growth and a high quality of life in the long term. The foundations for pioneering leaps in technological

advancement have also been laid in the Rhine-Neckar metropolitan region. Major innovations in materials

technology and in fuel cell engineering are examples of this.

Further steps

The first task of this Climate Protection Atlas is to describe the status quo of the region’s climate protection

activities. The documentation of important climate protection projects in the region will be continued, for

instance in the simultaneously created internet presentation under

The networking which has taken place to date is but the beginning of continuing cooperation projects

which are taking shape in the Rhine-Neckar metropolitan region. “Regional” instead of “local” is the motto

for the steps to come. The vision is that of an energy-efficient “Rhine-Neckar climate protection region”.

Additional concrete steps towards this goal will soon be developed in the form of an energy plan for the

Rhine-Neckar metropolitan region. Those who have worked together on this Climate Protection Atlas will

continue their cooperation. For instance, the next projects of this type started already while this atlas was

still in preparation. Among these is the drawing up of a plan for the expansion of district and local heating

networks that will take into account the participating towns in the three Länder of Baden-Wuerttemberg,

Hesse and Rhineland-Palatinate. This makes it possible to optimise already existing efficient energy supply

structures so as to benefit all three Länder.

In addition to the technical approaches, people and their everyday activities – whether as users, customers

or imparters of knowledge – must be taken into account. Climate protection, economic success and quality

of life increasingly complement and presuppose one another.

In the Rhine-Neckar metropolitan region important foundations have already been laid for the assumption

of a pioneering role in climate protection in a Europe which is growing closer together. In the interests of

all, it not only makes sense but is also necessary for the many tasks yet to be fulfilled and is in tune with

the future to build on these foundations.


Making power from waste wood –

the Mannheim biomass power plant

Mannheim’s island at the confluence of the rivers Rhine and Neckar, Friesenheim

island, is home to Baden-Wuerttemberg’s largest biomass power plant operated by

MVV Umwelt GmbH. The power plant uses waste wood from a catchment area with

a radius of approximately 100 km in an environmentally friendly fashion and

provides stable jobs for 25 employees.

A renewable fuel never runs out ...

Conventional power plants burn fuels like coal, gas and oil

which are many millions of years old and nonreplenishable

and will therefore run out in the foreseeable future. A biomass

power plant is quite different. It uses energy crops,

waste from the food industry or, like on Friesenheim island,

waste wood to make electricity. Almost one-third of the

energy present in the waste wood later flows into the

region’s households in the form of electrical energy.

Wood as a vegetable raw material has the advantage that,

when it is burnt, it generates only so much of the greenhouse

gas carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) as the tree which it comes

from took out of the air and incorporated into its trunk to

grow. In terms of CO 2 therefore we have a zero sum


... and leaves not a trace of CO 2 in the


This means that biomass power plants do not increase the

greenhouse effect and are therefore supported by the

Erneuerbare-Energien-Gesetz (EEG = Renewable Energy

Sources Act). For electrical power from biomass the EEG

guarantees attractive remuneration over a period of 20

years for electricity fed into the grid. For MVV this was the

time to get involved in the novel field of renewable


A sorting area the size of two football


Starting at the receiving area, the size of two football fields,

the waste wood brought to the plant is separated according

to pollutant category and stored accordingly. Per hour, the

power plant requires 15 metric tons of waste wood

– equivalent to 60 cubic metres of wood chips. That makes

some 124,000 metric tons of waste wood per year. The

wood is chopped and guided past magnetic separators in

order to separate out scrap metal. In a sorting cabin, staff

sort out other unwanted matter by hand. This step is

necessary since large metal parts, stones as well as tapes

and cables can cause serious damage to the conveying

system and the machines which chop the wood. The fine

dust which is produced during the chopping process also

has to be kept under control. A sprinkler system in the yard

keeps the dust down. In the area around the wood

processing system giant exhausters and air filters at the

machine enclosures perform this task.

The well-sorted finger-sized wood chips are fed into a large

silo with a capacity of 5,000 cubic metres. From here they

are transported to the boiler where the wood chips burn at

a temperature of around 1,000 degrees Celsius. Every hour

about 80 metric tons of water evaporate in the boiler. At a

temperature of 450 degrees Celsius the steam is fed into a

Long years of experience and the

Energieeinspeisegesetz (Electricity Feed

Act) are the factors that are decisive

With over 40 years of experience in waste incineration it

was but a small step for MVV to take towards the thermal

utilisation of waste wood. Other operators of biomass

power plants who only had experience with the conversion

of fossil fuels to electricity had to pay dearly for their lack of

know-how in dealing with problematical fuels, not so MVV.




some 120,000 metric tons of waste

wood per year


20 megawatts of electrical power

CO 2 savings

some 100,000 metric tons per year

turbine which in turn powers the generator with an

electrical output of 20 megawatts.

Highly efficient flue gas purification

spares the environment

The flue gases produced during incineration contain harmful

substances which are held back by means of complex

methods. The high temperatures in the boiler alone already

destroy many toxic substances. The remainder is made

harmless in several steps, on the one hand by adding

ammonia water and hydrated lime and on the other hand it

is bound by adding activated coke. The woven filter ensures

that the flue gas is freed from the dusts produced during

the combustion process and the harmful substances

previously caught. This ensures that the limits prescribed

by the 17th Bundesimmissionsschutzverordnung (Federal

Immission Control Ordinance) are reliably adhered to.

The Mannheim biomass power plant generates enough

electricity to supply some 50,000 households and – with

respect to the average electricity consumption in Germany

– to save some 100,000 metric tons of CO 2 per year.


Dr. Johannes Günther

MVV Umwelt GmbH

Otto-Hahn-Straße 1, D-68169 Mannheim

Tel.: (0621) 290-4633



Power Station Earth –

The Landau geothermal plant

The Rhine rift valley offers good conditions for the harnessing of geothermal energy.

The company geo x GmbH has designed a geothermal power station in Landau that

from a depth of some 3,000 metres supplies thermal water with a temperature of

150 degrees Celsius. The plan is to use this to generate electricity for 6,000 and heat

for a further 300 households.

On the site of the former tank workshops in a former military

area in Landau South being redeveloped for civilian use the

company geo x GmbH, a subsidiary of the Ludwigshafenbased

Pfalzwerke and of the Landau utility EnergieSüdwest, is

tapping a large reserve of subterranean thermal water. The

hot water, which has a temperature of over 150 degrees

Celsius, is pumped to the surface from a depth of some

3,000 metres through a borehole. At the surface, electricity is

generated by means of a thermal circuit and heat for a

district heating system is extracted. The cooled water is

pumped back underground via a second borehole. This

utilisation of “hydrothermal” geothermal heat depends on

two decisive factors: Aquifers must be found and the water

must have a high temperature of at least 120 degrees


In this project geo x GmbH has been able to make use of the

great wealth of experience of the company BESTEC GmbH

in Kandel. This company, also a subsidiary of the utility

Pfalzwerke, has many years of experience with the drilling of

deep wells and related geothermal projects.

Optimal geothermal conditions in the

Rhine-Neckar metropolitan region

The heat harnessed in the Landau project comes from

“Power Station Earth”. The earth’s interior has a

temperature of over 5,000 degrees Celsius due to

radioactive decay processes and the residual heat left over

from when Earth was created.

Thanks to its anomalous geological structures, the Rhine rift

valley offers favourable conditions for the utilisation of

geothermal heat. In some areas, the temperature increases

by up to 6 degrees Celsius for every hundred metres of

depth, the normal rate of temperature increase being a

mere 3 degrees Celsius per hundred metres. The Rhine rift

valley is not only geologically favoured, it also contains

many urban centres which could be supplied with district

and local heating.

The Rhine-Neckar metropolitan region therefore offers

excellent conditions for the economic exploitation of

geothermal heat, particularly since this source of energy is

inexhaustible on a human scale and, unlike wind or solar

power, is available around the clock. Geothermal energy

used for electricity generation currently costs 13 to 20

eurocents per kilowatt hour and therefore still costs far

more than electricity from fossil fuels for generating

electricity and also more than electricity from wind, water

or biomass. However, since geothermal engineering is in

an extremely early stage, it has great potential for development.

There are geothermal engineering projects at many

locations in the Rhine rift valley, - Landau, Speyer, Bellheim

and Neuried, to name but a few.

12 years ago already the utility Pfalzwerke began to

accumulate experience with geothermal plants. In Soultzsous-Forêts,

near the German border in the Alsace region of

France, it is involved in the development of a hot dry rock

installation within the framework of a European project.

The company BESTEC GmbH from Kandel has been active

in the management of this project for several years now.

Unlike at Landau, the method used at Soultz does not tap a

subterranean water source. Instead, water is pressed into

the ground under high pressure. The subterranean rock is

broken up and used as a giant heat exchanger. While the

power plant is in operation cold water is pressed into one

borehole while the water heated by the rock is suctioned

out again through a second borehole.

“Beyond the shovel lies darkness”

The investment of 15.2 million euros is not without risk

since the exact geological conditions can only be verified

when the boreholes are actually drilled. Despite today’s

sophisticated exploration technology with 3D seismic

computer models and databases of old boreholes the old

German miner’s saying “Beyond the shovel lies darkness”

also holds true for geothermal engineering. Besides the risk

of damage to the drilling equipment, there is the uncertainty

of whether economically useful water sources will be found.

What is more, the delivery times for drilling equipment and

components for power stations are long. An important pillar

as regards of the economic efficiency of the innovative

project in Landau is the remuneration for electricity fed into

the grid resulting from the Erneuerbare-Energien-Gesetz

(Renewable Energy Sources Act). It guarantees the operators




2.9 megawatts of electrical power

up to 6 megawatts of heat

(first construction phase)

CO 2 savings

some 5,800 metric tons per year

a remuneration of 15 eurocents for every kilowatt hour of

electricity fed into the grid.

In 2003 all this was only on paper – and Landau was chosen

as the location on the basis of a study evaluating the

possibilities for the use of geothermal energy in the Rhine rift

valley. As little as two years later a trial boring was started. On

5 November 2005, after drilling for only 63 days, the first hot

water spurted forth. The drilling work was supervised by the

company BESTEC GmbH. The drilling equipment was supplied

by the Polish company Jaslo, Oil & Gas Exploration Company.

A few weeks after the first test production the two firms

embarked already on the second drilling project, the injection

borehole, which has meanwhile been completed. The power

plant was ordered from the Israeli company Ormat in the

summer of last year and was delivered in the early summer of

2007. Operation is scheduled to start in the autumn of 2007.


Peter Hauffe

geo x GmbH

Industriestraße 18, D-76829 Landau


Pfalzwerke Aktiengesellschaft

Kurfürstenstraße 29, D-67061 Ludwigshafen

Tel.: (0621) 585-2346


The dual benefit of combined heat and


The heat from the Earth’s interior is used in more than one

way in Landau. Firstly it is fed into an Organic Rankine Cycle

(ORC). This ORC plant essentially operates like a steam

power plant in that it generates electricity from the heat.

However, owing to the comparably low temperatures of the

thermal transfer medium it is necessary to use an organic

liquid with a low boiling point (pentane) in the steam

turbine cycle. The electrical efficiency of this cycle is about

10-12 per cent. The electrical output generated averages at

about 2.9 MW.

The residual heat of the power plant process is fed into a

pre-existing local heating network which is going to be

expanded. Whereas in a first phase 300 households will be

supplied with heat, in the near future further settlements

are to be connected and the heat extraction increased to as

much as 6 megawatts. Calculations have shown that this

innovative, regenerative geothermal power plant in Landau

can save around 5,800 metric tons of CO 2 per year.


World record-breaking rooftop solar power plant –

The “Sunspot” in Bürstadt

Since April 2005 the quiet little town of Bürstadt in the Land Hesse’s Ried district has

held a world record which will not be contested for quite some time to come: the

world’s largest photovoltaic (PV) installation on a single roof – as large as eight

football fields and costing 23 million euros.

An idée fixe proves to be a profitable


For years now Bürstadt resident Erhard Renz has been

championing the cause of renewable energies in his spare

time. In April of the year 2000 a new era started for him

with the introduction of the Erneuerbare-Energien-Gesetz

(EEG = Renewable Energy Sources Act). It guarantees fixed

remuneration for 20 years for solar electricity fed into the

grid. At last there was a legal framework that made

electricity from solar energy profitable. All south-facing

roofs were just begging to be covered with photovoltaic

installations. With the earnings from the remuneration for

electricity fed into the grid the investment would amortise

within a mere few years.

As a Bürstadt resident since birth, Erhard Renz knew that

there was a roof with record-breaking potential in his town,

the sawtooth-like shed roof on the building of the TTS

forwarding agents with its 15 strips of roof each measuring

about 200 metres in width, and all facing the sun in an

optimal manner. He told his friend Claus Rothenbach, head

of the photovoltaic company Ralos, about this and upon

consultation with the town environmental consultant Micha

Jost and Mayor Alfons Haag they got in touch with TTS.

After an architect had verified the suitability of the roof, a

20-year lease was signed in April of 2003.

23 million euros – financing that calls

for a professional

The next task was to find investors for the ambitious solar

power plant. The gigantic dimensions of the Bürstadt

photovoltaic installation dwarfed those of all previous

installations. It soon became clear that, without a strong

partner with the relevant experience, the financial burden of

23 million euros would be impossible to bear. The Tauber-

Solar company of Tauberbischofsheim, which had by this

point in time already successfully financed two large PV

installations and connected them to the grid, became part

of this record-breaking project. Tauber-Solar is meanwhile

one of the world’s largest operators of PV installations.

A minimum investment of 50,000 euros

– amortisation after 12 years

The capital for the “Sunspot” comes from atypical sleeping

partners investing a minimum of 50,000.00 euros in the

company’s profit, loss and assets. The 23 million euros

invested compare with some 2.25 million euros in yearly

earnings from the sale of electricity. Given an investment

share of at least 50,000.00 euros the co-entrepreneurs

profit from dividends to the tune of 8.5 per cent and a

surplus reserve of 0.7 per cent per year until the end of the

term. The capital invested will therefore amortise after

about 12 years.

Out of the eco scene and

into the world of economists

Owing to its metamorphosis from a citizens’ movement to a

capital investment Bürstadt’s “Sunspot” has become a

pioneering example both for the eco scene and for economists.

The initiators - all solar power enthusiasts who themselves

hold no shares at all in the “Sunspot” - maintain that

such a project cannot be achieved without the backing of a

partner with plenty of capital. And it has been demonstrated

to the investors, who were still sceptical at the time, that PV

installations can be a good investment. This is particularly so

now that the first crisis has been overcome in a professional

manner: In summer of 2006 half of the installation had to

be taken off the grid due to a manufacturing error involving

the modules. The manufacturer is compensating the

shareholders, however, in full for the loss of earnings from

fed-in electricity and therefore they will have no losses at all

in terms of their dividends, i.e. there is no financial risk for

the co-entrepreneurs.



Electricity generated

4.5 million kilowatt hours/year

Volume of financing

23 million euros

CO 2 savings

some 3,000 metric tons per year

One pioneering project brings on


All the defective modules are expected to be replaced by

the end of 2007. After that the “Sunspot” will once again

supply 4.5 millionen kilowatt hours of solar electricity to the

public electricity grid, absolutely CO 2 neutrally after an

amortisation period in terms of energy efficiency of between

two and five years! In comparison with the present electricity

mix the “Sunspot” system will save some 3,000 metric tons

of greenhouse gas per year. But this is not enough for

Bürstadt. From 2007 on a new two-megawatt biogas plant

will be producing heat and electricity CO 2 -neutrally. This will

raise the share of renewable energy sources in the small

southern Hessian town of Bürstadt to 40 per cent!



Dr. med. Leonhard Haaf

Tauber-Solar Management GmbH

Würzburger Straße 23, D-97941 Tauberbischofsheim

Tel.: (09341) 89582-0




Erhard Renz

Gutenbergstraße 8, D-68642 Bürstadt

Mobile: (01 72) 1 38 78 69

Tel.: (06206) 8800




The “Zero-Litre Office Building” Lu-teco

of the Ludwigshafen GAG

The “passive building” gets through the winter without conventional heating and

through the summer without air conditioning, thus saving lots of energy, lowering

energy costs and sparing the environment.

10,000 square metres of office space and

over 500 workplaces

Ludwigshafen’s technology mile between Bruchwiesenstraße

and the railway line is the home of the “Lu-teco” office

building. It is the first “zero energy” office complex in the

Rhine-Neckar metropolitan region and at the same time the

world’s largest office building without conventional heating

and air conditioning. In the passive building geothermal heat

and electricity from the sun keep the energy requirement

CO 2 -neutral. The Ludwigshafen housing company GAG

invested some 9.2 million euros in the building with the

declared aim of building a future-proof office complex that

will still be attractive 30 or 40 years from now.

In November 2006 the first companies moved into the

passive building which measures 10,000 square metres.

A modern call centre, technology-related service providers,

tax accountants and lawyers are among the first tenants. In

total, more than 500 persons will be working here in future.

The building’s convenient location with respect to the

autobahn and to regional and international airports coupled

with its proximity to the Ludwigshafen University of Applied

Sciences were good arguments for most of the entrepreneurs.

And the rent of nine euros per month per square metre is

only little more than the rents paid for other GAG properties.

In the end, the decisive factor was usually the extremely low

heating cost of only 50 eurocents per square metre per year

in the long term.

Extra-thick insulation and

triple glazing...

Office buildings are particularly suitable for conversion to

passive buildings. They are usually large and their exterior

surface is relatively small as compared to their floor space.

This means that they have a lower specific heat loss than,

for instance, a single family dwelling. What is more, the

interior heat sources are usually higher. Thanks to the

passive building components now available a very much

lower additional heat requirement can be achieved.

All Lu-teco’s exterior walls and its roof are covered with a

20 cm-thick layer of polystyrene insulation with a very good

insulating capacity and its windows are triple glazed. But

also for the technically difficult insulation from the soil there

are now suitable solutions such as foam glass which is

extremely resistant to pressure and moisture-resistant. Such

a high-quality shell protects the building not only from cold

in winter it also keeps out the heat of summer.

...enable less than 50 eurocents

heating costs per square metre per year

The thermal heat requirement calculated according to the

specifications of the Energieeinsparverordnung (EnEV =

Energy Savings Ordinance) is less than ten kilowatt hours

(kWh) per square metre. This is equivalent to about one litre

of heating oil per square metre of floor space per year or to

one tenth of that of comparable conventionally constructed

buildings. Some of the energy for meeting the low residual

requirement comes from under the ground. For this a total

of 39 geothermal probes were driven into the ground to a

depth of 95 metres.

In summer the cool underground is used

for air-conditioning

In summer the groundwater, which has a temperature of

around 14 degrees Celsius, cools the concrete floors by

means of a heat exchanger. This method, which is known as

“Geothermal Temperature Control of the Concrete Core”

keeps the offices at a comfortable temperature of about

26 degrees Celsius even in the greatest heat.

At the Lu-teco site the groundwater moves by a mere two

metres per year. With a building length of 100 metres it will

therefore take 50 years for the groundwater to pass the

building. This means that the risk exists that the yearly

cooling of the building in summer will increase the temperature

of the groundwater and the cooling system will cease

functioning. In order to prevent this from happening, in

winter the warmth is removed from the ground at the same

rate by means of a heat pump and used to heat the rooms.

The summer heat stored below the ground is used to heat

the building in winter with the result that the temperature

of the groundwater remains unchanged.



Thermal heat requirement

less than 1 litre of heating oil

equivalent per square metre

Heat and power generation

geothermal heat, waste heat and

photovoltaic system

CO 2 savings

some 345 metric tons per year

Rooftop photovoltaic installation makes

Lu-teco CO 2 -neutral

The building has no conventional heating and no conventional

air conditioning. Only a sophisticated ventilation

system supplies the offices with fresh air. The heat, however,

is not released from the building with the exhaust air but is

used to heat the incoming air. The ventilation and the heat

pumps for the geothermal system are electrically powered,

and precisely this quantity of electricity flows back into the

public electricity grid from a photovoltaic installation on the

roof of Lu-teco.

CO 2 -neutral energy supply and over

46,000 euros in savings per year

Thanks to this technical combination no fossil fuels like oil,

gas or coal are needed. The photovoltaic installation

generates 62,000 kWh of solar power per year. The annual

energy savings amount to some 93,000 litres of heating oil,

thus sparing the environment 345 metric tons of the

greenhouse gas CO 2 per year. Assuming the oil price of

50 eurocents per litre of heating oil in the year 2005 this

leads to savings of 46,500.00 euros per year. This is money

that can stay in the region, strengthening purchasing power

and thus ensuring jobs in the long term.

Address of the building


Donnersbergweg 2

D-67059 Ludwigshafen-Mundenheim


André Zaman


Wittelsbacherstraße 32, D-67061 Ludwigshafen

Tel.: (0621) 5604279




The GBG’s 3-litre building –

refurbishing a 1930s residential building

Within the framework of the nationwide pilot project “Niedrigenergiehaus im

Bestand” (low energy levels at existing buildings) of the Deutsche Energie Agentur

GmbH the Mannheim-based GBG has converted a residential building into a 3-litre

building comprising 12 residential units. One of the focal points of the project was

the comparison of various types of installation for the ventilation and heating of the


The goal was an ambitious one: A 1930s building in the

Gartenstadt district of Mannheim was to be converted into

a 3-litre building - with an annual thermal heat requirement

of less than 34 kilowatt hours per square metre this is

equivalent to a requirement of about 3 litres of heating oil

per square metre of living space. This far exceeds the

requirements of the current Energieeinsparverordnung

(EnEV = Energy Savings Ordinance). The housing company

GBG-Mannheim, however, accepted the challenge and in

the autumn of 2003 work in Freyastraße began.

From an ugly duckling to a beautiful


Since the layout of the flats was no longer up to date and

the roof truss had to be completely replaced it was decided

that the entire building should be hollowed out. In order to

achieve the 3-litre levels, the walls and roof were insulated

with twice the thickness that the law requires. For instance,

the gable end: Instead of 12 centimetres of insulation a

hard polystyrene foam with a thickness of 25 centimetres

was used.

Ventilation instead of heating in five


Triple glazed thermally insulated windows and the

meticulous avoidance of thermal bridges ensure maximum

protection against loss of heat. The fresh air supply is based

on various ventilation systems and heat recovery. The use of

windows for ventilation in these buildings is a thing of the


different combined ventilation and heating systems for the

3-litre building. Together with the residents they are

attempting to find out which one functions profitably and

is best accepted by the tenants. These experiences will then

be incorporated into future modernisation projects.

A ground collector ensures cool rooms

in summer

Three of the five variations are characterized by a ventilation

system that can be controlled separately for each floor or

even for each room. The fourth variation has not only a

radiator in the bathroom but in all other rooms as well. And

the fifth variation offers the tenant additional cooling for

the rooms in summer. The water required for cooling comes

from an environmentally friendly ground collector installed

in the ground in front of the building.

An important component of this modernisation project is a

combined heat and power plant with a buffer vessel that is

incorporated into the complex system of installations. The

heat requirement for heating at peak load is met by a

condensing gas boiler. The hot water supply is provided by

the heating system and distributed heat exchangers in each

flat. In addition, the combined heat and power plant

generates approximately the quantity of electricity needed

for ventilation and pumps.

The sophisticated ventilation system provides a pleasant

temperature in the rooms both in summer and winter.

The only radiator you will find is just a small one in the

bathroom of each flat ensuring cosy temperatures when

taking a shower.

Experiences ensure the know-how for

future modernisation projects

The Chair of Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning of

Stuttgart University and the GBG have developed five



Thermal requirement for heating

some 3 litres of heating oil

equivalent per square metre

Heat generation

CHPP condensing gas boiler,

geothermal energy, waste heat


CO 2 savings

some 172 metric tons per year

Low heating costs are indeed an argument

that potential tenants can’t ignore

GBG has invested more than three million euros in this pilot

project and created 12 attractive flats. The modernisation

work has been completed and the first tenants were

welcomed at the beginning of 2005. The rents after

modernisation are based on the table of local rents known

as the “Mannheimer Mietspiegel” and are less than seven

euros per square metre per month. Added to this are

heating costs including hot water which, depending on

individual consumption, average at 40 euros per month for

the flats measuring 72 to 105 square metres.

With this modernisation package GBG can now offer flats

with a primary energy requirement that is 90 per cent lower

than before and reduces the carbon dioxide emissions per

square metre of living space by some 150 kg, i.e. a total of

172 metric tons per year.

The energy-efficient modernisation of buildings will be a

central task for the housing sector in the future and will

determine competetiveness on the residential market. Now

already tenants place a very high value on low energy costs.

Energy-efficient modernisation of existing properties is

therefore a reliable means of preventing vacancies and the

resultant loss of rental income.

Address of the building

GBG 3-Liter-Haus

Freyastraße 42-52

D-68305 Mannheim-Gartenstadt


Matthias Henes

GBG – Mannheimer Wohnungsbaugesellschaft mbH

Ulmenweg 7, D-68167 Mannheim

Tel.: (0621) 3096-322




Innovative insulation and building materials

from the Rhine-Neckar metropolitan region

Two-thirds of all residential units in Germany are, in terms of their energy

requirement for heating, oldtimers with a consumption of more than 20 litres of

heating oil per square metre. This need not be. Novel insulation materials make it

possible to turn an older building into a low-energy building. The region is home to

a well-known manufacturer of insulation raw material and to a major manufacturer

of insulation material.

20 litres of heating oil are too much –

7 litres can do the job as well

Seven litres of heating oil per square metre are sufficient to

heat even an older building in winter, provided that the

energy generated for heating does not escape through an

inadequately insulated shell. The Ludwigshafen housing

company LUWOGE has demonstrated with its 3-litre

building that even greater savings can be achieved. The

building in the Brunck Quarter has become a showcase and

a model for projects of this type throughout Europe.

Innovative insulation materials are the

key to enormous CO 2 reduction

24 million residential units were built before 1979, that is

before the first Wärmeschutzverordnung (Thermal Insulation

Ordinance), and the majority of these can be regarded as

in need of energy-efficient modernisation. Assuming an

average living space of 85 square metres per residential unit

and reducing the requirement for energy for heating from

20 litres per square metre and year to only 7 litres per

square metre and year this means potential savings of

about 1,100 litres of heating oil per year or more than

three metric tons of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) for each flat.

Unmodernised flats in older buildings therefore have

enormous potential for CO 2 savings.

Innovative insulation materials account for more than half

of the savings, energy-efficient building services and tripleglazed

passive-building windows for a further 20 per cent.

Thanks to the insulation’s long service life of considerably

more than 30 years, a well-insulated building has a

correspondingly long energy-saving effect.

The Rhine-Neckar metropolitan region:

a think-tank for innovative insulation


By far the largest share of the insulation materials processed

today are mineral fibre insulation materials, followed by

panels made of hard polystyrene foam. Two Ludwigshafen

companies are at the forefront of this market: The chemicals

giant BASF is one of Europe’s two largest manufacturers of

raw materials for polystyrene-based insulation materials

while Saint-Gobain Isover G+H AG is Europe’s largest

manufacturer of insulation materials and has for decades

been the market leader in Germany and, with its fellow

subsidiaries, in Europe and the whole world as well. 20

years ago Isover introduced clamping felt for insulation

between rafters. This made the insulation of pitched roofs

considerably easier. Soon after, this technology was also

adopted by the company’s competitors. Meanwhile,

clamping felt is by far the most widely used insulation type.

The letters “G + H” in the company name stand for the first

insulation pioneers, Carl Grünzweig and Paul Hartmann,

who in the late 19 th century began with the first industrial

production of cork insulation panels in Ludwigshafen. The

successor companies of their small insulation material

factory have belonged to the global player Saint-Gobain

since the 1960s.

Combining the advantages of glass wool

and rock wool in a single material

Just recently an innovation by Isover marked the start of a

new era in mineral wool. A method was developed with

which rock wool can be manufactured in the same way as

glass wool. This mineral insulation material is manufactured

in centrifugal rings which until then were only able to

operate at moderate temperatures at which raw materials

for glass wool melt. The technicians and engineers at Saint-

Gobain Isover worked on modifying the alloy from which

these centrifugal rings are made until they could also

withstand the temperatures needed to melt rock wool. The

effort was worth it. The result was “Ultimate”, a mineral

wool which is extremely light and can be compressed for

transport. At the same time it tolerates temperatures of

over 1,000 degrees Celsius and has the same mechanical

strength as rock wool. Ultimate is therefore particularly

suitable where lightweight thermal insulation, fire

protection and noise control are needed simultaneously.

Tiny graphite plates increase the

insulation effect and save raw materials

BASF’s new granular polystyrene material Neopor for the



Average annual output of insulation

materials (BASF and Saint Gobain)

10 million cubic metres

CO 2 savings

some 1,000,000 metric tons the

world over

manufacture of insulation materials with which, for

instance, LUWOGE achieved its extremely high rate of

savings, contains tiny graphite plates. These reflect and

absorb the radiated heat. In this way they reduce the heat

conductivity of the material. The effect: The silver-grey panel

insulates with a considerably smaller consumption of raw

material just as well as a considerably thicker panel made of

conventional polystyrene foam. This is an important

advantage for the modernisation of older buildings since

conventional insulation materials take up too much room.

Warm in winter, cool in summer –

plasterboard with the capacity to store

latent heat

To improve the climate in attics, for example, BASF has

developed a plasterboard with the capacity to store latent

heat known as Micronal® PCM SmartBoard. Its secret

lies in its microscopically small plastic capsules which are

filled with wax. When the room temperature rises over

26 degrees Celsius the wax in the balls melts and absorbs

the excess heat in the room. Cool night air reverses this

process and the material spiked with microcapsules releases

the stored heat when the wax hardens. A plasterboard

manufactured in this way with a thickness of only 1.5 centimetres

displays the same capacity to store thermal energy

as a nine-centimetre thick concrete wall. Even in summer

temperatures it stays pleasantly cool under the roof and in

the building.

Insulation materials save distinctly more

energy than its takes to make them

Studies have shown that, over their service life, insulation

materials save a multiple of the energy needed to manufacture

them. The energy input for the manufacture of

insulation materials amortises as a rule already after as little

as one or, at the most, two heating periods. What is more,

the heating periods in well-insulated buildings are shorter,

since the heating is switched on much later and is also

switched off much earlier.

Insulation materials from the Rhine-

Neckar metropolitan region have been

saving CO 2 for more than 50 years

Since the end of World War II, the insulation material

pioneers from the Rhine-Neckar metropolitan region have

manufactured vast quantities of insulation materials which

save CO 2 wherever they are used as thermal insulation.

Saint-Gobain Isover alone has sold over 200 million cubic

metres since 1950. The quantity of expanded polystyrene

produced since 1955 worldwide by BASF for the manufacture

of insulation and packaging materials amounts to

more than 15 million metric tons. If all the insulation and

packaging components manufactured from this material

were stacked in freight wagons this would make a freight

train which could be wound around the equator three



Dr. Jürgen Royar

Saint-Gobain ISOVER G+H AG

Dr. Albert-Reimann-Straße 20, D-68526 Ladenburg

Tel.: (0621) 4701600



Dr. Sabine Philipp

BASF Aktiengesellschaft

D-67056 Ludwigshafen

Tel.: (0621) 60-43348



Albrecht Göhring

EnergieEffizienzAgentur Rhein-Neckar gGmbH (E2A)

4. Gartenweg 7, D-67056 Ludwigshafen

Tel.: (0621) 60-47247




Grosskraftwerk Mannheim AG supplies

district heating across city limits

In Mannheim’s Neckarau district Grosskraftwerk Mannheim Aktiengesellschaft (GKM)

operates one of Germany’s largest and most up-to-date anthracite power stations. The

GKM feeds the district heat it generates using the efficient principle of combined heat

and power into transmunicipal networks of the Rhine-Neckar metropolitan region. It is

Germany’s fourth largest supplier of district heat.

The activities of the GKM comprise the generation of

electricity and of district heat. The power station’s installed

net output is 1,520 megawatts (MW), its installed district

heat output (heating water) is around 1,000 megawatts

(thermal). The power station generates electricity not only

for the region’s households and industry but also for

Deutsche Bahn AG, the German railway company. The GKM

power station is owned jointly by the companies RWE

Power AG, Essen, EnBW Kraftwerke AG, Stuttgart, and

MVV RHE AG, Mannheim.

Its favourable location enables district heat to be fed into

the network in close vicinity to the consumers. The network

operated by MVV Energie AG supplies the cities of

Mannheim and Heidelberg as well as the surrounding areas

with district heat. With an annual electricity output of some

9 terawatt hours (TWh) – equivalent to about 1.5 per cent

of Germany’s total electricity consumption – and a yearly

district heat output of some 3 TWh a total fuel utilisation

efficiency of about 47 per cent is achieved.

Since coal-burning produces emissions, the GKM has

developed an energy concept with the aim of using the coal

efficiently and in an environmentally friendly manner and at

the same time successfully meeting the requirements for

clean air and minimising waste.

Use of district heat in the Rhine-Neckar

metropolitan region

The cogeneration of power and district heat is a highly

efficient measure. In addition to district heat the GKM also

generates process steam for neighbouring factories. The

generation of district heat takes place solely using the

principle of combined heat and power (CHP). In this process

the thermal energy of a portion of the steam is not converted

into electricity. This means that the cogeneration of

heat and power has a lower electricity yield but increases

the fuel utilisation considerably and is therefore one of the

most important technologies for reducing CO 2 emissions.



Installed output

1,520 megawatts electrical (net)

1,000 megawatts thermal

Length of the district heat network

some 500 kilometres

CO 2 savings

some 300,000 metric tons per year

by using district heat

In Mannheim, emissions are reduced by some 300,000

metric tons of CO 2 per year due to the abandonment of

individually fired heating systems.

With the steam extracted from special district heat turbines

water is heated to up to 130 degrees Celsius by means of

heat exchangers. The heating water is piped to the

consumers under pressure via a thermally insulated, 500

km-long network (households and industry), gives off its

heat and flows back to the GKM to be reheated.

In future, the district heating networks in the Rhine-Neckar

metropolitan region could be fed by the GKM but also by

smaller heat generators such as biomass heating plants or

geothermal installations. This would lead to a more efficient

combination of fossil and regenerative energies.


Thomas Schmidt

Grosskraftwerk Mannheim AG (GKM)

Marguerrestr. 1

D-68199 Mannheim

Tel.: (0621) 868-4322


Roland Kress

MVV Energie AG

Luisenring 49

D-68159 Mannheim

Tel.: (0621) 290-3413



Local government planning for

energy-optimised districts

The development of settlements in the Rhine-Neckar metropolitan region is a very

important factor influencing energy consumption and therefore plays a major role

when it comes to climate protection. Ambitious energy-related and environmental

targets are being implemented in numerous new construction, conversion and

modernisation areas in the Rhine-Neckar metropolitan region.

In many towns the energy requirement for heating is the

largest emitter of CO 2 , accounting for some 40 per cent of

emissions (not counting traffic). Since this sector promises

the greatest potential for reduction this is where the focus

of climate protection at the local level lies.

Urban planning activities in this region therefore pay special

attention to the following aspects:

• Economical use of energy by means of well-insulated

buildings (low-energy or passive-building standard)

• Priority for heating supply by means of district or local

heating networks using renewable energy sources or

combined heat and power

• Possibility for using renewable energies, particularly solar

energy, directly in the buildings

The most important factors influencing the energy

requirement for heating are:

• The thermal protection of the buildings (“insulation”).

In comparison with the currently applied construction

standard up to 40 per cent of thermal energy used for

heating can be saved by low-energy construction and up

to 85 per cent by using the passive-building method.

• Local heating networks and an efficient heat generation

through the cogeneration of heat and power enable CO 2

savings of up to 45 per cent in comparison with oil-fired

heating. Typical levels lie around 25 per cent. Considerably

greater CO 2 reductions are possible if local heating

networks are fed from renewable energy sources (woodchip-fired

plants, local solar heat, geothermal heat).

• “Optimisation for solar energy” enables savings in

heating energy of up to 10 per cent. Here the orientation

of, intervals between and the heights and positioning of

buildings with respect to one another as well as the

species of trees and where they are planted are chosen

so that the sun’s rays reach the building as effectively as

possible. Optimisation for solar energy also leads to

improved utilisation of daylight in the flats and offices.

• Care is also taken that solar panels for hot water and

extra heating as well as photovoltaic installations for

electricity generation find plenty of room on roof

surfaces which are south-facing, large in area and as

continuous as possible.

Examples of projects in the

Rhine-Neckar metropolitan region

Viernheim “Bannholzgraben”

On the 44-hectare cadastral district known as

“Bannholzgraben” the town of Viernheim is expanding

to accommodate some 1,800 residents and 850 jobs. The

economical handling of non-renewable resources was an

important aspect in the planning of the “Bannholzgraben”

development. Important aspects were the mixture of

residential and work-related usage, the infiltration of rainwater

and creation of an ecological balance in the area.

• A building’s compactness, that is the ratio of building

surface to volume, alone can reduce the heat requirement

for heating by up to 30 per cent. Multi-storey buildings,

compact shapes, terraced housing and the construction

of buildings directly adjoining one another help serve this



Many of the buildings face south or southeast. In the

positioning and height of the buildings care was taken

to reduce shade to a minimum and thus optimise solar

exposure and the passive use of solar energy. In the

purchase contracts for residential building land it was

stipulated that the energy standard should lie 30 per cent

below that of the 1996 Wärmeschutzverordnung (Thermal

Insulation Ordinance).

All heating in the “Bannholzgraben” will be with natural

gas. Condensing boilers will be used for heating and, where

residential building is denser, combined heat and power

units will be installed. On the whole, around one-third of

the heat requirement can be met by the cogeneration of

heat and power. For the preparation of hot water individual

solar installations will be used in addition.

30 terraced houses built according to the passive-house

method have been built in a special planning area.

Heidelberg-Wieblingen “Schollengewann”

The new construction area “Schollengewann” expands the

Wieblingen district of Heidelberg in a southerly direction

and provides room for some 180 residential units and a

community centre. Since the city owns 80 per cent of this

area and a tram line provides excellent public transport,

conditions for a sustainable urban development here are


On all areas owned by the city the low-energy building

standard corresponding to the City of Heidelberg’s

Energiekonzeption 2004 is being implemented. This

document stipulates that values that lie 30 per cent under

those required by the Energieeinsparverordnung (EnEV =

Energy Savings Ordinance) as regards protection against loss

of heat be achieved. This requirement is passed on to the

private house-builders und property developers via the sales

contracts. Furthermore, buildings are to be constructed in

keeping with the passive-building standard as far as

possible. The area’s development is being assisted by the

City of Heidelberg by means of offers of energy consultancy


Local government planning for

energy-optimised districts

and assistance from the Programm zur rationellen

Energieverwendung (Programme for the Efficient Use of

Energy Sources).

For the “Schollengewann” development in the Heidelberg

district of Wieblingen the Steinbeis-Transferzentrum

Energie-, Gebäude- und Solartechnik, Stuttgart (stw) has

been commissioned with the planning of an ecological,

economical and sustainable energy supply concept. stw has

investigated four supply variants based on natural gas and

renewable energy sources. The total yearly costs were lowest

for the “wood pellets” variant. The benefits as regards

CO 2 emissions of a heat supply using the replenishable and

low-pollution fuel source pellets were even greater. The

supply of heat based on renewable energy sources also

reduces the dependence on fossil fuels and the resultant

price rises to be expected.

On the basis of this energy concept the Heidelberg city

council has commissioned the municipal utility company

Stadtwerke Heidelberg AG to develop a public local heating

network and a centralised heating plant with a wood pelletfired

boiler as its principal source of thermal energy and a

natural gas boiler for peak loads. Economical operation of

the local heating network and the cost-effective supply with

thermal energy of the buildings as determined by stw can

only be ensured if all the buildings in the planning area are

connected to this system. This is ensured by means of a

statute in which the property owners are forced to connect

their properties to the chosen system and to use it. The

integration of additional sources of renewable energy,

particular of solar heat, into the local heating network is

permissible and may take place optionally from suitable

building locations if the builder-owners are interested.

Lazarettgarten Landau

The hospital of the Royal Bavarian garrison comprising 16

buildings built around 1905 in the Wilhelminian style on an

area of about four hectares was converted in the late 1990s

in keeping with ecological and future-oriented planning

principles. The objectives were to save resources and energy

reserves in the conversion work and to use an energy-saving

construction type. The entire area is supplied with electricity

and heat by a combined heat and power unit and a fuel


The “Alter Schlachthof” and

Quartier Normand in Speyer

Two residential areas with optimised energy efficiency are

currently being built in Speyer. In the “Alter Schlachthof”

district a considerable portion of the heat requirement is

met by solar energy. The financing plan for the solar

installation, which up to now measured 620 square metres

and which is to be expanded, provides for federal funding

of 50 per cent of the investment costs. The new buildings

are to have an energy requirement of at least 15 per cent

below that stipulated in the Energieeinsparverordnung

(Energy Savings Ordinance) and thus corresponding to the

low-energy building method. All 50 new buildings will be

connected to the local heating supply which, in addition to

Further energy-efficient municipal expansion projects are the

development area “Im Bieth” in the Kirchheim district of

Heidelberg and the new district “Bahnstadt” being built on

conversion areas.


solar heating, is to be operated by means of condensing gas

boilers (460 kilowatt output). The solar installation and the

gas boiler will feed heat into the buffer vessel, while the

heat distribution system will remove hot water from the

vessel and feed it into the heat distribution network. The

cooled heating water will be returned to the vessel via the

return line. The aim of this concept is to achieve a maximum

yield of the solar installation and a very cost-effective system

for execution of the local solar heating supply.

The former barracks of the Caserne Normand, where some

ten years ago French troops still performed their military

service, are being converted into generously proportioned

owner-occupied flats and modern lofts. The town of Speyer

purchased the Caserne Normand from the federal government

in December 1998 and is developing the property

with the help of an urban modernisation programme. The

urban planning projects were drawn up in combination with

an alternative energy sources concept. The corresponding

construction plan became legally binding in February 2001.

This has created the planning foundations for a mixture of

residential and commercial usage, services and community

facilities. The ambitious urban planning goals, such as the

use of local sun-based heat and the observance of the low

energy standard in the case of new buildings will be made

part of the purchase contracts. The exterior development is

currently under way and the interior improvements will soon

begin. The premises as a whole will be converted into a

large residential park comprising 280 residential units

covering an area of 12 hectares.


The projects described here are a selection from the exemplary climate protection projects

presented in the Climate Protection Atlas. A complete list of the projects described in the Atlas,

which cover various topics, is given below.

It can also be found at:

If you are interested in obtaining this publication in German, it can be ordered from the following address:

MVV Energie AG; Roland Kress

Luisenring 49, D-68159 Mannheim, Tel.: +49 (0)6 21 290-3413, E-mail:


Table of contents


1 Exemplary projects

Renewable energy sources for the Rhine-Neckar metropolitan region

Biomass power plant, Mannheim

Biogas plant, Stift Neuberg, Heidelberg

Geothermal power plant, Landau

Solar power plant, Bürstadt

Highly efficient buildings

The “Zero-Litre Office Building” Lu-teco, Ludwigshafen

3-litre building, Mannheim

Modernisation of the Brunck Quarter, Ludwigshafen

Savings-oriented contracting and building services, Mannheim

Gymnasium in passive-building standard, Heidelberg

Modern technology and innovative knowledge

Innovative insulation materials, Rhine-Neckar metropolitan region

Retrofitting of turbines, Mannheim

Fuel cells, Grünstadt

Research for climate protection, Heidelberg

Greater energy efficiency in industry

Gas and steam turbine power plant, Ludwigshafen

Combined Cooling, Heating and Power (CCHP) and air-conditioning, Weinheim

Factory in passive-building standard, Zwingenberg

Freight transport by rail, Eppelheim

Energy networks – making use of synergies

District heating across city limits, Mannheim and Heidelberg

District and local heating, Ludwigshafen






























To obtain further details please contact the following persons:

MVV-Energie AG; Contact: Dr. Doris Wittneben,

Luisenring 49, 68159 Mannheim, Phone: +49 (0)6 21 290-36 18, E-mail:

ifeu Institut für Energie und Umweltforschung; Contact: Markus Duscha,

Wilckenstraße 3, 69120 Heidelberg, Phone: +49 (0)6 221-47 67 18, E-mail:

Verband Region Rhein-Neckar; Contact: Axel Finger,

P 7, 20-21, 68161 Mannheim, Phone: +49 (0)6 21-10 708 25, E-mail:

If you would like to order the Atlas Climate Protection Projects please contact:

MVV Energie AG; Roland Kress

Luisenring 49, D-68159 Mannheim, Tel.: +49 (0)6 21 290-3413, E-mail:

2 Broad-based support

Municipal energy policy

Consultancy and networking

Energy management

Energy-optimised districts

Assistance programmes

Education programmes for children and young people

Intelligent mobility solutions

Broad-based support

Verkehrsverbund Rhein-Neckar (VRN)

S-Bahn RheinNeckar

Rhein-Neckar-Verkehr (RNV)

Stadtmobil CarSharing

3 Overview of the projects

Renewable energy sources for the Rhine-Neckar metropolitan region

Highly efficient buildings

Energy efficiency in industry

Overview of local government initiatives


Glossary/List of abbreviations






















The publication of

this Climate Protection Atlas

was made possible by

the following sponsors:

For further information

please contact:

MVV-Energie AG;

Dr. Doris Wittneben,

Luisenring 49, 68159 Mannheim,

Phone: +49 (0)6 21 290-36 18,


Verband Region Rhein-Neckar;

Axel Finger,

P 7, 20-21, 68161 Mannheim,

Phone: +49 (0)6 21-10 708 25,


ifeu Institut für Energie und


Markus Duscha,

Wilckenstraße 3, 69120 Heidelberg,

Phone: +49 (0)6 221-47 67 18,


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