HAWAIIAN CULTURAL CONNECTEDNESS - Kamehameha Schools

ksbe.edu

HAWAIIAN CULTURAL CONNECTEDNESS - Kamehameha Schools

HAWAIIAN CULTURAL

CONNECTEDNESS

Q

HCC SURVEYV1.0 AND ITS USES


HAWAIIAN CULTURAL

CONNECTEDNESS

Q

HCC SURVEYV.1.0 AND ITS USES

KAMEHAMEHA SCHOOLS

RESEARCH AND EVALUATION DIVISION


OVERVIEW

The Hawaiian Cultural Connectedness (HCC) Survey V.1.0 was created to meet

the need among various individuals, groups, and programs to collect and report

information regarding Hawaiian culture. The HCC survey gauges how connected

individuals are to six strands of Hawaiian culture. The survey is a communitydeveloped,

research-based, and scientifically tested instrument that can be utilized in

different settings and among Hawaiians and non-Hawaiians in grades 6 and higher.

The Hawaiian Cultural Connectedness Survey V.1.0 is rooted in three assumptions:

• People are connected to Hawaiian culture in different ways and to

varying degrees.

• Cultural identity is complex, varies from person to person, and is difficult

to measure.

• Programs focusing on Hawaiian cultural outcomes need relevant tools to

demonstrate their impact.

This booklet contains:

• Background information about Hawaiian Cultural Connectedness

• Administration guidelines

• Recommended scoring procedures

• Discussion of the tool’s development and testing

• Copy of the survey

The Hawaiian Cultural Connectedness Survey V.1.0 is copyrighted and owned by

Kamehameha Schools. The survey is available at no cost to the public but we ask that

interested parties complete an official request form before using the instrument.

To obtain a request form or for more information about the Hawaiian Cultural

Connectedness Survey V.1.0 contact:

Kamehameha Schools

Reasearch and Evaluation Division

567 South King Street

Honolulu, Hawaiÿi 96813

Email: spire@ksbe.edu

Phone: (808) 523-6211

Fax: (808) 541-5395

Copyright © 2009 Kamehameha Schools

1


WEAVING LAUHALA:

A metaphor about Hawaiian Cultural Connectedness

Hawaiian culture places emphasis on relationships and interconnectedness. It was

a deep understanding that all things are connected that allowed early Hawaiians to

thrive in a demanding and complex environment. For Hawaiians, a cultural worldview

steeped in connectedness produced a vibrant system of ingenuity, interdependence,

and sustainability.

This model of Hawaiian Cultural Connectedness is illustrated by an image of kupuna

hands weaving a lauhala mat. It takes time, skill, and care to create a fine mat. The

lauhala has to be cut, gathered, dried, and prepared before it can be woven. A mat

is composed of many strands – each one carefully folded and tucked into its proper

place. The strands begin as separate pieces before being joined together in elaborate

patterns and designs, of which the possibilities are almost limitless. In masterful

hands, a lauhala mat is seamless and has the effect of looking like a single piece of

fiber-textured fabric.

In this metaphor, weaving a lauhala mat represents the idea of Hawaiian cultural

connectedness. A mat is a desirable product with many functional purposes. We

believe that Hawaiian cultural connectedness can be an important aspect of someone’s

self-concept. It helps people make sense of the world around them, shapes their

attitude about certain things, and guides their behavior.

Whereas a lauhala mat is composed of many, possibly hundreds, of individual

strands, the model of Hawaiian Cultural Connectedness represents six elements.

These are: Hawaiian Language, Cultural Values and Attachment, Connection to

ÿOhana, Connection to ÿÄina, Cultural Knowledge and Practice, and Cultural Issues

Engagement. While not exhaustive in any sense, these few strands offer a partial

understanding of an individual’s overall Hawaiian cultural connectedness.

The strands comprising our metaphorical lauhala mat are important indicators of

connectedness. When examined separately, they offer information about beliefs,

knowledge, and practices related to Hawaiian culture. Like a lauhala mat, the strands

of the Hawaiian Cultural Connectedness model overlap with one another, simultaneously

organizing and strengthening each other and the whole.

2


Much like weaving a mat, achieving Hawaiian cultural connectedness is largely an

ongoing activity because there is always more to learn, more ways to grow, more

things to experience, and ultimately more strands to weave. Similarly, the HCC survey

is labeled ‘Version 1.0’ because we anticipate making additions and improvements

as we continue to use it. The research team welcomes any feedback about the current

strands, the scoring procedures, or potential new strands that can be identified and

developed to broaden the relevance of the survey.

HAWAIIAN CULTURAL CONNECTEDNESS:

Quick Facts

What can the survey do?

The Hawaiian Cultural Connectedness Survey is designed to gauge how connected

students are to six strands of Hawaiian culture. It captures important information

about students’ cultural knowledge, beliefs, and practices. As a tool, it can help identify

areas of strengths as well as opportunities for growth within individuals or programs.

The survey offers a global, high-level look at individuals’ connectedness to

Hawaiian culture and, since it is not tied to any one program or curriculum, it can be

used in many different settings. Since increasing cultural connectedness may be a goal

of programs serving Hawaiians and non-Hawaiians, items on the survey are written

so that anyone can answer them regardless of ancestry.

What can’t the survey do?

The Hawaiian Cultural Connectedness survey is not intended to provide a summative

statement on whether a person is Hawaiian, or “more Hawaiian” than

another. Like any set of survey questions it provides only partial information about

attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors that are self-reported. Moreover, no single tool can

adequately describe what it means to be Hawaiian. The substantial diversity within

the Hawaiian community suggests that there is no ‘one way’ to be Hawaiian. As a

result, the six strands of HCC do not capture all the richness and texture of Hawaiian

culture. Instead, they represent a handful of culturally salient themes which serve as

indicators of connectedness.

3


THE SIX STRANDS

of Hawaiian Cultural Connectedness

1

HAWAIIAN

LANGUAGE

2

CULTURAL VALUES

& ATTACHMENT

3

CONNECTION

TO ‘OHANA

4

CONNECTION

TO ‘AINA

5

CULTURAL

KNOWLEDGE

& PRACTICE

6

CULTURAL

ISSUES

ENGAGEMENT

4


1Hawaiian Language

This strand consists of items about ‘ölelo Hawai‘i, or the Hawaiian language.

Although there are many facets to ‘ölelo Hawai‘i worth exploring, the HCC items

focus upon three specific areas. Individuals are asked to self-assess their ability to

speak and understand Hawaiian along with how well they are able to participate

in cultural protocol.

Whereas speaking Hawaiian is often used as an indicator of language ability on

its own, the other items in the strand capture important information. Sometimes

individuals are reluctant to say they “speak Hawaiian” even though they are able

to understand ‘ölelo Hawai‘i when they hear it. Likewise, participation in protocol

indicates the degree to which they are able to put their ‘ölelo Hawai‘i to use.

• Understanding Hawaiian: shows contextual knowledge

• Speaking Hawaiian: shows higher level of fluency

• Participating in protocol: shows application of skill

5


2Cultural Values and Attachment

These items reference how well individuals internalize and demonstrate select

Hawaiian values. The values listed in this group are by no means exhaustive.

However, they cover a range of beliefs and practices that are closely associated

with Hawaiian culture. A person’s ability to recognize and embrace Hawaiian

values is one way of assessing cultural attachment.

The values highlighted in this strand include:

• ‘Ike Hawai‘i (seeking greater knowledge about Hawaiian culture, traditions,

and customs)

• Pono (behaving in ways that are appropriate, moral, and fair for the betterment

of the group)

• Lökahi (working towards unity, harmony, and balance)

• Mo‘okü‘auhau (having an appreciation of family origins, lineage and history)

• Kuleana (carring out one’s priviliges and responsibilities)

• Ha‘aha‘a (conducting one’s self with humility and modesty)

• Aloha (sharing love, compassion and sympathy with others)

• Mälama ‘äina (looking afer the land and its resources that sustain life)

• Kü i ka pono (taking a stand for what is just and right)

6


3Connection to ‘Ohana

In this strand, seven items are used to assess an individual’s relationship with his/her

family. From a Hawaiian perspective, ‘ohana (extended family) is important because

it is the network most often relied upon for support and it is also the environment in

which a child’s first learning occurs. A significant part of this education involves

understanding proper behavior and the kuleana of one’s role.

The individual items frame the family in several ways:

• Family determines what is right and wrong

• Family spends time together

• Family is a source of emotional support

• Family activities are valued

• Family is a venue for sharing new knowledge and experience

• Family members are cared for

7


4Connection to ‘Āina

These items reference individuals’ relationship with the ‘äina, or land. Hawaiians

maintain an intimate connection to the land, which they have an obligation to nurture

and protect. In turn, the ‘äina provides all the necessary resources to sustain life. The

close bond between känaka (people) and ‘äina can be seen in the way notions of land

are woven into personal and collective identities.

The items in this strand relate to the following:

• He Hawai‘i au - I am Hawai‘i/Hawaiian; the relationship between ‘äina

and identity

• Huli a mahi - turning one’s hand to the dirt; the importance of doing things on

the ‘äina

• Aloha ‘äina - feeling a strong personal attachment and responsibility to the land

8


5Cultural Knowledge and Practice

This strand is comprised of principles and practices relating to Hawaiian ways of

knowing, being, and doing. The items selected do not represent the universe of

Hawaiian cultural knowledge and practice. Instead, they capture information about

individuals’ attitudes and behavior across three areas of interest: ‘Äina and Kai,

Spirituality and Relationships, and Mele and Mo‘olelo.

‘Äina and Kai

• Asking permission from nature

• Conserving resources

• Interpreting ocean signs

• Learning about native plants

• Working in a lo‘i (taro field)

Spirituality and Relationships

• Making ho‘okupu, or offerings

• Learning genealogy

• Blessing home

• Preparing food for special occasions

• Greeting people in Hawaiian ways

Mele and Mo‘olelo

• Dancing hula

• Chanting oli

9


6Cultural Issues Engagement

This strand references individuals’ level of engagement with cultural issues that have

implications for the Hawaiian community. The items included represent a partial list

of contemporary debates relevant to Hawaiians and their communities ranging from

political status, native rights, and cultural revitalization. It is crucial to note that this

strand examines engagement with issues rather than one’s particular stance on them.

The issues highlighted in this strand include:

• Native self determination (e.g., sovereignty)

• Native gathering rights

• Protection of wahi pana (cultural sites)

• Hawaiian language revitalization

10


ADMINISTRATION GUIDELINES

The Hawaiian Cultural Connectedness Survey V.1.0 was developed to meet the

needs of individuals and programs to collect and report on data regarding cultural

outcomes. The survey was originally designed for in-school and out-of-school

programs serving students in grades 6 through 12. Although it is possible to use the

tool with adult populations, such as parents or staff members, the items have so far

been tested with adolescents only.

The survey can be administered in different ways depending on the needs and

focus of the program. It can capture baseline data regarding students’ connection to

Hawaiian culture, which can be used to inform future programming and service

delivery. The survey can be used as a formative assessment of students’ areas of

strength and opportunities for growth across the six strands. Such data could be

compared to program goals and activities to ensure alignment.

Survey questions are designed to capture sufficient variability in student responses.

Depending on the program and its setting, the survey can be used as a pre- and posttest,

where students take the survey early in the program and again at the end (e.g.,

the beginning and end of a school year). This would potentially allow program staff

to collect and report on impact relating to students’ cultural connectedness.

To complete a paper-based version of the survey, pencils or pens are required along

with a reasonably hard writing surface. In-class settings are ideal but not necessary as

students can complete the survey outdoors or other instances where chairs and desks

are not available. The seating arrangement should limit students’ ability to read each

other’s answers or influence their responses.

Most students will be able to complete the survey within 15 minutes. It is suggested

that the survey not be given at an ‘inconvenient’ or ‘rushed’ time, such as during

lunch or recess. Likewise, administering the survey near the time grades or test results

are released to students could unduly influence students’ responses.

Included in this booklet you will find 1) a copy of the survey that you can duplicate

and administer and 2) a sample cover letter that explains the survey and details the

administration procedures. More information about the Hawaiian Cultural Connectedness

Survey V.1.0 can be obtained by contacting the Kamehameha Schools’ Research

& Evaluation Division (spire@ksbe.edu).

11


HAWAIIAN CULTURAL

CONNECTEDNESS SURVEY v.1.0

Aloha mai,

Mahalo for choosing to administer the Hawaiian Cultural Connectedness Survey

V.1.0 with your students. This survey is designed to gauge how connected students

are to six strands of Hawaiian culture. With this guide you will find the Hawaiian

Cultural Connectedness Survey V.1.0 and related documents for your students (grades

6 and up only).

Before administering the survey:

• Allow for one 15 minute session to complete the survey.

To administer the survey:

• Distribute surveys.

• Read the cover page instructions with the students:

You are not required to take this survey and may choose to stop the survey at any time. Do not write

your name anywhere on this survey. This is a private survey. No one will be able to find out how you

or anyone else answered.

You will be asked to tell about yourself, your experiences, and your feelings. Please be as honest as

you can.

This survey will take about 15 minutes.

IMPORTANT MARKING DIRECTIONS

• Use black lead pencil only (No. 2).

• Do NOT use ink or ballpoint pens.

• Make heavy black marks that fill the circle.

• Erase cleanly any answer you wish to change.

• Do not make any stray marks on the questionnaire.

Proper Mark

EXAMPLES

Improper Mark

X

• Students should complete the survey on their own.

• Teachers may provide general assistance to students who have questions.

• It should take no longer than 15 minutes to complete the survey. If students are

done before 15 minutes, allow them to rest quietly while others are finishing.

The Hawaiian Cultural Connectedness Survey V.1.0 was developed by the

Kamehameha Schools’ Research & Evaluation Division (email: spire@ksbe.edu).

12


Recommended Scoring Procedures

The HCC survey takes a strengths-based approach, positing that students possess

various assets that, when identified, can be mobilized into positive resources for learning.

In the section that follows, scoring procedures are recommended for each of the

six strands of the Hawaiian Cultural Connectedness Survey V.1.0. As with any survey,

it is possible to assess respondents in a multitude of ways. These recommended scoring

procedures are guidelines only and can be modified as needed according to program

specifications.

HAWAIIAN LANGUAGE

Not at all

With

difficulty

Fairly well

Very well

I speak Hawaiian.

1 2 3 4

I understand Hawaiian when it is spoken.

1 2 3 4

I am able to participate in cultural protocol in Hawaiian (for example, entry chants,

personal introductions, or pule, prayer).

1 2 3 4

Scoring

In order for Hawaiian Language to be considered an asset, an individual must score a

mean of greater than or equal to 3 (Fairly well or Very well, overall). The red shaded

area above refers to where (on average) the responses of individuals will fall if they

have this asset.

Another way to score the strand is to add up all the points a individual receives out of

the 12 possible. If an individual scores 9 or more, then Hawaiian Language is an asset.

(Total points: __ /12)

13


CULTURAL VALUES AND ATTACHMENT

Strongly

Agree

Agree

Somewhat

Agree

Neutral

Somewhat

Disagree

Disagree

Strongly

Disagree

I have spent time trying to find out more about Hawaiian

history, traditions and customs.

7 6 5 4 3 2 1

It is important for me to know my genealogy from both

of my parents.

7 6 5 4 3 2 1

I strive to show aloha for everyone I interact with.

7 6 5 4 3 2 1

I strive to be pono and do the right thing in all parts of my life.

7 6 5 4 3 2 1

I am ha‘aha‘a or humble when praised by others for doing

excellent work.

7 6 5 4 3 2 1

The ‘äina (land) is a living sacred being that I should mälama

or protect.

7 6 5 4 3 2 1

I strive to achieve lökahi or harmony with myself, others,

and the environment.

7 6 5 4 3 2 1

I understand my role and kuleana, or responsibilities and

privileges, within my ‘ohana or extended family.

7 6 5 4 3 2 1

I am not afraid to take a stand (kü i ka pono) when something

is wrong.

7 6 5 4 3 2 1

Scoring

In order for Cultural Values and Attachment to be considered an asset, an individual

must score a mean of greater than or equal to 6 (Strongly Agree or Agree). The red

shaded area above refers to where (on average) the responses of individuals will fall

if they have this asset.

Another way to score the strand is to add up all the points an individual receives out

of the 63 possible. If an individual scores 54 or more, then Cultural Values and Attachment

is an asset. (Total points: __ /63)

14


CONNECTION TO ‘OHANA

Strongly

Agree

Agree

Somewhat

Agree

Neutral

Somewhat

Disagree

Disagree

Strongly

Disagree

My family gives me guidance and teaches me right from wrong.

7 6 5 4 3 2 1

I rely on my family for help when I am upset or sad.

7 6 5 4 3 2 1

I share what I learn in school with my family.

7 6 5 4 3 2 1

My family gets together often.

7 6 5 4 3 2 1

Family activities are just as important to me as activities with

my friends.

7 6 5 4 3 2 1

It is important for older brothers and sisters to take care and look

after their younger siblings.

7 6 5 4 3 2 1

It is important to respect and care for küpuna or

elder family members.

7 6 5 4 3 2 1

Scoring

In order for Connection to ÿOhana to be considered an asset, an individual must score

a mean of greater than or equal to 6 (Strongly Agree or Agree). The red shaded area

above refers to where (on average) the responses of individuals will fall if they have

this asset.

Another way to score the strand is to add up all the points an individual receives out

of the 49 possible. If an individual scores 42 or more, then Connection to ÿOhana is an

asset (Total points: __ /49).

15


CONNECTION TO ‘AINA

Strongly

Agree

Agree

Somewhat

Agree

Neutral

Somewhat

Disagree

Disagree

Strongly

Disagree

The ‘äina (land) defines who I am and makes up a primary part of

my identity.

7 6 5 4 3 2 1

Doing things on the ‘äina (land) deepens my appreciation for

Hawaiian history and culture.

7 6 5 4 3 2 1

I feel hurt when people disrespect the ‘äina (land).

7 6 5 4 3 2 1

Scoring

In order for Connection to ÿÄina to be considered an asset, an individual must score

a mean of greater than or equal to 6 (Strongly Agree or Agree). The red shaded area

above refers to where (on average) the responses of individuals will fall if they have

this asset.

Another way to score the strand is to add up all the points an individual receives out of

the 21 possible. If an individual scores 18 or more then Connection to ÿÄina is an asset

(Total points: __ /21).

16


CULTURAL KNOWLEDGE AND PRACTICE

I don’t

know what

this is

I know

what

this is

I think

this is

important

I practice

this

sometimes

I practice

this often

Asking permission before fishing, hunting, or gathering from nature.

1 2 3 4 5

Taking only what you need from the ocean or forest without wasting resources.

1 2 3 4 5

Interpreting natural signs at the beach (for example, tidal shifts, ocean

conditions, or the appearance of certain fish).

1 2 3 4 5

Learning about the many uses of native plants.

1 2 3 4 5

Planting or harvesting kalo (taro).

1 2 3 4 5

Having family home or other space blessed in a Hawaiian way.

1 2 3 4 5

Taking part in Native healing or medicinal practices (for example,

ho‘oponopono, lomilomi, lä‘au lapa‘au).

1 2 3 4 5

Making offerings or ho‘okupu at appropriate cultural situations.

1 2 3 4 5

Learning genealogy or family origins.

1 2 3 4 5

Preparing food for important cultural celebrations (for example, a baby lü‘au).

1 2 3 4 5

Greeting people in Hawaiian ways.

1 2 3 4 5

Dancing hula.

1 2 3 4 5

Chanting oli.

1 2 3 4 5

17


Scoring

The Cultural Knowledge & Practice strand focuses on participation in cultural

activities and perpetuation of traditional knowledge. Therefore, to be considered an

asset, an individual must practice several of the items in the set either “sometimes”

or ‘often” (see shaded area). Although 13 items are listed, the one regarding “Having

family home or other space blessed in a Hawaiian way” is not included in the scoring

because youth may have limited opportunities to participate in this activity. So in

effect, there are actually 12 items in the set.

For Cultural Knowledge & Practice to be an asset, individuals must score a 4 (I

practice this sometimes) or a 5 (I practice this often) in 6 out of 12 items.

18


CULTURAL ISSUES ENGAGEMENT

I don’t

know what

this is

I know

what

this is

I have an

opinion

about this

I have done

something

about this

I do

something

about this

regularly

Native sovereignty or the desire of Hawaiians to govern themselves.

1 2 3 4 5

Native gathering rights such as shoreline access or the ability to collect

plants from private property.

1 2 3 4 5

Protecting wahi pana or cultural sites from misuse, neglect, or abuse.

1 2 3 4 5

Keeping Hawaiian language alive.

1 2 3 4 5

Scoring

In order to be considered an asset, the Cultural Issues Engagement strand has two

requirements: engagement and action. Of the four items listed above, an individual

must score at least 3 (red box: I have an opinion about this, I have done something

about this, I do something about this regularly) for at least two of the issues. Additionally,

an individual must score at least 4 (bold outline: I have done something

about this, I do something about this regularly) for at least one of the issues.

Another way of scoring this strand is to total the responses of individuals in a twostep

process.

A) Count # of items scoring 3 or higher: (__/4)

B) Count # of items scoring 4 or higher: (__/4)

If A is greater than or equal to 2 AND B is greater than or equal to 1 then Cultural

Issues Engagement is an asset.

19


Summary of Scoring Procedures

Four of the six strands are scored using means of the respective items. For Connection

to ÿOhana, Connection to ÿÄina, and Cultural Values and Attachment, means of

greater than or equal to 6 (Strongly Agree or Agree) indicate an asset. For Language, a

mean of greater than or equal to 3 (Fairly Well or Very Well) indicates an asset.

The remaining two strands are scored differently. For Cultural Knowledge and Practice,

the response options that matter are “I practice this sometimes” and “I practice

this often.” Scoring in this area (i.e., 4 or 5) in 6 out of the 12 items indicates an asset.

Remember, the question regarding ‘blessing of the home’ is not included in the final

count (see page 18).

In order to be considered an asset, the Cultural Issues Engagement strand has two

requirements: engagement and action. Of the four cultural issues, an individual must

score at least 3 (I have an opinion about this, I have done something about this, I do

something about this regularly) for at least two of the issues. Additionally, an individual

must score at least 4 (I have done something about this, I do something about this

regularly) for at least one of the issues.

20


THE ROOTS OF

HAWAIIAN CULTURAL CONNECTEDNESS

The Hawaiian Cultural Connectedness survey is a community-developed, researchbased,

and scientifically tested instrument. Items comprising HCC are informed by

multiple inputs and processes. Most directly, they originate in the Hawaiian Cultural

Influences in Education (HCIE) study. HCIE is a collaborative research project involving

Kamehameha Schools, the Hawaiÿi Department of Education, and Nä Lei Naÿauao,

an alliance of Hawaiian-focused charter schools. The study examines the relationship

between culture-based teaching and learning strategies and educational outcomes for

students. To capture information relating to student outcomes, the Culture-Based

Education Student Tool (CBEST) was developed. Items on the CBEST were obtained

from three main sources: previous research, existing surveys, and a community

advisory group (See Figure 1).

Figure 1: Development of the Hawaiian Cultural Connectedness model.

21


In 2006-2007, approximately 3,000 middle and high school students across the state were

surveyed using the CBEST. A factor analysis was performed on the data to identify underlying

patterns in student responses. The results produced eight strong factors, which fold

into the six strands of the Hawaiian Cultural Connectedness model Examining responses

to cultural questions can reveal how Hawaiian culture, as a construct or model, is ‘put

together’ from a student’s point of view. Consequently, the HCC survey is a tool informed

largely by what youth consider to be significant elements of Hawaiian culture. Interestingly

enough, when compared to Nä Honua Mauli Ola guidelines for creating culturally

rich learning environments, the HCC strands resonate reasonably well (See Figure 2).

Figure 2: Alignment between Hawaiian Cultural Connectedness and Nä Honua Mauli Ola.

22


TESTING AND VALIDATING THE SURVEY

Although rooted in the HCIE study, Hawaiian Cultural Connectedness branches into the

Hoÿomau i Nä ÿÖpio: Youth Development and Assets (ÿÖpio) project. ÿÖpio is a collaboration

between Kamehameha Schools and the Search Institute, a research company known

for its work with youth developmental assets (http://www.search-institute.org/). The

goal of the project is to design a survey using items corresponding to established assets

while developing new items to comprise a cultural category.

In 2008, Hawaiian Cultural Connectedness items were pilot-tested in Hawaiian language

immersion schools and Hawaiian-focused charter schools as part of the Nä ÿÖpio survey.

Participants included 411 5th-12th grade students in 10 schools on Kauaÿi, Oÿahu, and

Hawaiÿi islands. Participating schools were selected based on availability and their high

concentration of Hawaiian students. The results were positive, showing that HCC items

as a whole and as separate strands continued to hold together statistically. Furthermore,

a positive relationship was observed between students experiencing strong cultural

connectedness and other assets related to positive school experiences.

The research team conducted cognitive interviews with samples of participating students

to better understand their thoughts about the Nä ÿÖpio survey and the HCC

items. On average, students believed the survey items were appropriate but a number

of suggestions were offered to improve the clarity and readability of some sections. In

addition, most students reported they had positive feelings about themselves after taking

the survey.

In early 2009 the Nä ÿÖpio survey was field-tested with a larger sample of students from

Hawaiian language and culture-based public schools, Kamehameha Schools, and participants

in out-of-school, intersession programs. Approximately 2,800 students completed

surveys. Once again, the results were positive showing that the survey items were statistically

valid. Furthermore, the results revealed that they were reliable across different

survey groups. Detailed results of these tests can be obtained from the Research and

Evaluation Division (spire@ksbe.edu). Based on feedback from teachers and program

coordinators, one item in Cultural Knowledge and Practice was modified.

23


HAWAIIAN CULTURAL

CONNECTEDNESS

SURVEYV.1.0

25


HAWAIIAN CULTURAL CONNECTEDNESS SURVEY v.1.0

You are not required to take this survey and may choose to stop the survey at any time.

Do not write your name anywhere on this survey. This is a private survey. No one will

be able to find out how you or anyone else answered.

You will be asked to tell about yourself, your experiences, and your feelings.

Please be as honest as you can.

This survey will take about 15 minutes.

IMPORTANT MARKING DIRECTIONS

• Use black lead pencil only (No. 2).

• Do NOT use ink or ballpoint pens.

• Make heavy black marks that fill the circle.

• Erase cleanly any answer you wish to change.

• Do not make any stray marks on the questionnaire.

Proper Mark

EXAMPLES

Improper Mark

X

1. How old are you?

11 or younger 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 or older

2. What is your grade in school?

6 th 7 th 8 th 9 th 10 th 11 th 12 th

3. What is your gender?

Male Female Other

4. Are you Hawaiian/part Hawaiian?

Yes No Don’t know

5. Which of the following ethnic groups do you strongly identify with? (Mark all that apply)

Hawaiian Samoan Tongan Other Pacific Islander

Portugese Black/African American White/Caucasian

Native American/Alaska Native Puerto Rican Hispanic/Latino Chinese

Filipino Japanese Korean Other Asian Don’t know

Other ethnicity or race (Please specify)

1 HAWAIIAN CULTURAL CONNECTEDNESS SURVEY V.1.0

26


FOR EACH STATEMENT, CHOOSE ONE RESPONSE THAT BEST DESCRIBES WHAT YOU VALUE.

Strongly

Agree

Agree

Somewhat

Agree

Neutral

Somewhat

Disagree

Disagree

Strongly

Disagree

6. I have spent time trying to find out more about Hawaiian

history, traditions and customs.

7. It is important for me to know my genealogy from both

of my parents.

8. I strive to show aloha for everyone I interact with.

9. I strive to be pono and do the right thing in all parts of

my life.

10. I am ha‘aha‘a or humble when praised by others for doing

excellent work.

11. The ‘äina (land) is a living, sacred being that I should mälama

or protect.

12. I strive to achieve lökahi or harmony with myself, others,

and the environment.

13. I understand my role and kuleana, or responsibilities and

privileges, within my ‘ohana or extended family.

14. I am not afraid to take a stand (kü i ka pono) when

something is wrong.

15. The ‘äina (land) defines who I am and makes up a

primary part of my identity.

16. Doing things on the ‘äina (land) deepens my appreciation

for Hawaiian history and culture.

17. I feel hurt when people disrespect the ‘äina (land).

FOR EACH STATEMENT, CHOOSE ONE RESPONSE THAT BEST DESCRIBES YOUR FAMILY.

Strongly

Agree

Agree

Somewhat

Agree

Neutral

Somewhat

Disagree

Disagree

Strongly

Disagree

18. My family gives me guidance and teaches me right

from wrong.

19. I rely on my family for help when I am upset or sad.

2 HAWAIIAN CULTURAL CONNECTEDNESS SURVEY V.1.0

27


Strongly

Agree

Agree

Somewhat

Agree

Neutral

Somewhat

Disagree

Disagree

Strongly

Disagree

20. I share what I learn in school with my family.

21. My family gets together often.

22. Family activities are just as important to me as activities

with my friends.

23. It is important for older brothers and sisters to take

care and look after their younger siblings.

24. It is important to respect and care for küpuna or

elder family members.

FOR EACH STATEMENT, CHOOSE ONE RESPONSE THAT BEST DESCRIBES WHAT YOU PRACTICE.

25. Asking permission before fishing, hunting, or gathering

from nature.

I don’t

know what

this is

I know

what

this is

I think

this is

important

I practice

this

sometimes

I practice

this often

26. Taking only what you need from the ocean or forest

without wasting resources.

27. Interpreting natural signs at the beach (for example, tidal

shifts, ocean conditions, or the appearance of certain fish).

28. Learning about the many uses of native plants.

29. Planting or harvesting kalo (taro).

30. Having family home or other space blessed in a Hawaiian way.

31. Taking part in Native healing or medicinal practices (for example,

ho‘oponopono, lomilomi, lä‘au lapa‘au).

32. Making offerings or ho‘okupu at appropriate cultural situations.

33. Learning genealogy or family origins.

3 HAWAIIAN CULTURAL CONNECTEDNESS SURVEY V.1.0

28


I don’t

know what

this is.

I know

what

this is.

I think

this is

important.

I practice

this

sometimes.

I practice

this often.

34. Preparing food for important cultural celebrations (for example,

a baby lü‘au).

35. Greeting people in Hawaiian ways.

36. Dancing hula.

37. Chanting oli.

FOR EACH STATEMENT, CHOOSE ONE RESPONSE THAT BEST DESCRIBES YOU.

I don’t

know what

this is

I know

what

this is

I have an

opinion

about this

I have done

something

about this

I do

something

about this

regularly

38. Native sovereignty or the desire of Hawaiians to govern themselves.

39. Native gathering rights such as shoreline access or the ability to collect

plants from private property.

40. Protecting wahi pana or cultural sites from misuse, neglect, or abuse.

41. Keeping Hawaiian language alive.

FOR EACH STATEMENT, CHOOSE ONE RESPONSE THAT BEST DESCRIBES YOU.

Not at all

With

difficulty

Fairly well

Very well

42. I speak Hawaiian.

43. I understand Hawaiian when it is spoken.

44. I am able to participate in cultural protocol in Hawaiian (for example, entry chants,

personal introductions, or pule, prayer).

MAHALO FOR COMPLETING THIS SURVEY.

4 HAWAIIAN CULTURAL CONNECTEDNESS SURVEY V.1.0

29


KAMEHAMEHA SCHOOLS

RESEARCH AND EVALUATION DIVISION

30


Acknowledgments

We are grateful to the many individuals and organizations that helped develop this

survey through their participation, feedback, and support.

Across Kamehameha Schools . . .

Michael Chun, Kamehameha Schools, Kapälama Campus

Stanley Fortuna, Kamehameha Schools, Hawaiÿi Campus

LeeAnn Delima, Kamehameha Schools, Maui Campus

Nolan Malone, Kamehameha Schools, Research and Evaluation Division

Katherine Tibbetts, Kamehameha Schools, Research and Evaluation Division

Brandon Ledward, Kamehameha Schools, Research and Evaluation Division

Rod Chamberlain, Kamehameha Schools, Campus Strategies Division

Koren Ishibashi, Kamehameha Schools, Campus Strategies Division

Terry Kelly, Kamehameha Schools, Program Support Division

Kaiponohea Hale, Kamehameha Schools, Curriculum Support and Dissemination Branch

Robin Racoma, Kamehameha Schools, Curriculum Support and Dissemination Branch

Shawn Kanaÿiaupuni, Kamehameha Schools, Public Education Support Division

Tony Lebron, Kamehameha Schools, Extension Education Services

Robert Medeiros, Kamehameha Schools, Enrichment Division

Andrea Dias, Kamehameha Schools, K-Scholars

Mahalo to our community partners . . .

Kaÿiulani Pahio, Kanu O Ka ÿÄina Learning ÿOhana (KALO)

Keoni Inciong, Hawaiÿi Department of Education, Hawaiian Language and Studies Programs

Alice Kawakami, University of Hawaiÿi at Mänoa, College of Education

Lois Ann Yamauchi, University of Hawaiÿi at Mänoa, College of Education

Iwalani Else, National Center for Indigenous Hawaiian Behavioral Health (NCIHBH)

Haunani Seward, Ke Kula Niÿihau O Kekaha Public Charter School

And others . . .

Brennan Takayama, Shawna Medeiros, Rozlynd Vares, Jared Nielson,

Pia Chaparro, Makana Garma, Keikioÿewa Kaopua, Änuenue Punua, and Morris Lai.

31


KAMEHAMEHA SCHOOLS

RESEARCH AND EVALUATION DIVISION

More magazines by this user
Similar magazines