Hydrogen Strategies in Developing Countries


Hydrogen Strategies in Developing Countries

United Nations Industrial Development Organization

International Centre for

Hydrogen Energy Technologies

Review of

Hydrogen Energy Strategies

in Developing Countries

Öznur Tabakoglu

Project Engineer, UNIDO-ICHET

II International Forum

Hydrogen technologies- for the developing world”

22-23 April 2008, Moscow, Russia


Energy Implications in Developing Countries

Hydrogen Strategies in Developing Countries:

- China

- India

- Malaysia

- Brazil

- South Africa

- Turkey

World Primary Energy Demand

Reference Scenario - WEO 2006

Rising global energy demand poses a real and growing threat to the

world’s energy security

Developing countries

become the biggest

energy consumers within

a decade

• Over 70% of increase in world primary energy demand between

2004-2030 comes from developing countries.

Global CO 2 Emissions Increasing

Source: International Energy Agency, “World Energy Outlook”, 2006

Implications for Developing Countries

Transition to the post-carbon area

• The developing world will soon overtake the developed world in

terms of energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions.

• Further utilization of fossil fuels to meet the energy demands of

developing countries will worsen energy security and

environmental problems

• It is imperative that developing countries “leap frog” over the

conventional energy consumption to the cleanest possible

energy technologies including renewables and hydrogen

energy technologies

Hydrogen is a Possible Key to

a Secure and Clean Energy Future


Global, clean, permanent energy system












With Carbon












National Initiatives:

US ~ $ 1 700 mill. over 5 years

Japan ~ $ 300 mill. a year

EC (EU) ~ € 200-300 mill. a year in the

7th FP

plus: Brazil, Canada, China, India and

many others



China Has Set H2/FC as Technology Development Priority

• In the “Tenth Five-year Plan”(2001-2005), funding for EV&H2/FC-related

programs added up to 40% of total energy research budget.

• Main focus includes both basic and technological aspects of fuel cell,

hydrogen storage and generation.

• Ministry of Science and Technology approved a 880 million Yuan (US$106

million) R&D program for hydrogen and FC technologies during 2001-2005

China’s Vision for Transition to Hydrogen Economy

By 2020 - Technology Development Phase: Research to meet customer

requirements and establish business case lead to commercialization


By 2050 - Market Penetration Phase: Electric power and transport market

begin to develop, infrastructure investment begins with government


Beyond 2050 - Fully Developed Market and Infrastructure Phase: The

hydrogen economy is realized.

China’s Energy and Hydrogen Vision

Preliminary phase(2020)

Implementation of “energy saving priority”

Coal exploitation and utilization with high efficiency and clean process.

Maturing of core technologies for vehicle fuel cell system, and

commercialization of fuel cell vehicles in several key cities.


Coal dominates the energy mix, but coal-based power generation system with

zero-emission gets commercialized and deployed gradually.

Hydrogen generation from renewables is gradually deployed in scale.

But coal is still the main hydrogen source.


The increased energy demand is mainly met by development of renewable

energy and nuclear energy after 2035.

The proportion of coal decreases gradually to less than 50% in 2050.

The national hydrogen delivery pipeline system is primarily established, and

hydrogen economy is realized.

China’s H2/FC-related Basic Research Program

(973 Program)

A total budget of 52 million RMB on the following two areas:

1) Fundamentals of Large-scale Production, Storage and

Transportation of Hydrogen and the Related Fuel Cells

• Duration: 2000-2005,

• Budget: 30 million RMB (US$ 4.3 million)

2) Basic Research of Hydrogen Production in Scale

Using Solar Energy

• Duration: 2003-2008,

• Budget: 22 million RMB (US$ 3.1 million)

China’s National High Technology

Development Program (863 Program)

The emphasis of 863 programme is on demostration,

commercialization, and support of Chinese vehicle


Budget: USD 106 milllion

1) Post-Fossil Thematic Project on Hydrogen Technology

2) Post-Fossil Thematic Project on High-Temperature Fuel

Cell Technology

3) Clean Coal Tech. Project on Innovative Hydrogen


4) Target-Oriented Key Project on Electric Automobile

Recent Fuel Cell Vehicles in China

Shanghai FC car

VW Passat FC car

FC bus,2006

Hydrogen Infrastructure in China

Source: Dr. Jianxin Ma, R&D Progress of FCVs and Hydrogen Infrastructure in Shanghai,

Clean Energy Automotive Engineering Center, Tongji University, July 12, 2007, Paris


Hydrogen energy research in India

started in 1976

In 2003, a National Hydrogen Energy

Board has been set up under Ministry of

New and Renewable Energy

The steering group of the Board decided

to prepare a National Hydrogen Energy

Road Map on February, 2004

– The main objective of the Road Map:

to identify the pathway which will

accelerate commercialization efforts and

will facilitate the creation of hydrogen

energy infrastructure in India.

Indian Strategies for Development of

Hydrogen Technologies

H 2

production from: biomass, nuclear, coal, solar and provide low cost and

preferably carbon free hydrogen.

Hydrogen storage: By 2020, India aims to reach a hydrogen storage capacity

of 9 % wt.

Hydrogen transportation and delivery: development and demonstration of H 2

transportation through pipelines, and on improved pressurized tanks/cylinders

for rail/road transport.

The present price of H 2

at the delivery point is ~6 USD/kg and it is aimed to

bring it down by a factor of 3-4 by 2020.

Standards, codes and safety norms: they should be taken up as a priority.

Fuel cell activities:

– Develop FC technologies with improved performance and efficiency

– Develop materials for FC systems

– Develop FC systems, such as FC-battery hybrid vehicles

– Demonstrate FC applications

– Develop standards, codes and training programme

Indian Hydrogen Roadmap

1M Hydrogen Vehicles & 1,000 MW Hydrogen Power by 2020

Two major initiatives on transport and power generation have been


1. Green Initiative for Future Transport (GIFT): aims to develop and

demonstrate hydrogen powered IC engine and FC vehicles

- It is estimated that 750,000 two/three wheelers, 150,000

cars/taxis, and 100,000 buses, in total 1 million hydrogen fueled

vehicles will be on road by 2020.

2. Green Initiative for Power Generation (GIP): aims to develop

hydrogen powered IC engine/turbine and FC based decentralized power

generating systems ranging from small milli watt up to 1000 MW power


In order to supply sufficient quantities of hydrogen to run 1 million

vehicles and operate 1,000 MW power generation units, 1.1 MMT

hydrogen/year hydrogen generation capacity would be required by



Malaysia aims to be a net oil importer in

fifteen to twenty years.

Malaysia will begin venturing into

alternative sources of energy.

“Roadmap for Solar, Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Research and

Development Directions and Markets in Malaysia” seriously looks

into energy possibilities that would address the needs of Malaysia.

Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Road Map provides guidelines for

future directions and action programs for R&D tailored to future

energy business scenario.

Hydrogen Road Map for Malaysia

Source: The Solar, Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Roadmap for Malaysia

Fuel Cell Road Map for Malaysia

Source: The Solar, Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Roadmap for Malaysia



Brazil is the largest country in Latin America,

The only Latin American country member of IPHE,

Primary energy consumption is dominated by oil

(42%), hydropower (14%) and RE sources (27%),

A major producer and consumer of biomass-based

ethanol for transport,

50% share of global ethanol trade,

Biofuel demand for transport will increase rapidly

from 14% (2004) to 30% (2030) [WEO 2006 Report]

Hydrogen Strategies in Brazil

Brazilian Government is elaborating policy and strategies for the

Hydrogen Economy.

Ministry of Energy, along with several collaborators, prepared the

Brazilian Road Map for the Hydrogen Economy which highlights:

Hydrogen will be part of the Brazilian energy resources in 2020;

– Ethanol is the main source of Hydrogen

Hydrogen production from electrolysis using secondary power of

hydroelectric power plants;

Hydrogen production from biomass and biogas;

– Main applications: distributed generation, isolated systems,

urban buses

Fuel Cell Program in Brazil

Ministry of Science and Technology adopted Brazilian Fuel Cell

Programme (PROH2).

Objectives of the PROH2:

– Establishment of the national industry for the production and services

related to fuel cell systems,

– Support the technology transfer between research institutions and


– Establish technical standards for the certification of processes,


– Finance and support demonstration projects using government


– Promote the dissemination of the fuel cell technology

The Brazilian Government allocated US$ 4 million and US$ 8 million

for PROH2 programme in 2005 and 2006/2007, respectively.


South Africa started hydrogen and fuel cell strategy development process in 2004

South African Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Strategy was agreed to in May 2007.

Rational for Developing the Strategy

The shifting of the SA economy from primary resource

dependence to high-technology dependence

The depletion of and long term concern about availability

of economically exploitable fossil fuels

Solar energy - an abundant and underutilised resource

South Africa’s dominating position in platinum reserves

(more than 75% of the world known reserves), the key

catalytic material used in hydrogen fuel cells;

South Africa’s leading position in the coal gasification to liquid fuels


Strategies and R&D Focus Areas

of South Africa

Strategic Goals of South Africa

Platinum Group Metals (PGM)-based catalysts in South Africa: supply

25% of catalysts demand for the global fuel cell industry by 2020

Develop local cost competitive hydrogen generation solutions (PGM

based & others)

Create sustainable jobs linked to the country’s minerals wealth

R & D Focus Areas

Developing catalysis expertise

Developing fuel cell technologies for niche applications

Developing cost effective hydrogen production technologies

Current Hydrogen Activities in South Africa

Mintek: R&D in gold and platinum catalysis

University of Western Cape: development of inorganic-based

membranes for PEMFCs

University of Limpopo: computational modelling of energy storage

materials and polymer membranes

2010 Sustainable Transportation Technology Solutions

- Toyota, Nissan & BMW willing to bring H2 cars

for various demonstration activities in FIFA 2010

- Air Products and Intelligent Energy have signed

a letter of intent: co-investment in H2/CNG fueling for 2010


Turkey has not yet prepared a

National Road Map on

hydrogen and fuel cell technologies.

There are various universities, and mainly three institutions

working on hydrogen R&D;

- The Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey


- UNIDO-ICHET (United Nations Industrial Development Organization-

International Centre for Hydrogen Energy Technologies),

- National Boron Institute

Hydrogen Energy Studies in Turkey

Projects of TUBITAK-MAM


(Hydrogen Technologies Excellence Project)

- Hydrogen production

- Hydrogen purification

- Hydrogen storage

- International Conferences, worshops

Fuel Cell Projects

- Modern Fuel Cells Framework


1)Development of 1.5 kW PEM fuel cell

2)System integration of PEM FC

- Development of Direct

Borohydride Fuel Cell ( 70-100 W




Istanbul – bridge between Europe & Asia (West & East)

Turkey – bridge between industrialized & developing countries

UNIDO-ICHET – bridge between fossil fuel past & hydrogen future

Formed in 2003 – trust fund agreement

between UNIDO and Turkish

Government (Ministry of Energy and

Natural Resources)

Budget $40M over 5 years

Started operation in 2004

Currently, staff of about 30


The International Centre for Hydrogen Energy Technologies

is a UNIDO project with the mission of demonstrating viable implementations

of hydrogen energy technologies and facilitating their widespread use in

developing countries. By stimulating appropriate applications, ICHET will thus

act as a bridge to help span the gaps that exist between the developed and

developing countries in the areas of both research and development efforts,

and energy supply and demand.

UNIDO-ICHET Activities

National (Turkish) Projects

International Projects

Research & Development

Conferences & Workshops

Educational Activities

Consulting Services

National Boron Institute

National Boron Institute was established in 2003,

The Institute investigates new application areas for boron and its

compounds including hydrogen studies,

Boron compounds are considered as promising candidates among

metal hydrides for hydrogen storage.

Ongoing Projects of Boron Institute:

– Development of a Synthesis Method for Sodium Borohydride Production

– Development and Integration of a Direct Borohydride Fue Cell


Long-term challenges for energy systems:

– the security of energy supply at affordable and also foreseeable prices,

– environmental issues.

Developing countries are faced with the option to follow the existing

coal to oil to natural gas energy path, or to “leap frog” straight to

renewable energy sources, complemented by hydrogen


A number of developing countries have already started to create

energy strategies and hydrogen road maps that evaluate their own

options, set priorities and establish targets and timetables.

It is important to have enough background and know-how in

hydrogen energy technologies which is seen as the energy system

of 21 st century.

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