Rural Sanitation in India – - WSP

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Rural Sanitation in India – - WSP

Rural Sanitation in India

Past experiences, lessons learnt

and future directions

1


Why focus on achieving TOTAL sanitation?

• Improved, total sanitation reduces diarrhea

Sanitation improvements have reduced diarrhea 30- 40%

• Reduced diarrhea improved nutrition outcomes

‣ Diarrhea limits food absorption. Recovery is slow.

• Improved nutrition improved child development

‣ Growth loss due to diarrhea estimated from 30%-90%

• Improved child development Improved cognitive development?

‣ Statistical correlations are strong. Stunted children are

slower to develop cognitive skills.

Sanitation access linked to school enrolment, especially of

girls post-puberty

2


The History….

Results of Hardware driven approaches….

Lesson learnt: Hardware subsidies without effective

demand generation will not produce intended results

3


TOTAL Sanitation required to

benefit public health

Decrease in Diarrhea due to ODF

% of toilet use

120

100

80

60

40

20

29

38

95

26

100

7

40

35

30

25

20

15

10

5

% of HH reporting diarrhea

0

0

Open Defecation

Villages

Almost ODF

ODF

4

Source: Knowledge Links, Formative Research for sanitation IEC manual, (2005)


50%

17% 18% 21.9% 22.4% 23%

2008

5

1%

4%

11%

3%

45%

38%

27%

31%

10% 11% 14% 6%

1980

1988

1989

1990

1991

1993

1994

1996

1997

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

60%

50%

40%

30%

20%

10%

0%

Coverage in rural sanitation


Achieving Total Sanitation Environments

6000

5000

4000

3000

To date, 5769 NGPs

have been awarded!

4959

2000

1000

0

40

770

2005 2006 2007

* India figure includes NGPs awarded at block level. Source: Govt. of India, Dept. of Drinking Water Supply

6


NGP Applications 2007-8

PUNJAB

ARUNACHAL PRADESH

MEGHALAYA

MIZORAM

ASSAM

TRIPURA

JHARKHAND

ORISSA

HIMACHAL PRADESH

BIHAR

UTTRAKHAND

KARNATAKA

KERALA

RAJASTHAN

CHATTISGARH

WEST BENGAL

ANDHRA PRADESH

HARYANA

TAMIL NADU

MADHYA PRADESH

UTTAR PRADESH

GUJARAT

MAHARASHTRA

3

6

18

20

21

181

226

258

456

520

598

609

758

861

944

965

1447

1585

1977

2724

4253

5628

6042

0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000

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To benchmark state performance on TSC,

we have looked at 7 indicators

1. No. of ODF GPs

2. %age of ODF GPs

3. No. of proposed NGPs

4. %age of IHHL Target achieved

5. %age of School San Target achieved

Each key performance

indicator is given a score

to understand overall

district performance.

Maximum score = 100

6. %age of TSC Budget Spent

7. Financial Efficiency

8


70 69

… and some States outperform others as

well!

65 64 63

60

56 55 54

48

44 43

India Country

Score = 44

39 38

25

22 21 20

17

10

8

6 5

3 3

9

KERALA

MAHARASHTRA

GUJARAT

ANDHRA PRADESH

TRIPURA

WEST BENGAL

TAMILNADU

UTTARAKHAND

SIKKIM

KARNATAKA

UTTAR PRADESH

CHATTISGARH

HARYANA

MADHYA PRADESH

HIMACHAL PRADESH

RAJASTHAN

ORISSA

BIHAR

JHARKHAND

ARUNACHAL PRADESH

ASSAM

PUNJAB

GOA

JAMMU & KASHMIR

MANIPUR

=61


Demand Stimulation through collective action

First step towards creating ODF communities

TRIGGER

10


Key Issues

Keeping the target ‘Sanitation for All’ by 2012 – two key

challenges:

• Scale

‣ accelerating progress in lagging states to catch up

• Sustainability

‣ maintaining the rigor and momentum of ‘Total

Sanitation

‣ sustenance of local governments’ achievement

and involvement beyond NGP

‣ Effectiveness of Nirmal Gram Puraskar

11


Thank you for your attention!

Open for Discussion

12

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