AAP 2012 Overview of Anti-Neutrino Detection & Challenges

phys.hawaii.edu

AAP 2012 Overview of Anti-Neutrino Detection & Challenges

AAP 2012

Overview of Anti-Neutrino

Detection & Challenges

Thierry Lasserre (CEA/Saclay)

AAP 2012 Workshop

Honolulu, October 4 th 2012


From basic science to applications

Neutrino are massive

Flavor oscillation ν e - ν µ - ν τ

Neutrino are mainly understood

Still open questions

But today Neutrinos are enough

understood to be used for society

Th. Lasserre - AAP 2012


Open questions not discussed at AAP

What are the masses of the mass eigenstates ν i ?

ν 3!

Δm 2 atm!

ν flavor change

(Mass) 2 !

0!

ν 2!

1!

?!

Δm 2 sol!

β decay, ββ0ν decay, Cosmology

( — )

Is the spectral pattern or ? ν behavior in earth matter, ββ0ν

Is there any conserved Lepton Number (Dirac or Majorana neutrino) ?

ββ0ν

What are the angles of the leptonic mixing matrix?

Do the behavior of ν violate CP?

Is leptonic CP responsible for the matter-antimatter asymmetry?

Leptogenesis?

How many neutrino types?

ν flavor change

Th. Lasserre - AAP 2012


Reactor Neutrinos Overview

Electron antineutrinos emitted through Decays

of Fission Products of 235 U, 238 U, 239 Pu, 241 Pu

Nuclear reactors :

Neutrino Luminosity :

γ : reactor constant

k : fuel evolution correction (


Plutonium Factories

238

U + n 239 U

239

U

239 Np + β -

239 Pu +β -

(8 kg for a bomb)

Th. Lasserre - AAP 2012


Reactor Neutrino Detection

Th. Lasserre - AAP 2012


Reactor Neutrino Detection

Inverse Beta Decay (IBD)

p + anti-v e e + + n

cross section @2 MeV : 5 10 -43 cm 2

scale as E 2

Neutrino-Electron Scattering

e - + anti-v e e - + anti-v e

cross section @0.8 MeV : 5 10 -45 cm 2

scale as E

Neutrino-Nucleus Coherent Scattering

A + anti-v e A + anti-v e

cross section @2 MeV > 10 -41 cm 2

scale as E 2

scale as N 2


Neutrino Coherent Scattering

Coherent scattering on nucleus for reactor neutrinos is a fundamental

Uncontroversial SM interaction not yet observed !

Gain of a factor ~(A-Z) 2 in cross section towards compact ν detectors !

Signature is a simple nucleon recoil - No kinematical threshold – But requires a

very low background level < 1 count per day per kilogram

Detector mass must be at least ~1 kg (@reactor) & recoil energy threshold


IDB Cross Section

Vogel: cross-section with corrections (Phys Rev D29 p1918, 1984)

Fayans 1985: very close to Vogel 84 (Sov J Nucl Phys 42, Oct 85)

Order 0 cross-section:

K = prefactor (n mean life)

Need extra corrections:

neutron recoil,

weak-magnetism,

outer radiative corrections:

Vogel-Beacom 99: “supersedes” Vogel 84 (Phys Prev D60 053003)


IBD Cross Section Per Fission

Ex: 235 U 6.6(1)10 -43 cm 2

Detected Spectrum

Threshold : 1.8 MeV

(neutrino energy)

Mean Energy : 3.6 MeV

Disappearance

experiment

No matter effect to be

considered for < 1000 km

baseline experiments c


Backgrounds & Signal

Electron antineutrino signature through inverse beta decay

ν e

511 keV

511 keV

p e

+

Gd

n

Σγ ~ 8 MeV

Prompt e + (1-8 MeV) Delayed n Gd-capture (8 MeV)

Time correlation: τ∼30 µs

Space correlation: ~ 1 MeV

Σγ ~ 8 MeV

Σγ ~ 8 MeV

Th. Lasserre - AAP 2012


IDB: neutron angular distribution

IDB reaction

Positron emission (no position information): vertex reconstruction

First neutron step in the forward direction directionality information

Then neutron thermalization random walk loose directionality

Finally neutron capture vertex localization possible

After vertex reconstruction: (e + ,n) vertex vector reconstructed for all events

and statistically studied 1.5-2 cm displacement in the antineutrino direction

Experimentally

Observed in the Goesgen experiment (10 sigmas)

Segmented detector

Observed in the Bugey-3 experiment

Segmented detector

Observed in the CHOOZ & Double Chooz experiments

Unsegmented detector

Future Goal: Could directionaly being used for background rejection?


IDB: Toy MC Simulation

First neutron step before collision:

very clear forward emission

First few collisions with scintillator

atoms the memory is partially

conserved and neutron is displaced

from the reaction point in +Z direction

After 8 collisions the memory is lost

and neutrons slow down and diffuse

symmetrically around the displaced

center.

After 20 collisions the neutron is

thermalized (0.025 eV) and captured


Overburden

Penly

Chooz

Cruas

Kashiwasaki

Diablo Canyon

KamLAND

Borexino

Th. Lasserre - AAP 2012


Backgrounds (from arXiv:0145439)

Th. Lasserre - AAP 2012


Detectors on the market

KamLAND

1000 t

Borexino

300 t

Rector/θ 13

~20 t

CHOOZ

5 t

⎛⎛ t ⎞⎞ ⎛⎛ P ⎞⎞ ⎛⎛ V ⎞⎞ ⎛⎛ 1 ⎞⎞

N(L) = 70⎜⎜

⎟⎟ ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟

⎝⎝ 1(day) ⎠⎠ ⎝⎝ 8.4(GW) ⎠⎠ ⎝⎝ 10(m 3 ) ⎠⎠ ⎝⎝ L(km) 2

⎠⎠

Th. Lasserre - AAP 2012


Reactor Neutrino : 4 regimes

Ratio of Observed To Predicted Reactor-ν’s

4 ν

VERY

SHORT

RANGE

SHORT RANGE

3 ν

no oscillation

MIDDLE RANGE

LONG RANGE

Reactor – Detector Distance (m)

Th. Lasserre - AAP 2012


Reactor Neutrino Spectra

&

Reactor Anomaly

Th. Lasserre - AAP 2012


New Reactor Antineutrino Spectra

Accurate e - measurements, ILL reactor (1980-89):

Irradiation of 235 U, 239 Pu, 241 Pu foils in intense n th flux at the ILL core

High resolution magn. spectrometer, normalization uncertainty of 1.8%

Thousands of β-branches involved…

From electron to neutrino spectra: need a conversion

Old Method:

Fit integral e - spectrum with a sum of 30 effective β-branches

Conversion of the effective branches to ν spectra

Effective correction on the ν-spectra (A C,W )

New Method (Phys. Rev. C83, 054615, 2011)

Conversion with “true” distribution of β-branches reproducing >90% of

ILL e - data + five effective branches to the remaining 10%

Net 3% upward shift in energy-averaged neutrino fluxes with

respect to old ν-spectrum for 235 U, 239 Pu, 241 Pu

Confirmed by Phys. Rev. C 84, 024617 (2011)

Th. Lasserre - AAP 2012


The Reactor Antineutrino Anomaly

i) ν emission : Improved reactor neutrino

spectra +3.5%

PRC83, 054615

(2011)

PRC84, 024617

(2011)

ii) ν detection : Reevaluation of σ IBD +1%

Evolution of the neutron life time

iii) ν detection : Accounting for long-lived

isotopes accumulating in reactors

+1%

Th. Lasserre - AAP 2012


19 Experimental results below 100m

Krasnoyarsk

Bugey

Savannah River

Rovno

ILL

Goesgen

Th. Lasserre - AAP 2012


The Reactor Antineutrino Anomaly

Reanalysis of Short Baseline Experiments Results (PRD83, 073006, 2011)

Th. Lasserre - AAP 2012


The reactor anomaly

0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4

ROVNO88_3S

18.2 m

ROVNO88_2S

25.2 m

ROVNO88_1S

18.2 m

ROVNO88_2I

18.0 m

ROVNO88_1I

18.0 m

SRP-II

23.8 m

SRP-I

18.2 m

Krasnoyarsk-III

57.3 m

Krasnoyarsk-II

92.3 m

Krasnoyarsk-I

33.0 m

ILL

8.76 m

Goesgen-III

65.0 m

Goesgen-II

46.0 m

Goesgen-I

38.0 m

Bugey3

95.0 m

Bugey3

40.0 m

Bugey-3/4

14.9 m

ROVNO91

18.0 m

0.92X!0.01X!0.07

0.94X!0.01X!0.07

0.95X!0.01X!0.07

0.93X!0.01X!0.06

0.90X!0.01X!0.06

1.00X!0.01X!0.04

0.94X!0.01X!0.03

0.93X!0.01X!0.05

0.94X!0.18X!0.05

0.92X!0.03X!0.06

0.79X!0.06X!0.05

0.91X!0.04X!0.05

0.97X!0.02X!0.06

0.95X!0.02X!0.06

0.86X!0.11X!0.04

0.94X!0.01X!0.04

0.93X!0.00X!0.04

0.92X!0.02X!0.03

Bugey-3/4

14.9 m

0.93X!0.00X!0.03

=881.5s

n

PDG2010

Average 0.927X ! 0.023

0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4

Measured

/ Expected, NEW

Fit:

Best fit for N obs /N exp : µ = 0.927

Uncertainty : 0.023 (syst.)

7% deficit wrt the new prediction

≈3%: reevaluation of emitted flux

≈3%: reevaluation of

IDB cross section parameters

Neutron lifetime

Accounting for off eq. effect

99.7 % C.L. deviation from unity

THE question:

Artifact or new physics?


Puzzling 1981 ILL ν-experiment

Reactor at ILL with almost pure 235 U, with compact core

Detector 8.8 m from core

Reanalysis in 1995 to account for overestimation of flux at ILL

reactor by 10%... Affects the rate only but 20% deficit!

H. Kwon et al. Phys Rev D 24. N° 5,1097 (1981)

Large errors, but a striking pattern is seen by eye ?


Simulation efforts

Ab Initio simulation of the ν spectrum evolution from all fission products

Integral Spectrum of e - and ν e

10-15% agreement with respect to Schreckenbach data

New measurements campagains ongoing to reduce systematics

(see recent arXiv:1208.3877 for instance)

Towards application to test diversion scenario

Th. Lasserre - AAP 2012


Far Field

(>50km)


Reactor Experiments

SNO

Borexino

Gallex/GNO

SuperK

KamLAND

Experiment Baseline Size

SuperK+Gd 180 km 22.500 tons

SNO+ 100’s km 1000 tons

KamLAND 180 km 1200 tons

Borexino ~800 km 300 tons

ν e


Reactor ν’s: KamLAND & Borexino

Purpose: Measure the disappearance of anti-ν e

from distant reactors with ~ 180-800 km

Channel : ν e → ν e (detected trough IBD)

KamLAND:

1000 t of liquid scintillator & 2000 PMTs

few interactions/day-weeks

E range: few 100 keV ~ ten’s MeV

Key contribution to Neutrino oscillation

Borexino:

Liquid scintillator & 2000 PMTs

few interactions/weeks

Long Range Monitoring of Reactors


Coming soon: SNO+

SNO filled with Liquid Scintillator

780 tonnes of LAB LS

Geoneutrinos:

44 geo-ν/y (1000 tons CH2)

Thick continental crust

Th/U Ratio

Crust content

Reactor Neutrinos

38 reactor events/y

Profondeur: 6010 mwe

Filling soon with water, and Nddoped

LS after to start a double

beta search

Th. Lasserre - AAP 2012


Middle Field

(1-2 km)


Reactor Neutrino Experiments

Double Chooz

Daya bay

Reno

Experiment Baseline Size Power Channel

Double Chooz 400 m / 1.1 km 10 m 3 8.6 GW (2)

Reno 350 / 1.4 km 20 m 3 16.4 GW (6)

Daya Bay 400 / 1.7 km 100 m 3 17.4 GW (6)


Double Chooz

Reactor

Detector

120 m.w.e.

4.27 GW th

300 m.w.e.


French Effort: Double Chooz Near

Courtesy Suekane’san

Th. Lasserre - AAP 2012


Daya Bay

923 m.w.e.

Reactor

Detector

291 m.w.e.

>3 km tunnel

New surface infrastructure

3 laboratory hall

8 detectors

Gd-volume: 200 m 3

255 m.w.e.

2.9 GW th

Daya Bay nuclear power station in China


RENO

2 detectors

Gd-volume: 40 m 3

Reactor

Detector

230 m.w.e.

2.73 GW th

675 m.w.e.

Yong gwang nuclear power station in Korea


Near Field

(< 1 km)


IAEA Safguards

Safeguards are applied by the IAEA to verify the correctness and

completeness of declarations made by States about the exclusively

peaceful use of their nuclear material and activities and thereby

reducing the risk of proliferation of nuclear weapons

Agreements for international monitoring of fissile materials and

production facilities Cooperative Monitoring

Many different devices

Non Destructive Assay (NDA)

Containment and Surveillance (C/S): Containment verification, Seals, Cameras

Destructive Analysis (DA)

Environmental Sampling (ES)

IAEA seek for novel technologies

Th. Lasserre - AAP 2012


What reactor ν could offer?

A detector of a 2 tons at 25 meters from the core detects few 1000’s

neutrinos per day. It can be operated remotely.

Continuous Unattended Monitoring. Neutrinos carries direct information

on nuclear fuel. Neutrinos cannot be hidden Temper-proof!

Neutrinos can be used to monitor the reactor status, the thermal power, and

they provide a ~100 kg sensitivity to Pu content

BUT ν-reactor monitoring addresses only a single step of the fuel cycle

Th. Lasserre - AAP 2012


• IAEA Detector Design Request:

– ‘Small’ 2.5 m footprint max

– Safe

– Remote & Easy Operation by Inspectors (not trained asneutrino

physicists)

– Reliable

– Relocatable

Challenges

Effort to Simplify the current design while keeping detector

performances

Integration of detectors into the Safeguards Regime

Deployment in different site locations (power stations, research

reactors), in different countries

Operating Above ground: the unfair fight against backgrounds

(Hadronic Component, Correlated backgrounds, Dead Time)

Th. Lasserre - AAP 2012

IAEA Guidelines


• Kurchatov's pioneers… @ Rovno in 1986

The pioneering ROVNO Effort

#ν/d

1050 liters of liquid scintillator + 0.5 g/l Gd

84 PMT; efficiency ~50% ;

Th. Lasserre - AAP 2012

CLEAR OBSERVATION of the Burnp Up !!!


| Done | Running | Proto | In construction|

World Activities

Site Techno Comment

SANDS San Onofre, US 0.5 t LS @20mwe Done

SANDS

San Onofre, US

PS & Gd-H2O

@20mwe

Th. Lasserre - AAP 2012

On Going

ANGRA Angra, Brazil LS On Site R&D

DANSS KNPP, Russia Plastic In construction

Kaska Joyo, Japan Gd-LS Prototype

Panda Japan Plastic, Gd foil Prototype

NUCIFER Osiris Gd-LS Just Funded

Texono Taiwan HPGe On Going – CNS –

Pt Lepreu Canada Gd-LS CANDU, with USA

Cormorad Italy Plastic Prototype

MARS ILL Plastic + 6 Li Prototype


US Effort: @SONGS

Th. Lasserre - AAP 2012


US Effort: SANDS-LS

Removal of 250 kg of 239 Pu & replacement with 1.5 tons of fresh 235 U fuel

Relative Normalisation

Th. Lasserre - AAP 2012


Thermal power Measurement


few % level monitoring at few days frequency achievable at GWs th

reactors, with syst errors complementary to standard procedures

Can verify that output consistent with the operator declared power level

IAEA Already uses a monitoring device for research reactor (ATPM)

Unique opportunity of cross calibration of different nuclear cores

Which technique?

Distilled

water

Cd cylindrical

covers

(1 mm thick)

3

He proportional counters

Fiducial volume

(N p = 4.953 ×10 28 ± 0.5%)

16X16 matrix

Step of 70 mm

920 mm sensitive

length

Th. Lasserre - AAP 2012


Thermal power : SANDS Data

Daily average

8 % relative uncertainty

in thermal power estimate

(normalized to 30 day avg.)

Weekly average

3% relative uncertainty

in thermal power estimate

(normalized to 30 day avg.)

Th. Lasserre - AAP 2012


Applied Neutrinos Physics: What else?

Detection of Hidden Reactor

Hard but feasible – Requires 100 kt detectors

Beyond IAEA mandates

Detection of Nuclear Explosions

Even harder… Requires 1 Mt detector

Beyond IAEA mandates

CAVEAT:

Particle physicists are ‘routinely’ used to detect antineutrinos

though neutrino detection remains particularly difficult

Th. Lasserre - AAP 2012


Reactor Monitoring:

Far Field

Th. Lasserre - AAP 2012


Hidden nuclear Reactors

Th. Lasserre - AAP 2012


Hidden nuclear Reactors

A possibility to monitor a country without cooperation?

Neutrino rate:

450 events ×

⎛⎛

⎜⎜

⎝⎝

100 km

D

⎞⎞

⎟⎟

⎠⎠

2

⎛⎛ P ⎞⎞ ⎛⎛ 1 ⎞⎞ ⎛⎛ t ⎞⎞

× ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ × ⎜⎜

⎟⎟ × ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟

⎝⎝ 10 MW ⎠⎠ ⎝⎝ 1 Megaton water ⎠⎠ ⎝⎝ 1 year ⎠⎠


Challenge: Mega Ton Scale water-based antineutrino detectors

Gadzook

Prohibitive cost Invent low-cost photodetectors, …

Beyond IAEA mandates

Th. Lasserre - AAP 2012


Hidden nuclear Reactors

Arxiv:1011.3850

Th. Lasserre - AAP 2012


Hidden nuclear Reactors

Th. Lasserre - AAP 2012


Far Field:

Detect, locate and characterize nuclear explosions worldwide

Th. Lasserre - AAP 2012


Atomic Bomb Neutrinos

Fission bombs only produce antineutrinos

A. Bernstein, T. West, & V. Gupta

During a 10 s burst ~10 24 neutrinos are

produced

Neutrino oscillations have to be taken into

account

Neutrino rate very small & proportional to

weapon energy

Low background : < 0.1 event for a 10s burst

Oscillation 60%

Efficiency 80%

Beyond IAEA mandates

Th. Lasserre - AAP 2012


Discovering Neutrinos from Nuclear Explosion

Inverse Beta-decay Cross Section

σ IBD 10 -40 cm 2

experiment approved!

Approved experiment (early 1950’s)

Reines & Cowan’s Group

Pyramidal ton scale toluene/teraphenyl liquid

scintillator coupled to 4 PMTs: ‘a giant liquid

scintillation device’ called ‘El Monstro’

2 second free-fall in a vacuum shaft detector in

coincidence with the nuclear blast several

interactions at 50 meters from the tower-based

explosion of a 20-kiloton bomb

But J. M. B. Keylogg pushed for an experiment

close to a fission reactor

& Reines & Cowan considered (e+,n) coincidence

detection project canceled

Th. Lasserre - AAP 2012


Detector Mass versus Distance

Megaton Water Based Detector

Th. Lasserre - AAP 2012


North Korea Test, October 9, 2006

41°1738.4N

129°082.4E

100 km

200 km

300 km

USGS records a seismic event: 4.2 Richter

scale ⇒ 2~12 kton bomb

Consider Water Cherenkov Technology:

1 Mega-ton Gd/Cl-doped H 2 O detector

For North Korea monitoring, the

background rate is about 0.01 ~ 0.1

events per 10 sec

Chance of confirming the Oct. 6, 2006 alleged nuclear detonation

99% if yield was 10 kT

60% if yield was 1 kton TNT

a 10 Megaton detector can get a detection probability of 99% with a false-positive

detection rejection at the 99% level.

KamLAND expected number of events: 10 -5 …

Th. Lasserre - AAP 2012


Prototype Detectors

Th. Lasserre - AAP 2012


Neutrinos

and

Earth Science

Th. Lasserre - AAP 2012


Geoneutrinos

Φ Terre ~ 80 mW/m 2 47± 2 TW

(10,000 power plants…)

(Davies, Davies, 2010)

What are the sources?

Where are they?

When have they been

at work?

Neutrino Spectrum

BSE paradigm : 20 TW

from radioisotope decays

β radioactivity : heat and

neutrinos emitted by:

Uranium (100 µW/kg)

Thorium (25 µW/kg)

Potassium (3 10 -3 µW/kg)

Emax

= 1.31 MeV

Emax

= 2.25 MeV

Emax

= 3.26 MeV

Th. Lasserre - AAP 2012


Earth Science Inputs (BSE)

Hypothesis : primitive Earth had a composition similar to

Carbonaeous Chondrites meteorites (CC)

Then Data + ‘evolution’ lead to

Crust & Upper mantle enriched in U & Th but depleted in K!

~10 TW

Lower mantle depleted in U/Th/K

but its huge mass provides the remaining ~10 TW

No radioisotopes in the Core!

Case of the Potassium:

Depleted in the crust by a factor 7 compare to CC

Where is it? In the Core (V.R. Murthy, Nature 423, 2003) ?

The highest ν flux BUT below the inverse-β thresold …

Th. Lasserre - AAP 2012


Bulk Silicate Paradigm (U & Th)

Uranium 238 :

238

U 206 Pb + 8 4 He + 6 e - + 6 anti-ν e + 51.7 MeV

Thorium 232 :

232

Th 208 Pb + 6 4 He + 4 e - + 4 anti-ν e + 42.8 MeV

1 TNU ~ 1 évènement for 1 KamLAND.year

111

Neutrino Flux

U+Th only

93

75

56

37

21

3

F. Montovani et al. Phys.Rev. D69 (2004) 013001

Th/U ~3.9

Th. Lasserre - AAP 2012


Detector location

SNO+

LENA

Baksan

Hano-Hano

KamLAND

EARTH

Borexino

Th. Lasserre - AAP 2012

F. Montovani et al. Phys.Rev. D69 (2004) 013001


Geoneutrinos detector site synthesis

1 TNU = 1 évènement pour 10 32 free proton year ~ 1 evt / KamLAND / y

Prediction

BSE [TNU]

Prediction

BSE [TNU]

Signal (U+Th)

Crust

Signal (U+Th)

Crust

Signal (U+Th)

Mantle

Signal (U+Th)

Mantle*

Signal (U

+Th) total

KamLAND 26.4 9.3 35.7 6.7

Borexino 32.8 9.3 42.1 0.9

Sudbury 43.3 9.3 52.6 1.1

Hawaii 3.6 9.3 12.9 0.1

LENA 44.0 9.3 53.3 0.5

Signal (U

+Th) total

Homestake 43.8 9.3 53.1 0.2

Baksan 43.3 9.3 52.6 0.2

Experiment Site

| Done | On going | R&D | Future |

Th. Lasserre - AAP 2012


a 3 kton detector based on KamLAND technology

Movable, Sinkable, Retreivable

Measurement of the geoneutrino contribution

from the Earth Mantle

Rule out geo-reactor if P>0.3 TW

Being discussed

Hano-Hano .

Deployment Sketch

Descent/ascent 39 min

Th. Lasserre - AAP 2012


Far Dream: Directional Sensitivity

Very first neutron recoils remember direction

Directional information WOULD provides:

Rejection of backgrounds

Separation of crust and mantle

Difficult to identify and use in an homogeneous detector (LENA, …)

Statistically seen at CHOOZ & Double Chooz

Limited by the position reconstruction

Improvement possible with a segmented detector doped with 6 Li

6

Li + n α + T : no gamma-ray emission

To be discussed at AAP 2012

Th. Lasserre - AAP 2012


Geoneutrinos forthcoming Milestones

Demonstrate the existence of geo-ν

Done by KamLAND & Borexino

Measure the [U/Th] in the Crust (Heat Flux)

KamLAND, Borexino, SNO+, LENA, …

Measure [U/Th] in the Mantle (Heat Flux)

Hano-Hano

Test the Geo-reactor Hypothesis

Hano-Hano

Where is the missing K ? Challenging Detection (géo-ν) K

Ideas being discussed but no project


Th. Lasserre - AAP 2012


Conclusion

The field of neutrinos is still vigorously developing

But neutrino first applications are happening

Reactor Neutrinos

Near Field: Neutrino-meters being developed for IAEA

Far Field: Detection of hidden reactor is feasible

Nuclear bomb detection

Conceivable but require >1 Mt detectors…

Geoneutrinos

A complementary promising window to the Earth

Th. Lasserre - AAP 2012


Th. Lasserre - AAP 2012

Conclusion

More magazines by this user
Similar magazines