Health Careers - College of Medicine - University of Vermont

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Health Careers - College of Medicine - University of Vermont

Health

Careers

More Than a Job

VERMONT’S STATEWIDE AREA HEALTH EDUCATION CENTERS PROGRAM


Health Careers

More Than a Job

AHEC

PRODUCED BY THE AREA HEALTH

at the University of Vermont College of Medicine

EDUCATION CENTERS PROGRAM OFFICE

www.vtahec.org


2 / HEALTH CAREERS


Contents

Dental Health 9

Dental Assistant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10

Profile . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11

Dental Hygienist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12

Dental Lab Technician . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13

Dentist. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14

Profile . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15

Emergency Services (Pre-Hospital) 17

Emergency Medical Technician . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18

Profile . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19

Health Care Office Services 21

Health Care Office Assistant. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22

Health Care Office Manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23

Health Information & Communication Services 25

Health Information & Medical Records Technician . . . . . . . . . 26

Health Sciences Librarian . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27

Medical Transcriptionist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29

Medical Laboratory Sciences 31

Cytotechnologist. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32

Medical Laboratory Technician. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33

Medical Laboratory Technologist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34

Medical Technologies 37

Cardiovascular Technologist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38

Surgical Technologist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39

Medicine 41

Physician . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42

Physician Assistant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44

Mental Health & Social Services 47

Counselor. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48

Gerontologist. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49

Human Services Worker . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50

Psychiatrist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51

Profile . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52

Psychologist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53

Social Worker . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55

Nursing 57

Home Health Aide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58

A Closer Look: House Calls. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59

Licensed Nursing Assistant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60

Profile . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61

Licensed Practical Nurse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62

Registered Nurse. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63

Profile . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65

Advanced Practice Nursing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66

Nurse Practitioner

Clinical Nurse Specialist

Certified Nurse Midwife

Certified Registered Nurse Anesthetist

A Closer Look: Men Needed for Nursing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68

Nutrition Services 69

Dietitians/Nutritionists . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70

Dietetic Technicians . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71

Pharmacy 72

Profile . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72

Pharmacist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74

Pharmacy Technician . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76

Public Health 77

Biostatistician. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78

Epidemiologist. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79

Health Educator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80

Radiation Technologies 83

Nuclear Medicine Technologist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84

Radiation Therapist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85

Radiologic Technologist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86

Profile . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88

Rehabilitation Therapy 89

Audiologist. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90

Occupational Therapist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91

Occupational Therapist Assistant. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92

Physical Therapist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93

Physical Therapist Assistant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94

Orthotist/Prosthetist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95

Respiratory Therapist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96

Speech-Language Pathologist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97

Vision Care 99

Ophthalmologist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100

Optician . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101

Optometrist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102

About AHEC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103

Careers in Health Care. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104

Health Care Educational Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106

Acronym Glossary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107

Vermont Education & Training Institutions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108

Vermont Colleges & Universities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109

Directory of VT Hospitals & Long Term Care Facilities. . . . . 110

Health Career Websites. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111

Choosing a Career in Health Care . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112

Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114

HEALTH CAREERS / 3


Why Choose a Career in Health Care?

Health care is an essential part of human life. It is a

career field where you can be certain you will make

a difference to other humans. How many careers

can say that? Ask anyone you know in health care

and they will agree that helping others is their

greatest reward. Some other key REASONSto consider

health care as a career include:

R ESPECTED

When you have a career in health care, you are a respected

member of your community and state. People respect

your professionalism, your knowledge, and your ability

to help them, often in a time of need.

E VERYWHERE

After you are trained as a health care professional, you

can work anywhere

ALWAYS NEEDED

As long as there are humans your services will always

be needed and you will form enriching bonds with the

people you serve.

S ALARY

You can earn a livable wage in health care; with additional

training, your income can always grow.

O CCUPATIONS

Within the health care field, there are hundreds of different

occupations to choose from, whether you prefer working

directly with people, technology, or in laboratories.

NO BARRIERS

There are no barriers to personal and professional

growth. In fact, many employers will help to pay for

additional training to give you never-ending challenges,

responsibilities, and other rewards.

S TIMULATING

Positions in health care are intellectually stimulating

because of new technology, surgical techniques, medicines

and methods to improve patient care.

For the best testimony available about the rewards of a health

care career, check out the Profiles of Vermonters who made

this choice, and see for yourself the many R EASONS why

health care may be the right choice for you.

Acronym from R. Swartz, Northeastern VT AHEC

4 / HEALTH CAREERS


How To Use This Directory

The health careers featured in this new guide

reflect professions that have shortages of

personnel in Vermont. If you know a

specific area of health care that you would

like to check out, related jobs are grouped

together. Or, you may want to simply browse

through the pages to get an idea of the scope of

work environments available in health care.

Each career outlined includes a description of the

career, work environments where you might practice

that profession, the job outlook for that position, a

salary range, education and certification/licensure

requirements, and educational programs in Vermont

and/or New England where you can train to enter the

career. In addition, there are web sites listed where

you can find more information about that career.

Most professional organizations for

health care professions have a

“Career” or “Education”

page on their web sites.

However, there are many health care professions in

serious need of more workers in addition to those

highlighted. With over 300 health care jobs, many

are not covered in detail in this book; they are listed

in the back of the book. To learn more about exciting

opportunities as an interpreter, transfusionist, child

life specialist, or one of the others on the list, you can

look them up on the U.S. Occupational Outlook

web site, www.bls.gov/oco.

In addition, there are other helpful pages in the back

of this guide, such as Vermont health care facilities,

education and training schools in the state, acronyms

commonly used in various professions, and additional

web resources.

The best way to find the career that is most satisfying

to you is to research it carefully: ask many different

people all the questions you can think of ! This

Health Careers Directory is a starting point for your

exploration of career possibilities.

HEALTH CAREERS / 5


Pathways To Health Care: Will I Like It?

If you are concerned about investing time, money

and effort in a career without an assurance you

will enjoy the job for which you are training,

there are many ways to “stick your toe in the

water” to see if you like the environment.

A typical way to learn more about health care is

to volunteer in a hospital or nursing home near you.

Most have well-organized junior volunteer programs

and welcome your contributions. While you are

donating time, you can experience the setting firsthand

to see if it appeals to you. Some young people

volunteer to work in a veterinary office.

There are many social service agencies that will

welcome your offer to volunteer as well, such as the

American Red Cross, United Way member agencies,

or community health centers. These are organizations

whose main mission is to serve people, and

that is what working in health care is all about.

Another pathway to a health care career may be

to volunteer with your local rescue squad or become

a member of an Explorers group based with the

rescue squad or in your area hospital. More than one

emergency physician, nurse or nursing assistant got

their first taste of health care excitement on their

local rescue squad.

Many middle and high schools have established

“shadowing” programs in which you follow a

professional through their workday to see close-up

what they do in their chosen career. Ask your school

guidance counselor if they know of such a program

or any other opportunity for you to experience what

health care is like on a day-to-day basis.

The health care workers we have profiled in this

guide mention these pathways and others: if it

helped them to decide, it will probably help you, too!

Ninth and tenth grade students have an

opportunity to explore health careers at a MedQuest

camp, offered on various college campuses around

Vermont. Some camp activities include: job shadows,

interactive courses on basic medical skills, leadership

workshops, certification in CPR and first aid, and

self esteem and asset building activities. The camps

are staffed by first year medical students from the

University of Vermont.

Contact the AHEC office nearset you to learn

more (see page 103).

6 / HEALTH CAREERS


How Can I Afford The Education/Training?

Funding for education and

training programs can

come in the form of grants,

scholarships, loans and

work-study programs.

Grants and scholarships do not

have to be repaid. Grants are based

on your financial need, while

scholarships may be based on need

or a variety of other factors. Loans,

which must be repaid, are available

to students and/or parents at very

low interest rates. A work-study

program helps a student earn wages

in part-time work while he/she goes

to school. Finally, some employers

offer tuition reimbursement

programs as an employee benefit.

If you are considering taking a

class or enrolling part- or full-time,

check with your school to find out

whether financial aid is available to

you and what forms you need to

submit. In nearly all cases, you start

by completing a Free Application

for Federal Student Aid, or FAFSA.

If you are a Vermont resident and

have not already received a bachelor

degree, you should also apply for a

Vermont Grant.

Some students in college save

time and money by “testing out”

of certain core required courses by

taking an equivalency test to demonstrate that they

have the basic knowledge in that subject. If they pass

the test, they have earned the credits they would get

by taking the actual course, and the only cost is usually

the cost of the exam. Some colleges develop their

own equivalency exams and others use those administered

by the College Testing Service. It is important

to check with your college academic advisor to see

what courses they will allow to be met by an equivalency

exam, as it differs from school to school.

The Vermont Student Assistance Corporation

(VSAC) is a public, nonprofit corporation created

to help Vermonters plan and pay for education and

training beyond high school. The VSAC Resource

Center, located on the third floor of the Champlain

Mill in Winooski, is the starting point for all VSAC

customer service. The staff can help you search for

education options, complete financial aid applications,

and search for scholarships. The Resource Center is

open Monday through Thursday, 8 a.m. to 8 p.m.,

Fridays from 8 a.m. to 4:30 p.m., and Saturdays from

8:30 a.m. to 2:30 p.m. No appointment is necessary.

HEALTH CAREERS / 7


8 / HEALTH CAREERS


Dental Health

DENTAL ASSISTANT 10

PROFILE 11

DENTAL HYGIENIST 12

DENTAL LAB TECHNICIAN 13

DENTIST 14

PROFILE 15

DENTAL HEALTH / 9


Dental Assistant

Dental Assistants perform a wide variety of

responsibilities including clinical patient care, office

and laboratory duties. Dental assistants work in

partnership with dentists, helping patients feel

comfortable before, during, and after their treatments

as well as directly assisting dentists during procedures.

Dental assistants also advise patients in postoperative

and general oral health care. With certification, the

dental assistant can expose radiographs on a patient.

Office duties may include obtaining patient

medical histories, sterilizing and disinfecting

instruments and equipment, and preparing trays

for various dental procedures. A dental assistant

with office responsibilities may be responsible

for billing, accounts receivable, scheduling and

confirming appointments, and ordering dental

supplies for the practice.

Dental assistants with laboratory duties would

perform such functions as taking impressions to

fabricate stone casts of the patient’s mouth and

teeth, cleaning and polishing removable appliances,

fabricating temporary crowns, and bleaching trays

and mouthguards.

Education Programs

Center for Technology, Essex

3 Education Drive

Essex Junction, VT 05452

802-879-5558

Professional Organizations

American Dental Assistants Association

Chicago, IL 60601

312-541-1550

www.dentalassistant.org

Dental Assisting National Board, Inc

Chicago, IL 60611

800-367-3262

www.danb.org

Work Environments

Clinics

Dental offices

Dental specialty offices (ie; Orthodontics, Oral surgery)

Hospitals

Schools

Insurance Companies

Job Outlook

Job prospects for dental assistants are excellent, growing

much faster than average though 2010. As dentists’

workloads increase, they are more likely to hire assistants

to perform expanded duties, so they can concentrate on

more profitable procedures.

Salary

The starting wage for a dental assistant ranges from

$18,700 to $25,000 per year for full time work. With

more training and experience, a dental assistant could

earn up to $20.00 per hour or a yearly salary of $41,600.

Education, Certification and Licensing

This challenging career is attractive to men and women

who have a strong science background and want to

work with people. Dental assistants are expected to

demonstrate acceptable attitudes of pride, enthusiasm,

good work ethic, responsibility, respect for patient

confidentiality and recognition of their importance as a

member of the dental health team. Those interested in

becoming a dental assistant should attend a training

program offered in technical centers, community colleges

or the Armed Services, completion of which enables the

student to take an examination, administered by the

Dental Assisting National Board, to become a Certified

Dental Assistant. Certified dental assistants may continue

their education by becoming an Expanded Functions

Dental Assistant. In Vermont, this endorsement allows

the dental assistant to place restorations (fillings). Upon

the first thirty days of employment, dental assistants are

required to register with Vermont’s Secretary of State.

FACTOID: Almost 2 out of every 5 dental assistants in the United States work part time, sometimes in more

than one dental office.

10 / HEALTH CAREERS


Profile

Dawn Daniels, Dental Assistant, Northern

Counties Dental Center, Hardwick, VT

A childhood marked by frequent visits to the dentist

led Dawn Daniels to her career as a dental assistant.

“When I was a child, I had a lot of dental work done

and it seemed interesting,” she remarks.

“I shadowed a dental assistant when I was in high

school; it was an assignment for a class,” she recalls,

so she had firsthand knowledge about the job she

decided to pursue. Dawn got her training in the U.S.

Army, and is currently taking prerequisite courses at the Community College of

Vermont (CCV) to become a dental hygienist.

“I’m very glad I did it,” she says of her Army training. “It’s possible to do on-thejob

training but I think it’s more beneficial if you go to a training program.”

As a dental assistant, Dawn describes her typical day this way: “I get patients ready

for their procedure, set the room up, ensure patient comfort, assist the dentist by

handing him the right instruments, mixing materials, suctioning the patient, taking

x-rays, cleaning up the room, and sterilizing the instruments after we’re finished

with each patient. I order materials and do safety maintenance, too.”

She adds that, “The job of dental assistant also includes maintaining patient

records, charting, and lab work, such as taking impressions as well as pouring

and trimming models.”

The rewards? “The patient tells you when you’ve done a good job

and the people I work with are full of praise and eager to let me

know when I’ve done well.”

DENTAL HEALTH / 11


Dental Hygienist

Dental Hygienists work with dentists as

part of the dental health team to help

patients of all ages sustain and improve

their personal oral health. Most oral

diseases, such as dental decay and gum

diseases, are actually chronic infections that

can be prevented. Hygienists help patients

learn about these oral diseases and teach

personal self-care procedures to help them

understand, prevent and treat these conditions.

Hygienists provide direct patient care

such as examining the teeth and gums,

cleaning the teeth, applying fluorides and

sealants, and making diagnostic x-rays.

Work Environments

Private dental practices

Public health

Public schools and clinics

Job Outlook

According to U.S. Department of Labor statistics, dental

hygiene is among the 30 occupations expected to grow

the fastest over the next ten years.

Salary

Many dental hygienists work part-time. In Vermont, a

dental hygienist can expect a starting wage of about

$18.00 per hour, or about $37,000 per year for full time

work. Experienced dental hygienists can earn up to

$40.00 per hour, or as much as $83,000 per year for

full-time work. Salaries in this field depend heavily on

geographic location and experience.

Education, Certification and Licensing

High school course work should include college

preparatory courses with an emphasis on science and

math. An associate in science degree in Dental Hygiene

and successful completion of licensing examinations are

necessary pre-requisites to licensure and to practice

dental hygiene in Vermont and most all other states.

Education Programs

Dental hygiene students will be admitted into the

UVM program for academic year 2003/2004.

Students interested in dental hygiene after the start

of the 2003 semester will apply to Vermont

Technical College.

University of Vermont

www.uvm.edu/dentalhygiene

Vermont Technical College

Program of Dental Hygiene

PO Box 500

Randolph Center, VT 05601

800-442-8821

www.vtc.edu

Professional Organizations

American Dental Hygienists’ Association

Chicago, IL

312-440-8900

www.adha.org

Vermont Dental Hygienists’ Association

Montpelier, VT

www.vdha.org

FACTOID: Dental hygiene is one of the 30 fastest growing occupations.

12 / HEALTH CAREERS


Dental Laboratory Technician

Dental Laboratory Technicians make and repair

dental appliances such as dentures, crowns, bridges

and braces. They use materials such as gold, silver,

stainless steel, porcelain and plastic to fill dentists’

prescriptions for appliances. They may specialize

in orthodontic appliances, crowns and bridges,

dentures, or ceramics.

Work Environments

Commercial laboratories

Dentist offices

Hospitals

Homes

Education Programs

There are no dental laboratory technician programs

in Vermont but there is one available through the

New England Regional Student Program (RSP)

www.nebhe.org at:

Middlesex Community College (MA)

Professional Organizations

National Association of Dental Laboratories

Alexandria, VA

800-950-1150

www.nadl.org

Job Outlook

Trainee positions are expected to be abundant over the

next ten years. The future might show that advances in

preventive dental care will diminish the demand for

tooth and teeth replacement, and computers may

assume some of the workload once handled exclusively

by technicians.

Salary

An average hourly salary is about $13.00; with more

experience this amount might rise substantially but

entry level workers should expect minimum wage.

Education, Certification and Licensing

Dental laboratory technicians attend a two-year

program at a community or technical college to receive

a certificate or associate degree. Dental laboratory

technicians may also become certified by completing a

five-year apprenticeship program prior to passing the

national certification exam.

Career Ladder

Dental laboratory technicians may, with additional

training and education, become dental hygienists.

FACTOID: There are more than 20 accredited dental laboratory technician programs offered by community

colleges and vocational technical institutes.

DENTAL HEALTH / 13


Dentist

Dentists are mouth specialists. Besides providing oral

exams and filling cavities, dentists are licensed to prescribe

medications and other forms of treatment.

They screen patients for cancers and disorders of the

jaw and bones around the face. Dentistry also makes

use of high tech equipment to help people keep or

restore proper oral health. A big part of what dentists

do is focused on prevention-actually helping people

decrease their need for dental care. They use preventive

procedures such as fluoride treatments, and they

teach their patients how to take good care of their

gums and teeth to avoid problems between checkups.

Most dentists are general practitioners; however,

some dentists chose to practice in an area of specialty.

Work Environments

Clinics

Federal Government facilities

Hospitals

Military

Private and non-profit practices

Research facilities

Teaching institutions

Job Outlook

Demand for dental services is very high in Vermont.

Vermont needs many more dentists.

Salary

Most dentists earn $70,000-$150,000 per year. Salaries

depend upon location, specialization and experience.

Education, Certification and Licensing

High school and undergraduate course work should focus

on math and science. Most dental students get a bachelor

degree first, though some dental schools only require two

years of college before admission. Dental school takes

four years to complete. Specialization usually requires an

additional two to four years of training. Lastly, candidates

must pass a standard national exam and a regional exam

in the area where they wish to practice.

Some Dental Specialties:

Orthodontics

Oral and maxillofacial surgery

Pediatric dentistry

Periodontics

Prosthodontics

Endodontics

Public health dentistry

Oral pathology

Oral and maxillofacial radiology

Education Programs

There are no dental schools in Vermont. The

following program is available through the New

England Regional Student Program (RSP). For

more information on RSP, go to www.nebhe.org.

or call 617-357-9620.

University of Connecticut School of Dental Medicine

263 Farmington Avenue

Farmington, CT 06032

203-679-3748

http://sdm.uchc.edu

For a listing of dental schools that do not participate in the

New England Regional Student Program, visit the American

Dental Association website at www.ada.org

Professional Organizations

American Dental Association

Chicago, IL

312-440-2500

www.ada.org

American Dental Education Association

Washington, DC

202-667-9433

www.adea.org

Vermont State Dental Society

South Burlington, VT

800-640-5099

www.vsds.org

FACTOID: Most dentists are “solo practitioners”. They own their own businesses and work with a small staff.

14 / HEALTH CAREERS


Profile

Elaine McLain, DDS, Dentist, Bennington, VT

Elaine McLain went to college to become a science teacher, but it

was her part-time job working for a dentist while she attended

school that showed her the career path she would follow.

“I like working with my hands and being with people,” she

explains. “It looked interesting and was something I thought I could

do; before that, I never really thought about being a dentist.”

Elaine went to dental school at a time when women made up less

than two percent of the class, but she feels it’s an especially good

career for women. “It allows you to work as many days as you wish,”

she notes, which is important when raising a family. “I’ve been able to make a good

living at it and I think there is a certain independence in regard to your hours and

where you work, so you can allow yourself more time with your family.”

Part of a practice of dentists, Elaine remarks that some dentists do all kinds of

procedures, while others prefer to focus on the ones they are interested in and

refer people to other dentists for the procedures they choose not to do. She

enjoys having other dentists around because they understand what the challenges

are, and can learn from each other about difficult cases. They also praise each

other for a particularly good result in those difficult cases.

She takes pride in what she does: “You have a set group of procedures with

everyone; the variable is the person, and that’s the difference,”

she says. “I want my work to look a certain way and within the

ability of the patient to cooperate, I try to get as close to what

is perfect as I can.”

Elaine admits the job can be demanding because of the anxiety

that patients have about going to the dentist, and notes it is

important to remain calm and help the patient through it.

“A patient may not know the quality of the work

you did but they know the manner in which you

did it. When a patient goes through a procedure

and says it wasn’t as bad as they expected, that

makes me feel good,” she explains. “I enjoy doing a

procedure with the least amount of trauma.”

DENTAL HEALTH / 15


16 / HEALTH CAREERS


Emergency Services

(Pre-Hospital)

EMERGENCY MEDICAL TECHNICIAN 18

PROFILE 19

EMERGENCY SERVICES / 17


Emergency Medical Technician

Emergency Medical Technicians are the first to evaluate

the nature and extent of a medical problem at

emergency scenes. They determine the number of

people injured, the types of injuries they have, preexisting

medical conditions of the patients, and the

degree of trauma. They stabilize and transport the

patient to a health care facility.

There are levels of EMTs depending on training

level completed. They are: First Responders (the

lowest level); EMT-Basic, EMT-Intermediate, EMT-

Paramedic and EMT-Critical Care Paramedic.

EMTs are required to work long hours on call, be

able to lift patients, bend, kneel and stand for long

periods, and work outdoors in all types of weather.

Work Environments

Emergency Medical Services

Fire departments

Hospitals

Industry

Private ambulance services

Education Programs

Training programs for various levels of EMTs are

offered by hospitals and ambulance services. It is

also available through colleges, though none in

Vermont currently offer it. However, the following

are available through the New England Regional

Student Program (RSP) www.nebhe.org:

Capital Community-Technical College (CT)

Kennebec Valley Technical College (ME)

New Hampshire Technical Institute/Community College at

Concord

Professional Organizations

National Association of EMTs

Clinton, MS

www.naemt.org

National Registry of Emergency Medical Technicians

Columbus, OH

614-888-4484

www.nremt.org

Job Outlook

Employment is projected to grow faster than average as

paid emergency medical technician positions replace

unpaid volunteers.

Salary

Depending upon the level of certification, salaries range

from $22,460 to $37,000 and higher.

Education, Certification and Licensing

Formal training and certification are required but state

requirements and reciprocity in recognizing certification

from other states vary.

Career Ladder

Many people begin a lifelong career in health care as

First Responders and EMTs. They may continue their

studies to enter any area of health care work.

FACTOID: There are more than 175,000 EMTs in the country, of which 25% work in hospitals, 30% for police, fire or

rescue squads, and 40% with private ambulance services. Some work as unpaid volunteers for local rescue squads.

18 / HEALTH CAREERS


Profile

Michael Wright, NREMT/P, Caledonia-Essex Area

Ambulance Service (CALEX), St. Johnsbury, VT

Michael Wright gets to do something few of us will ever experience:

save someone’s life when they have gone into complete cardiac

arrest. As a Nationally Registered Emergency Medical Technician at

the Paramedic level (and most recently, the Critical Care level), he feels the greatest satisfaction

in his job when he can restore breathing to someone who has stopped breathing.

“I love helping people of all ages and cardiac arrest saves are the most satisfying,” he

comments. “It’s nice to be able to get to those patients in a timely fashion.”

He was turned onto the health care career path he chose during the summer of his

junior year in high school when he worked at his uncle’s landscaping business in NJ.

“My aunt and my cousin are both nurses down there and all summer, I listened to

their stories from work.”

When he returned home to St. Johnsbury, he started volunteering at CALEX, and then

attended a basic EMT course. Now full time, he says, “I have multiple roles here. I take

care of vehicle maintenance, administrative duties, and conduct Basic EMT training classes

at Lyndon State College. I’m also a certified instructor for Pediatric Advanced Life Support

(PALS); Advanced Cardiac Life Support (ACLS); and Pre-Hospital Trauma Life Support

(PHTLS). And we give talks to students of all ages in the schools.”

He notes that not all calls are as dramatic as the four cardiac saves CALEX made during

the last year: perhaps 60-70% of their calls are for elderly people

with breathing difficulty, a broken bone, or some other injury.

Having attained the newest designation as an EMT/Critical Care

Paramedic, Michael can now do ambulance transfers of patients

between hospitals, often teaming with a nurse to convey critical

patients. The new level carries with it more responsibility, a lot of

new information, and the ability to monitor medications,

pumps and other advanced equipment, he says.

Though many critically ill patients do not remember

or realize how dangerously ill or injured they were

when Michael saw them, others may stop by at CALEX to

say thanks, or send a letter of gratitude to the local newspaper.

That’s how Michael Wright knows he’s in the right job for him.

EMERGENCY SERVICES / 19


20 / HEALTH CAREERS


Health Care Office Services

HEALTH CARE OFFICE ASSISTANT 22

HEALTH CARE OFFICE MANAGER 23

HEALTH CARE OFFICE SERVICES / 21


Health Care Office Assistant

Health Care Office Assistants work in health care

offices performing general office and computer

functions that require good interpersonal, writing,

medical record-keeping skills, and telephone skills.

They may order office supplies, schedule meetings,

manage information on computers, and greet patients.

Work Environments

Clinics

Hospitals

Physician offices

Nursing and personal care facilities

Job Outlook

The growth of jobs for office assistants varies according

to the specialty area in which they work: in health care

the growth is expected to be average.

Education Programs

The Community College of Vermont offers a

21-credit certificate program for Health Care

Office Assistants.

Community College of Vermont

PO Box 120

Waterbury, VT 05676-0120

www.ccv.edu

Professional Organizations

International Association of Administrative Professionals

Kansas City, MO

816-891-6600

www.iaap-hq.org

Salary

Rates of pay can vary depending on the amount of

education and variety of skills an employee possesses.

Starting wages in Vermont are approximately $8.00

per hour.

Education, Certification and Licensing

Some health care office assistants can enter a job

after completion of high school but many take a

variety of post secondary courses to gain computer

skills, medical terminology knowledge, and business

communication skills.

Career Ladder

Health care office assistants may continue their education

to advance in several directions, including management or

administration as well as entry into clinical positions in

health care.

22 / HEALTH CAREERS


Health Care Managers/Administrators

Health Care Office Managers/Administrators are people

who plan, direct, coordinate and supervise the delivery

of health care. A specialist may be in charge of specific

clinical departments or services while generalists manage

an entire facility or system. Specific skills needed include

management ability, financial analysis, supervisory skills,

and good communication and interpersonal skills.

Education Programs

University of Vermont (post-baccalaureate certificate)

Certificate in Healthcare Management

Burlington, VT 05405

802-656-2085

http://learn.uvm.edu

In addition, the following master’s level programs

are available through the New England Regional Student

Program (RSP) www.nebhe.org:

University of Massachusetts at Lowell

Western Connecticut State University

Professional Organizations

American College of Healthcare Executives

Chicago, IL

312-424-2800

www.ache.org

Medical Group Management Association

Englewood, CO

303-799-1111

www.mgma.com

American College of Health Care Administrators

Alexandria, VA

703-739-7900

www.achca.org

Association of University Programs in Health Administration

Washington, DC

202-638-1448

www.aupha.org

Professional Association of Health Care Office Management

Pensacola, FL

800-451-9311

www.pahcom.com

Healthcare Financial Management Association

Westchester, IL

800-252-4362

www.hfma.org

Work Environments

Hospitals

Nursing and personal care facilities

Clinics

Physician offices

Social service agencies

Job Outlook

Employment is projected to grow faster than average

for all other occupations, with the fastest growth in

residential care facilities and physician offices and clinics,

as services previously provided in the hospital setting are

shifted to physician offices and clinics.

Salary

Earnings of medical and health services managers are high

but long hours of work are common. The median salary is

$56,300; compensation is typically related to experience,

education and scope of responsibility.

Education, Certification and Licensing

A master’s degree is generally expected but some entry

level administrative positions may be open to those with

a bachelor degree. There are 67 schools in the country

that offer accredited master’s degree programs in health

services administration. Professional development

programs leading to specialty certification in health

care administration are available through the American

College of Healthcare Executives. All states require a

series of courses and internships before a license is

granted to a nursing home administrator.

Career Ladder

Jobs are available at a variety of levels, from department

head or manager of a small practice, to Chief Executive

Officer. Those with graduate degrees and strong business

and management skills will find the best job opportunities.

HEALTH CARE OFFICE SERVICES / 23


24 / HEALTH CAREERS


Health Information &

Communication Services

HEALTH INFORMATION & MEDICAL RECORDS TECHNICIAN 26

HEALTH SCIENCES LIBRARIAN 27

MEDICAL TRANSCRIPTIONIST 29

HEALTH INFORMATION & COMMUNICATION SERVICES / 25


Health Information & Medical Records Technician

Health Information & Medical Records Technicians

assemble, review and complete all patient records for

a hospital or health clinic. They assign a code to each

diagnosis, using a software program to assign the

patient to one of several hundred “diagnosis-related

groups” or DRGs. Technicians who specialize in

coding are called health information coders. Some

technicians use computer programs to tabulate and

analyze data, such as tumor registrars who compile

medical records of patients with cancer.

Education Programs

There are no health information or medical record

technician programs in Vermont, but the following

are available through the New England Regional

Student Program (RSP) www.nebhe.org.

Kennebec Valley Technical College (ME)

University of Maine–Augusta

Bristol Community College (MA)

Holyoke Community College (MA)

Northern Essex Community College (MA)

Professional Organizations

American Health Information Management Association

Chicago, IL

312-233-1100

www.ahima.org

Work Environments

Clinics

Home health agencies

Hospitals

Medical group practices

Nursing homes

Job Outlook

Employment of medical records and health information

technicians is expected to grow much faster than the

average for all occupations through 2010 due to the

rapid growth in the number of medical tests, treatments

and procedures.

Salary

Average salary for medical records and health

information technicians is about $22,750, with salaries

starting at $16,000 and ranging as high as $35,000.

Highest average salaries are typically found in nursing

and personal care facilities and hospitals.

Education, Certification and Licensing

Typical technicians have a high school diploma and an

associate degree from a community or junior college.

Certification is available to become a Registered Health

Information Technician (RHIT), as well as a separate

certification for technicians who specialize in coding.

Career Ladder

With additional education, health information or

medical record technicians may become section leaders

or health information managers.

FACTOID: This is one of the few occupations in which there is little or no physical contact with patients.

Four out of ten jobs are in hospitals.

26 / HEALTH CAREERS


Health Sciences Librarian

Health Sciences Librarians are the information

sleuths of the health care world. Health sciences

librarians assist physicians, nurses, and other health

care professionals in finding the latest published

medical research required to diagnosis, treat, and

rehabilitate their patients.

Health sciences librarians who work in academic

environments also play a role in teaching college

students how to find and use high quality resources

to fulfill their course requirements. They provide

instruction for medical school faculty and practicing

physicians in the use of new electronic resources that

will help them find clinical information quickly and

efficiently. They assist university scientists engaged in

cutting-edge research to search the literature for discoveries

published by their counterparts in institutions

around the world. Perhaps most importantly,

they assist members of the general public in finding

accurate and reliable information concerning their

own health problems or those of a loved one.

Health sciences librarians rely heavily on the

use of automated technologies to locate vital

information, making extensive use of the World

Wide Web and other forms of electronic networking

in their daily work.

Work Environments

Colleges and universities

Computer software development companies

Consumer health libraries

Government agencies

Hospitals

Pharmaceutical manufacturers

Research centers and foundations

Job Outlook

The job outlook for health sciences librarians is generally

very good. Those who are willing to be flexible in

employment opportunities or are willing to relocate

have greater career options. In addition, there are many

opportunities for employment outside of the traditional

library, including work in health-related business and

industry and as an independent consultant.

Salary

Salaries vary according to the type and location of

institution, the level of responsibility, and the length of

employment. The overall average salary for Health

Sciences Librarians in 2001 was $40,080.

Education, Certification and Licensing

High school course work for a career as a health

sciences librarian should include college-prep courses,

especially in the life sciences and humanities. The

undergraduate degree (i.e., bachelor of arts or

bachelor of science) can be earned in any area, although

a background in fields such as biology,

chemistry, nursing or allied health sciences, computer

science, education, or management is helpful. To

work as a health sciences librarian, you need a

master’s degree from an American Library Association

(ALA)-accredited program.

HEALTH INFORMATION & COMMUNICATION SERVICES / 27


Education Programs

Currently, there are no ALA-accredited programs

offered in the state of Vermont, although excellent

schools can be found in the greater region. In

addition, a number of distance education programs

have been developed at schools around the country.

Check the ALA web site for further information on

accredited schools.

McGill University

Graduate School of Library and Information Studies

3459 McTavish Street

Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3A 1Y1

514-398-4204

www.gslis.mcgill.ca

Simmons College

Graduate School of Library and Information Science

300 The Fenway

Boston, MA 02115-5898

617-521-2800

www.simmons.edu/programs/gslis

Southern Connecticut State University

School of Communication, Information and Library Science

Department of Information and Library Science

501 Crescent Street

New Haven, CT 06515

888-500-7278

www.southernct.edu/departments/ils

State University of New York at Albany

School of Information Science and Policy

135 Western Avenue

Draper 113

Albany, NY 12222

518-442-5110

www.albany.edu/sisp

Syracuse University

School of Information Studies

4-206 Center for Science and Technology

Syracuse, NY 13244-4100

315-443-2911

http://istweb.syr.edu

University of Rhode Island

Graduate School of Library and Information Studies

Rodman Hall

Kingston, RI 02881

401-874-2947

www.uri.edu/artsci/lsc

Professional Organizations

American Library Association

Chicago, IL

800-545-2433

www.ala.org

Medical Library Association

Chicago, IL

312-419-9094

www.mlanet.org

FACTOID: Medical librarians use computers and personal digital assistants (PDAs) constantly. Some librarians

are systems librarians, responsible for fixing computers, for running local area networks, or for training others

to use technology. Some librarians develop and update Web sites for their libraries or universities.

28 / HEALTH CAREERS


Medical Transcriptionist

Medical Transcriptionists utilize their knowledge of

medical terminology, anatomy, physiology, diagnostic

procedures and treatment to transcribe dictated

recordings from physicians and other health care professionals

into medical reports, correspondence and

administrative material. Generally the documents

transcribed include physical exam and history reports,

autopsy reports, operating room reports, discharge

summaries, referral letters and consultation reports.

Experienced transcriptionists can spot inconsistencies

or mistakes in medical reports and verify the

information with the document’s originator. Their

ability to understand and correctly transcribe patient

assessments and treatments can help reduce the

chances that a patient would receive inappropriate

care or even harmful treatments. An experienced

transcriptionist can help the health care team provide

high quality care for every patient.

Educational Programs

While no formal training programs exist in Vermont,

there are a variety of accredited distance education

programs available through the Internet.

Professional Organizations

American Association for Medical Transcription

Modesto, CA

800-982-2182

www.aamt.org

Work Environments

Clinics

Government medical facilities

Home (telecommute)

Hospitals

Laboratories

Medical libraries

Physician offices

Job Outlook

The need for medical transcriptionists will grow faster than

average by 2010. While speech recognition technology

will advance in that time period, it should not significantly

reduce the need for medical transcriptionists because

these workers will still be needed to review and edit documents

for accuracy.

Salary

Transcriptionists can expect to earn between $10.00 and

$14.50 per hour.

Education, Certification and Licensing

Employers prefer hiring transcriptionists who’ve

completed a training program in medical transcription

after completing high school. This training is available

through vocational schools, community colleges and

distance learning programs. Training would include a

2 year associate’s degree or a 1 year certificate program

with courses in anatomy, medical terminology, medicolegal

issues and English grammar and punctuation.

Medical transcriptionists can become proficient in this

career with just on-the-job training if they have some

previous experience as a nurse or medical secretary.

The American Association for Medical Transcription awards

a voluntary designation of Certified Medical Transcriptionist

(CMT) to those who pass written and practical exams.

While not required, certification is a sign of competence

in this field. Every 3 years CMT’s must earn continuing

education credits to maintain their certification.

FACTOID: Job growth will be best in physician offices and clinics as the need for standardized records increases.

HEALTH INFORMATION & COMMUNICATION SERVICES / 29


30 / HEALTH CAREERS


Medical Laboratory Sciences

CYTOTECHNOLOGIST 32

MEDICAL LABORATORY TECHNICIAN 33

MEDICAL LABORATORY TECHNOLOGIST 34

MEDICAL LABORATORY SCIENCES / 31


Cytotechnologist

Cytotechnologists are skilled healthcare professionals

who use microscopes to examine human cell samples

to look for cancer, pre-cancerous lesions, infections

and other diseases. Using subtle clues in the cells

themselves (changes in size, shape, structure and

pattern) cytotechnologists evaluate the presence or

absence of specific diseases and determine which

cases warrant further review by a pathologist (a

physician trained in cell interpretation). The Pap

test, a sample taken from the cervix, is the most

common type of specimen submitted to a cytology

laboratory. Cytotechnologists may also be involved

in the evaluation of cell samples from other body

sites such as lung, bladder, liver, breast and thyroid.

Physicians use the test results to diagnose and treat a

wide variety of human diseases.

Work Environments

Clinics

Government facilities

Hospitals

Private laboratories

Job Outlook

The demand for cytotechnologists is about average in

Vermont, although it is higher in other parts of the

country.

Salary

Cytotechnologists earn a starting salary of about

$35,000 to $40,000 per year. Supervisory positions are

available and usually come with higher salaries.

Education, Certification and Licensing

High school course work should include an emphasis on

math and science. A bachelor of science (BS) and a

cytotechnology certificate are required to work as a

cytotechnologist. Certification in this field is available from

the American Society of Clinical Pathologists (ASCP).

Education Programs

Cytotechnologists have a bachelor degree and typically

attend a 12-month training program in addition. Students

can also earn a BS degree and cytotechnology certificate

at the same time through a “3+1” program. Such a

program exists between the University of Vermont and

Fletcher Allen Health Care. All non-cytotechnology

coursework is completed at UVM, while the cytotechnology

certificate is offered at Fletcher Allen.

Fletcher Allen Health Care (certificate)

School of Cytotechnology

111 Colchester Avenue

Burlington, VT 05401

802-847-5133

www.fahc.org/cytoschool

Professional Organizations:

American Society for Cytotechnology

Raleigh, NC

800-948-3947

www.asct.com

American Society of Cytopathology

Wilmington, DE

302-429-8802

www.cytopathology.org

Cytolink

www.cytology.com

Cytopathnet

www.cytopathnet.org

FACTOID: Cells are transparent and must be immersed in dye to absorb color so that they may be viewed

with a microscope.

32 / HEALTH CAREERS


Medical Laboratory Technician

Medical Laboratory Technicians perform laboratory

testing that helps to detect, diagnose and treat disease.

Working under the supervision of medical laboratory

technologists or laboratory managers, technicians

prepare specimens for study and operate automated

analyzers, for example. They may also perform manual

tests on blood, tissue and other body substances,

following detailed instructions.

Medical laboratory technicians may work in various

areas of the laboratory or they may specialize in one

area. For example, histology technicians cut and stain

tissue samples for microscopic examination by pathologists

while phlebotomists collect blood samples.

Work Environments

Blood donor centers

Clinics

Hospitals

Independent laboratories

Medical schools

Pharmaceutical companies

Physician offices

Public health agencies

Research organizations

Job Outlook

Employment for clinical laboratory workers is expected

to grow at an average rate through 2010 as the volume

of laboratory tests increases with population growth and

advancements in medical technology.

Education Programs

There are no Medical Laboratory Technician programs

available in Vermont, but the following schools are

available through the New England Regional Student

Program (RSP). For more information on RSP, visit

their website at www.nebhe.org.

New Hampshire Community Technical College

Housatonic Community College (CT)

Manchester Community College (CT)

University of Maine at Augusta

Springfield Technical Community College (MA)

Professional Organizations

National Accrediting Agency for Clinical Laboratory Sciences

Chicago, IL

www.naacls.org

American Society for Clinical Laboratory Science

Bethesda, MD

301-657-2768

www.ascls.org

Vermont Society for Clinical Laboratory Science

Burlington, VT

802-656-3811

www.vtscls.org

Salary

Medical laboratory technicians can expect to earn

between $22,000 and $35,000 per year.

Education, Certification and Licensing

High school courses should include math and science.

Medical laboratory technicians generally have either an

associate degree from a college or a certificate from a

hospital training program, vocational or technical school,

or from the armed services.

FACTOID: Laboratory workers tend to spend a great deal of time on their feet.

MEDICAL LABORATORY SCIENCES / 33


Medical Laboratory Technologist

Medical Lab Technologists work behind the scenes of

patient care, usually in a laboratory setting. They are

the “lab detectives” who perform chemical tests on

tissue samples, blood and other body fluids in order

to provide doctors, with the information they need to

diagnose, treat, and monitor a patient’s condition.

They use automated equipment and instruments

capable of conducting a number of tests at once, in

addition to using microscopes, cell counters, and

other high tech laboratory equipment. With the use

of technology, the work of a medical lab technologist

has become less “hands on” and more analytical.

Medical technologists may also work in a variety

of research settings: as writers for medical publications,

as educators, and as employees in biomedical

technology companies.

34 / HEALTH CAREERS


Work Environments

Blood donor centers

Clinics

Hospitals

Independent laboratories

Medical schools

Pharmaceutical companies

Physician offices

Public health agencies

Research organizations

Job Outlook

Employment for clinical laboratory workers is expected

to grow at an average rate through 2010 as the volume

of laboratory tests increases with population growth and

advancements in medical technology.

Salary

Medical technologists can expect to earn between

$34,000 and $45,000 per year.

Education, Certification and Licensing

Prospective medical technologists should emphasize

math and science in high school. To work in the field,

a bachelor of science (BS) degree is required, with

coursework in chemistry and biochemistry, as well as

hands-on clinical laboratory work. Graduates must also

pass a certification exam given by either the American

Society of Clinical Pathologists, or by the American

Medical Technologists.

Medical laboratory technologists must have good

analytical judgment and the ability to work under

pressure. They must also pay close attention to detail

because small changes or variations in test substances

could be crucial in the type of care a patient receives.

Education Programs

University of Vermont

Department of Biomedical Technologies

College of Nursing and Health Sciences

302 Rowell Building

Burlington, VT 05405

802-656-3811

www.uvm.edu/biomed/mls

Professional Organizations

National Accrediting Agency for Clinical Laboratory Sciences

Chicago, IL

773-714-8880

www.naacls.org

American Medical Technologists

Park Ridge, IL

847-823-5169

www.amt1.com

American Society for Clinical Laboratory Science

Bethesda, MD

301-657-2768

www.ascls.org

American Society of Clinical Pathologists

Chicago, IL

312-738-1336

www.ascp.org

Vermont Society for Clinical Laboratory Science

Burlington, VT

802-656-3811

www.vtscls.org

FACTOID: Medical Laboratory Technologists are also known as clinical laboratory technologists, clinical

laboratory scientists, or medical technologists.

MEDICAL LABORATORY SCIENCES / 35


36 / HEALTH CAREERS


Medical Technologies

CARDIOVASCULAR TECHNOLOGIST 38

SURGICAL TECHNOLOGIST 39

MEDICAL TECHNOLOGIES / 37


Cardiovascular Technologist

Cardiovascular Technologists assist physicians in

diagnosing and treating heart and blood vessel

ailments. In addition to performing tests, cardiovascular

technologists prepare patients for the test

by cleaning, shaving areas of the skin, and administering

anesthesia. During procedures, they also

monitor patients’ blood pressure and heart rate.

Cardiovascular technologists may specialize in:

invasive cardiology, echocardiography, vascular

technology, and electrophysiology.

Work Environments

Ambulatory surgery centers

Cardiac rehabilitation centers

Hospitals

Physician offices

Education Programs

There are no cardiovascular technologist programs

in Vermont, but there is one available through the

New England Regional Student Program (RSP)

www.nebhe.org at:

Southern Maine Technical College

Professional Organizations

Alliance of Cardiovascular Professionals

Virginia Beach, VA

http://healthweb.org

Job Outlook

Employment of cardiovascular technologists is expected

to grow faster than the average for all occupations

through the year 2010. Growth will occur as the

population ages because older people have a higher

incidence of heart problems.

Salary

Average salary is about $33,000. However, wages range

from $25,000 to about $53,000.

Education, Certification and Licensing

Cardiovascular technologists normally complete a twoyear

junior or community college program. One year

is dedicated to core courses followed by a year of

specialization instruction. Graduates of one of the 23

accredited programs are eligible to earn certification

through Cardiovascular Credentialing International

or the American Registry of Diagnostic Medical

Sonographers depending on specialty.

Career Ladder

Some cardiovascular technologists may become

respiratory therapists.

Factoid: Most of the 39,000 jobs for cardiovascular technologists are located in hospital cardiology departments.

38 / HEALTH CAREERS


Surgical Technologist

Professional Organizations

Association of Surgical Technologists

Englewood, CO

303-694-9130

www.ast.org

Work Environments

Clinics

Hospitals

Physician and dentist offices

Surgical Centers

Surgical Technologists are members of the operating

room team who assist in surgical operations. Before

an operation, they set up surgical instruments and

equipment, and make sure the equipment is working

properly. Technologists get patients ready for surgery

by washing, shaving and disinfecting incision sites.

They transport patients to the operating room, help

position them on the operating room table, and

observe patients’ vital signs, check charts, and help

the surgical team with putting on gowns and gloves.

During surgery, technologists pass instruments to

surgeons, count supplies used, care for and dispose

of specimens taken for lab analysis and help apply

dressings. After surgery, they may help transfer

patients to the recovery room, and clean and restock

the operating room.

Education Programs

There are no surgical technologist programs in

Vermont, but the following are available through the

New England Regional Student Program (RSP)

www.nebhe.org.

Manchester Community-Technical College (CT)

Springfield Technical Community College (MA)

New Hampshire Community Technical College at

Manchester/Stratham

Job Outlook

The demand for surgical technologists is expected to

grow faster than the average for all occupations through

the year 2010 as the volume of surgery increases.

Salary

The average annual earnings of surgical technologists is

$31,000 in offices and clinics of medical doctors and

$28,000 in hospitals. Some surgical technologists earn

more than $40,000 a year.

Education, Certification and Licensing

A high school diploma is required for admission to one

of 350 accredited programs in community and junior

colleges, vocational schools, universities, hospitals,

and the military. Programs last 9 to 24 months and

lead to a certificate, diploma, or associate degree.

Programs provide classroom education and supervised

clinical experience.

Career Ladder

Surgical technologists can advance by specializing in a

particular area of surgery, such as neurosurgery or open

heart surgery. Other surgical technologists go on to

manage central supply departments in hospitals, or

take positions with insurance companies, sterile supply

services, and operating equipment firms.

FACTOID: Surgical technologists are also called scrubs, surgical or operating room technicians.

MEDICAL TECHNOLOGIES / 39


40 / HEALTH CAREERS


Medicine

PHYSICIAN 42

PHYSICIAN ASSISTANT 44

MEDICINE / 41


Physician

Physicians, also known as doctors of medicine, use

a combination of extensive education and training,

work experience and ongoing research to better serve

their patients. Once a physician has determined a

diagnosis and a treatment strategy, she/he works with

the rest of the health care team to put that strategy

into action.

While all physicians are trained and licensed

to diagnose and treat illnesses and to prescribe

medications, most choose to specialize in a

particular area.

Some Medical Specialties

Allergy

Anesthesiology

Cardiology

Dermatology

Emergency Medicine

Family Practice

Gastroenterology

Internal Medicine

Neurology

Obstetrics and Gynecology

Oncology

Orthopedics

Ophthalmology

Pathology

Pediatrics

Plastic Surgery

Psychiatry

Public Health

Radiology

Sports Medicine

Surgery

Urology

FACTOID: One third of MD’s and one half of DO’s are primary care physicians.

42 / HEALTH CAREERS


Education Programs

University of Vermont College of Medicine

Office of Admissions, E-215 Given

89 Beaumont Avenue

Burlington, VT 05405

802-656-2154

www.med.uvm.edu

Professional Organizations

Association of American Medical Colleges

Washington, DC

202-828-0400

www.aamc.org

American Association of Colleges of Osteopathic Medicine

Chevy Chase, MD

301-968-4100

www.aacom.org

American Medical Association

Chicago, IL

312-464-5000

www.ama-assn.org

Vermont Medical Society

Montpelier, VT

800-640-8767

www.vtmd.org

Work Environments

Clinics

Government agencies

Group practices

Health maintenance organizations

Hospitals

Industry

Long-term care facilities

Medical schools

Military

Overseas

Peace Corps

Private practices

Public health departments

Research institutes

Student health services

Job Outlook

Several factors, including an aging population and

advancements in health care, will ensure that physicians

remain in high demand. Of all the medical specialties,

child psychiatry is expected to be the area of greatest

need. As increasing numbers of medical practices locate

in urban areas, there will be a particular demand for

physicians in rural areas in the coming years.

Salary

Physicians tend to earn high salaries, ranging between

$125,000 and $350,000 depending on specialty, experience

and work setting.

Education, Certification and Licensing

It isn’t easy to become a physician. After four years of

high school, it takes at least four years of undergraduate

work and four years of medical school, followed by

three to eight years of internships and residency. High

school course work should have a heavy emphasis on

math and science, followed by an undergraduate degree

in one of the natural sciences. Excellent grades along

the way are important.

There are two types of medical degrees that qualify a

person to become licensed to practice as a physician:

the M.D. or Doctor of Medicine degree or the D.O. or

Doctor of Osteopathy degree. Entrance to either type of

medical school is extremely competitive.

Medical school includes many long hours of studying and

doing clinical rotations, but the personal satisfaction from

being a physician is enormous. The years immediately after

medical school are known as residency training. Upon

completion of this training, candidates are eligible to take

examinations in their specialty to become board certified.

Students may incur a debt load for medical education

as high as $150,000-$200,000, but many states

including Vermont, offer loan repayment options for

physicians working in underserved locations (inner city

and rural areas).

MEDICINE / 43


Physician Assistant

Physician Assistants (PA’s) practice medicine as part

of the health care team under the supervision of a

physician. They deliver many of the same services

and procedures as the physicians themselves. PA’s

examine patients, take histories, order laboratory

tests, prescribe medications, stitch wounds and apply

splints and casts. PA’s may also work in areas where

physicians are in short supply, reporting back to a

supervisor when necessary.

Work Environments

Clinics

Group practices

Health maintenance organizations (HMO’s)

Hospitals

Industries/corporations

Long-term care facilities

Military institutions

Physician offices

Public health departments

Student health services

Job Outlook

Physician assistants are in demand in Vermont, especially

in underserved rural areas. The trend toward making

health care more affordable will probably keep demand

high in the foreseeable future.

Salary

Physician assistants typically earn between $55,000 and

$62,000 per year, depending upon the work setting.

Educational level and experience also affect salary.

Education, Certification and Licensing

High school courses should contain college prep material

with a focus on math and science. A physician assistant

(PA) program takes at least two years to complete, and

most PA’s hold at least a bachelor of science (BS) degree,

which takes four years. To practice as a PA in Vermont,

you must complete a national certification exam administered

by the National Commission on the Certification of

Physicians’ Assistants (NCCPA), followed by an on-thejob

apprenticeship program.

Education Programs

There are no physician assistant programs available

in Vermont or through the New England Regional

Student Program, but the following schools are close

to Vermont:

Albany Medical College

Physician Assistant Program (certificate, associate degree)

47 New Scotland Avenue

Albany, NY 12208

518-262-5251

www.amc.edu/academic/PA_Program/pa_program.htm

Springfield College

Baystate Health Systems

Physician Assistant Program (certificate, bachelor degree)

263 Alden Street

Springfield, MA 01109

413-788-2422

www.springfieldcollege.edu

Manchester Center for Health Sciences of the MCPHS

Graduate PA Program

1528 Elm Street

Manchester, NH 03101

800-225-5506

www.mcp.edu

Massachusetts College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences

Physician Assistant Studies Program

179 Longwood Avenue, WB01

Boston, MA 02115

617-732-2140

www.mcp.edu

Northeastern University

Physician Assistant Program

202 Robinson Hall

Boston, MA 02115

617-373-3195

www.bouve.neu.edu/health.html

Rochester Institute of Technology

85 Lomb Memorial Drive

Rochester, NY 14623

585-475-2978

www.rit.edu

44 / HEALTH CAREERS


The University of New England

Physician Assistant Program

11 Hills Beach Road

Biddeford, ME 04103-7688

207-797-7261

www.une.edu/chp

Yale University School of Medicine

School of Medicine

47 College Street, Suite 220

New Haven, CT 06510

203-785-4252

http://info.med.yale.edu/ysm/index.html

Professional Organizations:

American Academy of Physician Assistants Information

Center and Association of Physician Assistant Programs

Alexandria, VA

703-836-2272

www.aapa.org

National Commission on Certification of Physician Assistants, Inc.

Norcross, GA

770-734-4500

www.nccpa.net

Quinnipiac University

Physician Assistant Program

Office of Graduate Admissions (AB-GRD)

275 Mount Carmel Avenue

Hamden, CT 06518-1908

203-582-8672

www.quinnipiac.edu/x217.xml

FACTOID: The first class of Physician Assistants were Navy corpsmen who had received considerable

medical training during their military service and during the war in Vietnam.

MEDICINE / 45


46 / HEALTH CAREERS


Mental Health & Social Services

COUNSELOR 48

GERONTOLOGIST 49

HUMAN SERVICES WORKER 50

PSYCHIATRIST 51

PROFILE 52

PSYCHOLOGIST 53

SOCIAL WORKER 55

MENTAL HEALTH & SOCIAL SERVICES / 47


Counselors

Counselors help people to identify and address specific

challenges in their lives. Rehabilitation counselors help

people with physical challenges – disabilities that come

from illness, injury or birth defects. Mental health

counselors help people address such issues as substance

abuse, suicide, parenting or family problems, marital

problems, stress, self-esteem, or aging.

Their duties depend on the individuals they serve

and the settings in which they work.

Education Programs

College of Saint Joseph

71 Clement Road

Rutland, VT 05701

802-773-5900

www.csj.edu

Johnson State College

Office of Admission

337 College Hill

Johnson, VT 05656

800-635-2356

www.jsc.vsc.edu

Springfield College School of Human Services

347 Emerson Falls Road

St. Johnsbury, VT 05819

800-441-1812

www.spfldcol.edu/homepage/dept.nsf/shs

University of Vermont

194 South Prospect Street

Burlington, VT 05401

802-656-3370

www.uvm.edu

Professional Organizations

American Counseling Association

Alexandria, VA

800-347-6647

www.counseling.org

American Mental Health Counselors Association

Alexandria, VA

800-326-2642

http://amhca.org

National Board for Certified Counselors, Inc.

Greensboro, NC

336-547-0607

www.nbcc.org

Work Environments

Colleges and universities

Community mental health centers

Correctional facilities

Drug rehabilitation facilities

Halfway houses

Hospice programs

Hospitals

Nursing homes

Private practice

Schools

Job Outlook

Employment of counselors is expected to grow faster

than the average for all occupations through 2010.

Salary

A general salary range of $28,000-$67,000 can be

expected; salaries vary depending on work environment,

population served, education and experience.

Education, Certification and Licensing

Most states require some form of counselor credentialing,

licensure, certification or registry for practice outside

schools; all states require school counselors to hold a

state school counseling certification. The state of Vermont

requires that mental health counselors be licensed. High

school course work should include college prep classes.

Prospective counselors might choose a number of

undergraduate majors in natural sciences or

psychology, for example. Over half of all counselors

have a master’s degree.

Career Ladder

Counselors can become supervisors or administrators

in their agencies. Some counselors move into research,

consulting, college teaching, or go into private or

group practice.

48 / HEALTH CAREERS


Gerontologist

Gerontologists know all about what it means to grow

old. They help tailor goods, services and public policy

to better meet the needs of the elderly. Gerontology is

an emerging field. Elderly Americans represent one of

the fastest growing segments of our population. Their

social, emotional and health needs are greater than

ever. Gerontologists meet these needs by working in

existing fields, such as psychology, social work, dietetics,

medicine, or even law and business; and also by

working in newly developing nontraditional fields.

Education Programs

The following programs lead to either a minor or a

certificate in Gerontology, which must be combined

with another base specialty in order to be useful in

the job market.

Green Mountain College (offered as a minor)

One College Circle

Poultney, VT 05764

800-776-6675

www.greenmtn.edu

University of Vermont (certificate program)

Department of Continuing Education

322 South Prospect Street

Burlington, VT 05401

800-639-3210

http://learn.uvm.edu

Work Environments

Educational institutions

Health care and long term care institutions

Senior citizen centers and retirement communities

Academic and research settings

Business and industry

Gerontologists may work in any number of places,

depending on their area of interest.

Job Outlook

As the size of the American elderly population grows,

the demand for people with expertise in gerontology

will increase.

Salary

Salary levels vary in relation to work setting and level of

education.

Education, Certification and Licensing

High school course work should focus on college-prep

classes, including math, science, and humanities. After

high school, a minor or certificate in Gerontology can be

combined with a major in any number of fields. The

length of training in those majors is entirely dependent

upon the area of study. There are currently no licensing or

registration requirements in Vermont for gerontologists.

In addition, the following are available through the

New England Regional Student Program (RSP),

www.nebhe.org.

Gateway Community-Technical College (CT)

Naugatuck Valley Community-Technical College (CT)

North Shore Community College (MA)

Quinsigamond Community College (MA)

New Hampshire Community-Technical College at Manchester

Community College of Rhode Island

Professional Organizations

Association for Gerontologists in Higher Education (AGHE)

Washington, DC

202-289-9806

www.aghe.org

MENTAL HEALTH & SOCIAL SERVICES / 49


Human Services Worker

Human Services Workers are case managers, group

home managers, activities coordinators, counselors,

and aides. Their clients might be people dealing with

drug addiction, HIV/AIDS, joblessness, homelessness,

mental illness, aging, or other challenging conditions.

A common goal in human services is to help people

deal effectively with their life situations. Often, it

means working with other health professionals as part

of a team serving the individual needs of each client.

Work Environments

Community health centers

Group homes

Hospitals

Nursing homes

Private and public agencies

Schools

Job Outlook

Projected to be among the fastest growing occupations,

job opportunities should be excellent, particularly for

applicants with appropriate postsecondary education.

Salary

Salaries in this field range from $15,000-$35,000 a year.

Education, Certification and Licensing

Employers prefer an applicant with a minimum of an

associate degree and sometimes require a bachelor

degree.

Career Ladder

Formal education almost always is necessary for

advancement; generally, this means a bachelor or

master’s degree in counseling, rehabilitation, social

work, human services, psychology or a related field.

Education Programs

Burlington College

Admissions Office

95 North Avenue

Burlington, VT 05401

802-862-9616 or 800-862-9616

www.burlcol.edu

College of Saint Joseph

71 Clement Road

Rutland, VT 05701

802-773-5900 or 1-877-270-9998

www.csj.edu

Community College of Vermont

119 Pearl Street

Burlington, VT 05401

802-865-4422

www.ccv.edu

Lyndon State College

1001 College Road

PO Box 919

Lyndonville, VT 05851-0919

802-626-6200 or 800-225-1998

www.lsc.vsc.edu

Southern Vermont College

982 Mansion Drive

Bennington, VT 05201

802-442-5427

www.svc.edu

Springfield College

School of Human Services

347 Emerson Falls Road

St. Johnsbury, VT 05819

800-441-1812

www.spfldcol.edu/homepage/dept.nsf/shs

Professional Organizations

National Organization for Human Service Education

www.nohse.com

Factoid: There are over 270,000 social and human service assistants in the country; about half work in private

social or human service agencies.

50 / HEALTH CAREERS


Psychiatrist

Psychiatrists are physicians who specialize in the

diagnosis, treatment and prevention of mental

illnesses and substance use disorders. With a

medical background and a focus on mental health,

psychiatrists are uniquely qualified to understand

how emotional illness is related to the growing

understanding of the workings of the mind, brain,

and body, all of which are inseparable.

Psychiatry is often confused with psychology.

Both fields are concerned with helping people

achieve mental health and stability. Psychiatrists and

psychologists both diagnose and treat clients. Unlike

psychologists, however, psychiatrists must earn medical

degrees in order to practice. Accordingly, they

may prescribe medications, order laboratory and

other tests, and coordinate with other physicians as

part of their patients’ treatment. Psychiatrists also

engage in research to gain further information about

the origins of mental illness and to advance treatment.

Some psychiatrists include in their work the

practice of psychotherapy. Some choose to work with

community organizations, like schools and the legal

system, as a way to improve mental health.

Education Programs

University of Vermont College of Medicine

Office of Admissions

E-215 Given

89 Beaumont Avenue

Burlington, VT 05405

802-656-2154

www.med.uvm.edu

Professional Organizations

Vermont Psychiatric Association

c/o The Vermont Medical Society

Montpelier, VT

800-640-8767

www.vtmd.org

American Psychiatric Association

Washington, DC

888-357-7924

www.psych.org

Work Environments

Colleges and universities

Community agencies

Courts and correctional facilities

Emergency rooms

General and psychiatric hospitals

Government agencies

Hospice

Industry

Military

Nursing homes

Private practices

Rehabilitation programs

Schools

Job Outlook

The need for psychiatrists is extremely high in Vermont.

This need is expected to continue into the foreseeable

future. There is a particularly high need for child psychiatrists

in Vermont.

Salary

Psychiatrists tend to earn high salaries, averaging about

$130,000 per year in New England. This is due to the

length and difficulty of their training. Salaries can vary

greatly according to the type of practice, hours worked,

geographic location and whether or not the psychiatrist

works in the public or private sector.

Education, Certification and Licensing

Psychiatrists must complete the same rigorous education as

other physicians. High school course work should have a

heavy emphasis on math and science, followed by an

undergraduate degree in one of the natural sciences.

Excellent grades along the way are important. High school

and college are followed by four years of medical school

and at least four years of residency training in psychiatry.

Many candidates continue on for additional training so that

they can further specialize in such areas as child and adolescent

psychiatry, geriatric psychiatry, forensic psychiatry,

psychopharmacology or psychoanalysis. After completing

their residency training, most psychiatrists seek certification

from the American Board of Psychiatry and Neurology.

MENTAL HEALTH & SOCIAL SERVICES / 51


Profile

Robin Lessoff-Perry, Child Psychiatrist, Counseling Service of

Addison County, Middlebury, VT

Robin Lessoff-Perry began her health career as a registered nurse, but had

always been interested in psychology, which was her major in college. She left

college before graduating to get married and start her family. Interestingly,

she said, “I realized when I was pregnant with my children how much I loved

the health care field,” and when she returned to school, she became a physician.

She completed rotations in psychiatry at several facilities including the University

Health Center and the Veterans Administration Hospital in White River Junction,

and decided to pursue psychiatry as a specialty. “I just found the depth of interaction

with the patient more satisfying and challenging,” she recalls, “and in psychiatry

I have the opportunity to help people make their lives better.”

Robin lists a number of skills she needs as a child psychiatrist, including “a tolerance

for ambiguity; an ability to take a systems view and sustain an empathetic view of the

child and his/her parents; excellent listening skills; a view of children that does not

portray them as ’mini-adults’; and the ability to take care of myself.” She adds that

there are times when she must take a definitive stand, even if it is in opposition to

someone who is close to the child. This occurs commonly in cases of suspected child

abuse, when others must be called in to aid the child and family. Other examples are

when a child‘s problem requires that the parents must make changes in their parenting

but they resist doing so, or when a child may beneft from medication, but the parent

has a strong negative response to this suggestion. Dealing with these types of situations

call upon skills that are included in the art of medicine. Robin was

startled to discover, when she started practicing, how important her

relationships are with the people she sees can be to them. She does

not minimize the subleties of the therapeutic relationship.

How does she know when she has done a good job? “I remember

the dean of my medical school saying that the goal of treatment

is to arrive at a time when a patient does not need

you anymore. I believe that. I know that things

are going well when I see the patient and the

family functioning in a way where there’s more

satisfaction than not, and the child is back on track

academically, socially and emotionally,” she explains.

52 / HEALTH CAREERS


Psychologist

Psychologists include clinical and research psychologists.

Clinical psychologists work with clients to help them

overcome mental health challenges and build stability

in their lives. They provide evaluation and/or therapy

for those suffering from mental, emotional, behavioral

or intellectual/learning problems. To help them in

diagnosing a problem, they conduct interviews and

administer tests and questionnaires. Some

psychologists provide consultations to organizations,

businesses, sports teams, schools or other institutions.

Work Environments

FOR CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY:

Correctional institutions

Hospitals

Industries and corporations

Mental health agencies

Private practices

Schools

FOR RESEARCH PSYCHOLOGY:

Colleges and universities

Independent research facilities

Job Outlook

In the future the demand for psychologists should be

great but very competitive. Psychologists with master’s

and doctoral degrees will be sought after.

Salary

Psychologists typically earn between $30,000-$65,000

a year, depending on setting, education level and

experience. Clinical psychologists in private practice may

earn considerably more.

Education Programs

The degree level offered is indicated in parentheses.

Bennington College (BA, MA)

One College Drive

Office of Admissions and the First Year

Bennington, VT 05201

802-442-5401 or 800-833-6845

www.bennington.edu

Burlington College (BA)

Admissions Office

95 North Avenue

Burlington, VT 05401

802-862-9616 or 800-862-9616

www.burlcol.edu

Education, Certification and Licensing

A Ph.D. degree is required to practice clinical psychology

or to hold a position as a university professor. However,

many opportunities exist, especially in educational

and organizational psychology, for master’s level

psychologists. Licensing, required in any practice, is

administered by the state. Prospective psychologists

should study a strong, well-rounded selection of math,

science and humanities subjects during high school

and undergraduate studies.

Career Ladder

After obtaining a doctoral degree, a psychologist may

go into private practice or set up consulting firms, or

teach at the university level.

MENTAL HEALTH & SOCIAL SERVICES / 53


Castleton State College (BA)

Seminary Street

Castleton, VT 05735

802-468-5611

www.csc.vsc.edu

College of Saint Joseph (BA, MS)

71 Clement Road

Rutland, VT 05701

802-773-5900 or 1-877-270-9998

www.csj.edu

Green Mountain College (BA)

One College Circle

Poultney, VT 05764

800-776-6675

www.greenmtn.edu

Johnson State College (BA)

Office of Admission

337 College Hill

Johnson, VT 05656

800-635-2356

www.jsc.vsc.edu

Lyndon State College (BA)

1001 College Road, PO Box 919

Lyndonville, VT 05851-0919

802-626-6200 or 800-225-1998

www.lsc.vsc.edu

Norwich University (BA)

The Admissions Office

158 Harmon Drive

Northfield, VT 05663

802-485-2001 or 800-468-6679

www.norwich.edu

Southern Vermont College (BS)

982 Mansion Drive

Bennington, VT 05201

802-442-5427

www.svc.edu

Saint Michael’s College (BA, MA)

One Winooski Park

Colchester, VT 05439

802-654-2000 or 800-762-8000

www.smcvt.edu

University of Vermont (BA, MS, PhD)

College of Medicine, Office of Admissions

Given C-225

Burlington, VT 05405

802-656-2154

www.med.uvm.edu

Professional Organizations:

American Psychological Association

Washington, DC

800-374-2721

www.apa.org

National Institute of Mental Health

Bethesda, MD

301-443-4513

www.nimh.nih.gov

National Mental Health Association

Alexandria, VA

703-684-7722

www.nmha.org

National Association of School Psychologists

Bethesda, MD

301-657-0270

www.nasponline.org

Vermont Psychological Association

Montpelier, VT

802-229-5447

www.badc.com

Factoid: There are about 182,000 psychologists in the country, of which 40% are employed in educational

institutions; 30% in health services; and 10% in government agencies

54 / HEALTH CAREERS


Social Worker

Social Workers provide a wide range of services to individuals,

families, small groups, communities and organizations.

Working from a strengths perspective, social

workers are guided by the values of social justice and

human rights. Social workers often reach out to people

who may be described as oppressed and underserved

Social workers most commonly work in non-profit

agencies and/or government agencies. Some social workers

choose to work in for-profit businesses or join private

practice groups. Fields of social work practice include,

but are not limited to, mental health, child welfare,

family work, substance abuse, adult and juvenile justice,

school social work, medical social work, geriatric social

work, homelessness and housing, domestic violence,

and community organizing/development.

Social workers rarely do their work without

collaborating with other professionals like teachers,

nurses, psychiatrists, psychologists, doctors,

community organizers and legislators.

Work Environments

Community justice centers

Community mental health centers

Correctional facilities

Day care centers

Domestic violence agencies

Home health and hospice agencies

Hospitals

Housing agencies

Legislative/lobbying organizations

Nursing homes

Physician offices

Schools

Social and human service agencies

Substance abuse treatment facilities

Job Outlook

Employment is projected to grow faster than average for

social workers. The job search is more competitive in

cities than in rural areas. There are increased opportunities

for social workers who are bi-lingual and for social

workers who want to work in rural, underserved areas.

Salary

Education, geographic location and experience impact

salary levels which range from $20,000-$48,000.

Education, Certification and Licensing

Bachelor degree-level social workers hold many human service

positions. High school course work should be well-rounded,

including math, science, and humanities. A master’s

degree and a state license are required for a social worker

to receive third party payments for their work. Therefore a

master’s degree is required to do private practice work.

Career Ladder

Supervisory positions for social workers are most definitely

available to BSW’s and MSW’s. However, with higher

education, social workers can more easily become

supervisors, administrators or open a private practice.

FACTOID: There are about 470,000 social workers in the U.S., of which one out of three is employed by

state, county and municipal government agencies.

MENTAL HEALTH & SOCIAL SERVICES / 55


Education Programs

Castleton State College (BSW degree)

Department of Social Work

Seminary Street

Castleton, VT 05735

802-468-5611

www.csc.vsc.edu

Springfield College

School of Human Services

347 Emerson Falls Road

St. Johnsbury, VT 05819

800-441-1812

www.spfldcol.edu/homepage/dept.nsf/shs

University of Vermont (BSW and MSW degrees)

Department of Social Work

85 South Prospect Street

443 Waterman Building

Burlington, VT 05405

802-656-8880

www.uvm.edu/~socwork

Professional Organizations

National Association of Social Workers (NASW)

Washington, DC

202-408-8600

www.naswdc.org

Council on Social Work Education

Alexandria, VA

703-683-8080

www.cswe.org

Vermont Chapter, National Association of Social Workers

Montpelier, VT

802-223-1713

www.naswvt.org

56 / HEALTH CAREERS


Nursing

HOME HEALTH AIDE 58

A CLOSER LOOK: HOUSE CALLS 59

LICENSED NURSING ASSISTANT 60

PROFILE 61

LICENSED PRACTICAL NURSE 62

REGISTERED NURSE 63

PROFILE 65

ADVANCED PRACTICE NURSING 66

Nurse Practitioner

Clinical Nurse Specialist

Certified Nurse Midwife

Certified Registered Nurse Anesthetist

A CLOSER LOOK: MEN NEEDED FOR NURSING 68

NURSING / 57


Home Health Aide

Home Health Aides care for elderly, newborns and

children with special needs, or those with injuries or

disabilities, in their own homes. Home health aides

perform such duties as housekeeping, activities of

daily living for the patient, such as personal hygiene,

meal preparation, assistance with medications, and

laundry. They may accompany a patient to doctor

appointments and assist with physical exercise.

Home health aides may work independently or

under the supervision of a nurse, physical therapist

or social worker.

Work Environments

Private homes

Job Outlook

Home health aide positions are expected to grow faster

than the average for all occupations because of the

increasing needs of an aging population and efforts

to control health care costs by moving patients out of

hospitals and nursing facilities as quickly as possible, as

well as consumer preference for care in the home.

Salary

Earnings depend upon experience, geographic location,

and client load. The average hourly rate is $8.50 or

about $16,000 per year.

Education, Certification and Licensing

Nursing aide training is offered in high schools,

vocational-technical schools, some nursing homes and

community colleges. Hospitals also offer training, as well

as home health aide agencies, but most in Vermont

require a commitment of employment as a prerequisite

to getting the training.

Career Ladder

Additional education can take home health aides into

nursing positions such as licensed practical nurse,

registered nurse, and so on (see other Nursing positions

in this Directory).

Professional Organizations:

National Association for Home Care and Hospice

Washington, DC

202-547-7424

www.nahc.org

FACTOID: Experience as an aide can help people decide whether to continue on a health care career path.

58 / HEALTH CAREERS


A Closer Look

House Calls: Providing Health Care in the Patient’s Home

The biggest growth of jobs

in health care is projected

to occur in the home

health care arena, which is

a natural outgrowth of the

trend to keep patients at home if

possible, and to discharge them

sooner from hospitals.

Patricia Donehower

What types of jobs will experience

this huge increase? Patricia Donehower, RN, director

of Adult Home Care at the Visiting Nurse Association

of Chittenden and Grand Isle Counties (VNA) in

Colchester, can list quite a number of them. “There

is a wide range of professions that operate in home

health, including registered nurse, licensed practical

nurse, licensed nursing assistant, occupational

therapist, physical therapist, speech therapist, social

worker, personal care attendant, diabetes educator,

and nurse specialists such as wound care/incontinence

nurse, psychiatry nurse, maternal-child nurse, and

neuro-rehab nurse. In addition, there are other programs

that function in the home, such as palliative

care, hospice and bereavement.”

The benefits of working in home care are numerous,

says Pat. “You’re part of a team of people who

enable recovery and/or adaptation to chronic illness

in patients’ homes, and that’s a great feeling. You get

to know the patients and their families because you

see them over time and the rewards of developing a

relationship with a patient are very substantial.”

Home health care also presents opportunities for

using many skills, such as decision-making, communication,

patient assessment, and for registered nurses

who guide and direct licensed practical nurses and

licensed nursing assistants, management and teambuilding

skills. The challenges presented in finding the

patient’s home and establishing a relationship with

new patients are balanced by a degree of independence

for workers to schedule their patient visits within the

day, and a supportive work environment.

Typical employee benefits in home health care

include car allowance reimbursement, cell telephone

expenses, a pension and an investment savings program,

says Pat. There are also tuition reimbursement

funds available and plenty of in-house and external

continuing education provided.

When asked how to know if home health care is

the right setting for an employee, Pat suggests summer

employment at an agency to get a closer look at the

environment. Those interested in being a licensed

nursing assistant can attend the LNA course, and for

other new employees, there is an extensive orientation

program that is customized for each learner.

“Home health care allows you to truly understand

the patient in their environment, and challenges you

to call upon community agencies and resources

who should be involved to help make the patient as

independent and comfortable as possible,” Pat

comments. “It is a health care setting where you can

see the difference you make each and every day.”

NURSING / 59


Licensed Nursing Assistant

Licensed Nursing Assistants work under the supervision

of licensed practical nurses and registered nurses

to provide basic patient care and assist with nursing

procedures. They take vital signs, collect specimens

for laboratory tests, administer medications, change

wound dressings, serve and feed meals, assist patients

in and out of bed, and answer patients’ call lights.

They have a great deal of patient contact.

Work Environments

Home health organizations

Hospitals

Long-term care facilities

Mental health facilities

Nursing facilities

Job Outlook

Employment of nursing aides is expected to grow faster

than the average for all occupations in response to

increasing emphasis on rehabilitation and the long-term

care needs of a growing elderly population.

Salary

LNAs earn between $12,000-$22,000 a year, with an

average of about $16,000 a year.

Education, Certification and Licensing

Vermont requires nursing assistants to complete a

training program and pass the state licensing exam.

Career Ladder

Additional education can take licensed nursing aides

into nursing positions such as licensed practical nurse,

registered nurse, and so on (see other Nursing positions

in this Directory).

Education Programs

Training programs are available from some hospitals,

home health agencies, and nursing homes, but

applicants must first secure a position at that facility

to be eligible for training.

Professional Organizations

National League for Nursing

New York, NY

800-669-1656

www.nln.org

National Association for Home Care & Hospice

Washington, DC

202-547-7427

www.nahc.org

For more information on nursing in Vermont, go to

www.choosenursingvermont.com

FACTOID: Of the approximately 1.5 million nursing aides in the country, one quarter work in hospitals, one

half work in nursing facilities and others work in various related settings.

60 / HEALTH CAREERS


Profile

Nancy Donahue, Licensed Nursing Assistant,

Gary Home for Retired Women, Montpelier, VT

Nancy Donahue has a law degree but she found her most

satisfying work as a Licensed Nursing Assistant (LNA) at a

retirement home for women in the state’s capitol.

Disenchanted with the environment in the world of law and real estate, she set out to

become a registered nurse. She began as a geriatric aide and then attended school fulltime

to become a licensed nursing assistant, and found her niche. “The people who took

care of my grandfather were so professional and kind; I was so impressed with how much

of an impact they made at the end of the day,” she remembers. “We need caring LNAs.”

Her passion for her work is evident. “I happen to think helping people to pass away with

dignity is the most rewarding thing to do. I get the biggest thrill when I help my patients.

I know they appreciate my efforts by the way they touch me, or smile. It truly is gracious

work; you meet people from all over the world, all walks of life. And you work with

great people. There is wonderful communication on our team.”

When Nancy goes to work on the second or third shift at the Gary Home, she first

takes report on each patient, then takes her cell phone while she visits and greets each

of her patients. She checks the lights in their rooms, sets up medications, and continues

to interact with the patients. She may take them to dinner if they need assistance,

prepare them for bed, and assist with any personal needs. “There are many subtle

ways to do things to maintain their dignity,” she comments. And sometimes, she just

lifts their spirits: “I sing songs or dance,” she adds.

Though the patient interaction is what attracts her to her profession,

she can point out other advantages. “Longevity in the job is assured

because we have such an aging population. And there are so many

settings in which you can be an LNA, from a small quiet place to

a more pressurized, high tech environment. You can work in

several different settings: a hospital for acute care, a sub-acute

setting helping people get better, a geriatric facility

for long term care or in a hospice helping people

about to die. You have so many choices in the

type of nursing and shifts to work that you can continue

to grow and change in your own field as your life changes

and grows.”

NURSING / 61


Licensed Practical Nurse

Licensed Practical Nurses (LPNs) provide basic bedside

care to patients whose common recurring conditions are

generally stable. After licensure, LPNs typically find

employment in a hospital, long-term care facility or

another health care organization. They work under the

supervision of physicians, dentists, or registered nurses

(RNs), who might ask an LPN to give injections, insert

catheters, or give patients other physical treatments. An

LPN may also provide the patient and family with information

about medical conditions, treatment and care.

In the hospital setting, for example, an LPN might

take patients’ vital signs, monitor patients’ responses

to medication and other treatments, or help patients

with personal hygiene. They may also help registered

nurses develop or change a patient’s plan of care.

Educational Programs

Vermont Technical College (VTC) offers the only

LPN program in Vermont. Their “one-plus-one”

program is available at eight Vermont locations.

During the first year, students complete a Certificate

of Practical Nursing and are eligible to apply for LPN

licensure. If accepted into the second year program,

students complete an Associate of Science degree in

Nursing and are eligible to apply for RN licensure.

Vermont Technical College (VTC)

PO Box 500

Randolph Center, VT 05061-0500

800-442-VTC1 or 802-728-1243

www.vtc.vsc.edu

VTC’s program is also offered at these sites:

• Bennington/Putnam Campus

150 Hospital Drive, Box 76

Bennington, VT 05201

• Thompson/Brattleboro Campus

157 Old Guilford Road, Suite 7

Brattleboro, VT 05301

• Fanny Allen/Colchester Campus

29 Ethan Allen Avenue, Suite 6

Colchester, VT 05446

• EXTENDED CAMPUSES: Morrisville, Newport, Springfield,

St Albans, White River Junction

Professional Organizations

National League of Nursing Accrediting Commission

New York, NY

800-669-1656

www.nlnac.org

Practical Nurses Association of Vermont (PNAV)

Barre, VT

802-476-0447

For more information on nursing in Vermont, go to

www.choosenursingvermont.com

Work Environments

Clinics

Dentist offices

Government agencies

Home health care agencies

Hospitals

Insurance companies

Long-term care facilities

Physician offices

Private homes

Schools

Job Outlook

The need for LPNs through 2010 should grow at an

average rate in the general health care sector and faster

than average growth in long term care facilities. This

trend is due to the aging of the population in the U.S.

and the current practice of releasing patients from

hospitals shortly after procedures such as surgery.

Salary

Most LPNs start at about $25,000 (or about $12.00

per hour) for full time work, although salaries vary

depending on the work setting. Experienced, full time

LPN’s can expect to earn $27,000 to $35,000 per year.

Education, Certification and Licensing

High school course work should include plenty of math

and science. After high school, licensed practical nurse

(LPN) candidates must complete about a year’s worth of

combined classroom and clinical study, then pass the

LPN licensing exam for Vermont.

62 / HEALTH CAREERS


Title

Registered Nurse

Registered Nurses (RNs) administer medications,

perform life-saving procedures, promote health, prevent

disease, and help people cope with illness, life

changes and death. Nurses are advocates and educators

for patients, families and communities.

The majority of nurses practice in hospital settings

where they provide care to patients 24 hours a

day. They develop and manage nursing care plans for

patients that combine the treatment prescribed by

the physician with the nursing needs that have been

identified. Hospital nurses often specialize in a particular

area of nursing such as maternity, surgery,

emergency, pediatric, psychiatric, medical, cardiac, or

critical care. Nurses perform procedures and exams

that frequently include assisting a physician, such as

in the operating room. Nurses also teach patients

and their families about their conditions, particularly

how to care for themselves, how to prevent complications,

and when to seek further advice from a

health care professional. Nurses coordinate the activities

of many other members of the health care team.

They supervise licensed practical nurses (LPNs) and

licensed nursing assistants (LNAs).

Some RNs work for local, state or international

public health agencies, where they monitor communicable

diseases, assist with evaluating air and water

quality efforts, teach people in the community about

healthy choices, and disease prevention.

Work Environments

Clinics

Corporations

Government agencies

Home health organizations

Hospitals

Long-term care facilities and hospices

Overseas, military, traveling nurses agencies

Peace Corps

Physician offices

Public health agencies

Schools and universities

Job Outlook

Employment opportunities for registered nurses will continue

to grow through 2010. The fastest growth in new

registered nurse positions is expected in hospital operating

rooms, critical care, home health care agencies, and

long term care facilities. In Vermont, there is a great

need for nurses in all areas.

Salary

Salaries for registered nurses depend heavily on geographic

location, work setting and level of experience,

education and responsibility. Registered nurses can

expect to earn starting wages between $35,400 and

$44,600. Although some health care organizations in

Vermont do not differentiate salary for associate (ADN)

and bachelor (BSN) degrees, graduates of BSN programs

will have greater opportunities to advance, a

primary factor in job satisfaction.

Education, Certification and Licensing

High school course work should have a strong emphasis

on math, English, and science. In order to take the

Vermont licensing exam, candidates must successfully

complete either an ADN (Associate Degree in Nursing) or

BSN (Bachelor of Science in Nursing) program. Both levels

of education, with a license, permit a registered nurse to

work in an entry-level position. However, a BSN is usually

required for advancement into a master’s level specialization

program, although some master’s programs accept

individuals with an ADN and a related bachelor degree.

NURSING / 63


Education Programs

ASSOCIATE DEGREE PROGRAMS

Castleton State College

Nursing Department

Castleton, VT 05735

802-468-1236 or 802-468-1230

www.csc.vsc.edu/Nursing/index.htm

Castleton’s Program is also offered at Lyndon State College.

Contact Castleton State for more information about the

Lyndon State Nursing Program.

Southern Vermont College

Nursing Division

982 Mansion Drive, Bennington, VT 05201

802-447-4661

www.svc.edu

Vermont Technical College (VTC)

Admissions Office, PO Box 500

Randolph Center, VT 05061-0500

www.vtc.vsc.edu

VTC’s program is also offered at the following sites:

• Fanny Allen/Colchester Campus

29 Ethan Allen Avenue, Suite 6

Colchester, VT 05446

• Putnam/Bennington Campus

150 Hospital Drive, Box 76

Bennington, VT 05201

• Thompson/Brattleboro Campus

157 Old Guilford Road, Suite 7

Brattleboro, VT 05301

BACCALAURATE DEGREE PROGRAMS:

Norwich University

Nursing Department

65 South Main Street

Northfield, VT 05663

www.norwich.edu/acad/nursing

University of Vermont

College of Nursing and Health Science

216 Rowell, Burlington, VT 05405

802-656-3830

www.uvm/nursing

Nursing Refresher Course available online at:

http://learn.sdstate.edu/nursing/RN.html

Professional Organizations

National League for Nursing Accrediting Commission

New York, NY

800-669-1656

www.nlnac.org

National League for Nursing

New York, NY

800-669-1656

www.nln.org

American Association of Colleges of Nursing

Washington, DC

202-463-6930

www.aacn.nche.edu

American Nurses’ Association

Washington, DC

800-274-4262

www.nursingworld.org

Vermont State Nurses’ Association

South Burlington, VT

802-651-8886

www.uvm.org/vsna

For more information on nursing in Vermont,

go to www.choosenursingvermont.com

Southern Vermont College (see above)

FACTOID: By 2020, over 1.75 million nurses will be needed in the United States. If current trends continue,

only 635,000 nurses will be available.

64 / HEALTH CAREERS


Profile

Susan Martel, RN, MS, Nurse, Administrative

Director, Nursing Operations, Fletcher Allen

Health Care, Burlington, VT

Sue Martel (left) talks knowingly about the career ladder

in nursing and the endless possibilities it offers. “You

can work with any group: children, the elderly, drugaddicted,

pregnant women, those with cancer, mental

health patients, and many others,” she points out.

Her career is evidence of that viewpoint. “When I graduated from high school, it

wasn’t clear what I wanted to do and I didn’t have the self-confidence to go to college.

A friend who was an administrator at a nearby nursing home saw me as a ‘people

person’ and urged me to train with her as a licensed nursing assistant.” And that was

the start of a long, satisfying experience in nursing.

She went on to become a licensed practical nurse (LPN), and then got her associate

degree in nursing, followed by a bachelor degree in nursing at Norwich University and

a master’s degree in nursing at the University of Vermont.

Before her current administrative duties, she worked in acute care, long term care, maternity,

medicine and surgery. “Nursing opens doors in so many directions and provides a

wide range of things you can do, or you can focus in one area for your entire career if you

want to. I can not see myself doing anything else,” she says simply.

As a nursing administrator, she needs to understand quality patient care; the business

and financial aspects of health care; other world pressures, such as

why we have the staff shortages we do in health care; group

dynamics; team-building skills; great communication skills; and a

willingness to accept feedback and input. “I like advocating for

staff and in my current role I can do that,” she notes.

She knows she has done well when patient outcomes and

satisfaction are high, when staff morale is high and turnover is

low, and when the people who report to her are

successful. At the core of her varied nursing positions

is the reason she took that first position to train as an

LNA: “Someone else saw me as a caring human being; one

person who trained me showed me how to care for another

human being; I loved it and never looked back,” she explains.

NURSING / 65


Advanced Practice Nursing

Advanced Practice Nursing refers to several specialties

in nursing for those with advanced education

and skills. They include Nurse Practitioners (NPs),

Clinical Nurse Specialists (CNSs), Certified Nurse

Midwives (CNMs) and Certified Registered Nurse

Anesthetists (CRNAs).

Certified Nurse-Midwives (CNMs) provide obstetric

and gynecologic care to women of all ages. They

perform gynecologic exams and Pap smears,

prescribe medications and birth control methods,

deliver babies, perform the first newborn exam, and

assist new mothers with breastfeeding. CNMs consult

with a physician if complications arise during

pregnancy or birth. CNMs also educate patients

about reproductive health and family planning.

Certified Registered Nurse Anesthetists (CRNAs) are

responsible for the administration of all types of

anesthesia including routine and invasive monitoring

of vital signs for all surgical procedures as well as

obstetric procedures. CRNAs practice under the

supervision of a physician. They also conduct full preanesthetic

assessments and provide post-operative care.

Clinical Nurse Specialists (CNSs) most often work

within a hospital and are experts in a specialized area

of practice, such as cardiology, gerontology, mental

health, or cancer care. They provide direct care or

advise other nurses in the care of those patients.

CNSs may also carry out nursing research, educate

patients and staff, or act as a consultant to groups

needing expert nursing knowledge.

Nurse Practitioners (NPs) work as primary health

care providers in specialty practice. In collaboration

with a physician, they conduct physical assessments,

take medical histories, prescribe medications,

diagnose and treat many illnesses and injuries, and

may perform a variety of medical procedures. Nurse

practitioners are also experts at teaching patients

about staying healthy and preventing disease.

Work Environments

Birthing centers

Clinics

Health maintenance organizations (HMO’s)

Hospitals

Industry

Military

Nursing homes and hospices

Nursing schools

Outpatient offices

Private homes

Public health departments

Schools

Job Outlook

The demand for advanced practice nurses is expected to

continue to increase over the next decade and beyond,

as the need and demand for effective health care

increases. Demand is expected to be particularly high in

rural, inner-city and other underserved areas.

Salary

Nurse practitioners and nurse midwives typically earn a

starting salary of between $50,000 and $65,000 per

year. Nurse anesthetists usually earn up to $85,000 per

year to start.

Education, Certification and Licensing

For those interested in advanced practice nursing, high

school course work should include an emphasis on math

and science. A bachelors degree in nursing (BSN) and a

registered nurse (RN) license are usually required before

continuing on to advanced certification or a master’s

degree; however, there are nursing programs that

enroll non-RNs with bachelor degrees in other areas

of specialization. Master’s programs generally take two

years to complete.

Nurse anesthesia programs usually require 1 to 2 years

of critical care experience. These programs generally

take 2.5 years to complete.

FACTOID: Nurses represent the largest group of health care professionals in the United States.

66 / HEALTH CAREERS


Education Programs

University of Vermont

College of Nursing and Health Sciences

216 Rowell

Burlington, VT 05405

802-656-3830

www.uvm.edu/nursing

NURSE ANESTHETIST PROGRAMS:

University of New England

School of Nurse Anesthesia

716 Stevens Avenue

Portland, ME 04103

www.une.edu/chp/sna

Albany Medical College

Nurse Anesthesiology Program

Mail Code 131

47 New Scotland Avenue

Albany, NY 12208

518-262-4303

www.amc.edu/academic/GradStudies/nurse_anesth.htm

Northeastern University/New England Medical Center

Nurse Anesthesia Program

211 Robinson Hall, 360 Huntington Avenue

Boston, MA 02115

617-373-3125

www.dac.neu.edu/nursing/anes.html

NURSE-MIDWIFE PROGRAMS:

The University of Vermont has a cooperative nurse-midwife

program with the University of Rhode Island. Information

about this program may be obtained at:

University of Vermont

College of Nursing and Health Sciences

216 Rowell, Burlington, VT 05405

802-656-3830

www.uvm.edu/nursing

Professional Organizations

American Association of Nurse Anesthetists

Park Ridge, IL

847-692-7050

www.aana.com

American College of Nurse-Midwives

Washington, DC

202-728-9860

www.acnm.org

American College of Nurse Practitioners

Washington, DC

202-546-4825

www.nurse.org/acnp

Vermont Nurse Practitioners Association

Rutland, VT

802-775-9791

www.vtnpa.org

For more information on nursing in Vermont, go to

www.choosenursingvermont.com

NURSING / 67


A Closer Look

More than a Few Good Men Needed for Nursing

Nursing has not always been a female

occupation; during the Middle Ages and

even during the Civil War, men were

routinely nurses. That began to change

when men moved into factories during

the Industrial Revolution and women assumed the role

of caring for families and the sick, as well as teaching.

Medics from the Vietnam War entering nursing,

higher pay, changing societal attitudes, and targeted

recruitment campaigns are among factors that are

driving increases in the number of males who enter

nursing. In the last 20 years, the number of male nurses

has doubled, and currently represents almost 6 percent

of all nurses in this country. Many men enter nursing as

a second career, often after working in other helping

professions such as firefighters, policemen, and EMT’s.

In the military, estimates range from 25-30% of nurse

positions being held by men. The Army has a long

history of men serving in RN roles. And the number of

men enrolled in baccalaureate nursing programs

increased from 5.9% in 1992 to 11% in 1997.

Why should males consider nursing as a profession?

The nursing profession ranks number one as the

profession with the highest ethical standards, according

to a Gallup poll. It promises a job in any geographical

location or medical specialty, with flexibility in schedules

and steadily improving salaries. The work settings

are nearly limitless, from business to management,

clinical specialties and schools. Many believe more

male nurses are needed to work with adolescents and

address the health needs of young men; other men are

attracted to the high technology in medicine. Men

currently in nursing cite the satisfaction of helping

people as an advantage over a career spent primarily

in front of an impersonal computer.

Additional information about nursing is available at:

• American Assembly for Men in Nursing

www.aamn.org

• The National Student Nurses’ Association

www.nsna.org

• The Campaign for Nursing’s Future

www.discovernursing.com

Vermont Nursing Programs

www.choosenursingvermont.org

68 / HEALTH CAREERS


Nutrition Services

DIETITIANS/NUTRITIONISTS 70

DIETETIC TECHNICIANS 71

NUTRITION SERVICES / 69


Dietitian/Nutritionist

Dietitians/Nutritionists plan nutrition programs for

large groups such as hospitals and nursing facilities,

and for individuals with special needs, such as people

with diabetes or high blood pressure. They also educate

people about the need for and ways to achieve

proper nutrition. There are many specific areas of this

field that work with particular population groups.

Work Environments

Clinics

Company cafeterias

Day care centers

Health clubs

Home health agencies

Hospitals

Nursing facilities

Physician offices

Private practice

Research labs

Schools

Job Outlook

Employment of dietitians is expected to grow about as fast

as the average for all occupations through 2010 as a result

of increasing emphasis on disease prevention through

improved dietary habits. A growing and aging population

will increase the demand for meals and nutritional

counseling in nursing homes, schools, prisons, community

health programs and home health care agencies.

Education Programs

Department of Nutrition and Food Sciences

305 Terrill Hall

570 Main Street

University of Vermont

Burlington, VT 05405-0148

www.nutrition.uvm.edu

Professional Organizations

The American Dietetic Association

Chicago, IL

800-877-1600

www.eatright.org

Salary

The middle 50 percent of dietitians earn between

$31,000 and $46,000 a year, depending on setting

and experience. The highest salaries are found for

those in consultation and business, followed by food

and nutrition management, education and research,

community nutrition, and clinical nutrition.

Education, Certification and Licensing

High school course work should include college prep

classes. Dietitians must obtain a bachelor degree from an

accredited program and complete a supervised internship.

They must also pass the Registered Examination for

Dietitians to become a Registered Dietitian (RD).

American Society for Nutritional Sciences

Bethesda, MD

301-530-7050

www.asns.org

FACTOID: There are about 50,000 dietitian/nutritionist jobs in the U.S: of those, more than half are in

hospitals, nursing homes, or offices and clinics of physicians.

70 / HEALTH CAREERS


Dietetic Technician

Dietetic Technicians work under the supervision of a

registered dietitian to help plan, implement, and

assess nutritional programs and services. The technician

screens patients to identify nutritional problems

and provides patient education and counseling to

individuals or groups. They may oversee food service

personnel and be responsible for monitoring food

inventories and ordering supplies.

Education Programs

There are no dietetic technician programs in

Vermont, but the following are available through

the New England Regional Student Program (RSP)

www.nebhe.org:

Gateway Community Technical College (CT)

Southern Maine Technical College

Washington County Technical College (ME)

Work Environments

Community health centers

Correctional facilities

Food companies

Health clubs

Hospitals

Nursing facilities

Public health agencies

Schools and day care centers

Professional Organizations

The American Dietetic Association

Chicago, IL

800-877-1600

www.eatright.org

Job Outlook

The job market for registered dietetic technicians is

assumed to be similar to that for dietitians and nutritionists,

which is good. Growth is anticipated in nursing

homes, residential care facilities, and physician clinics.

Salary

Entry-level dietetic technicians earn between $20,000-

$30,000 per year, with some higher earnings reported

among those with greater responsibility and experience.

Education, Certification and Licensing

A high school diploma and a two-year associate degree

at an accredited college or university or the equivalent is

needed to prepare for the certification exam. Programs

include classes in food and nutrition sciences, foodservice

systems management and general science courses.

Career Ladder

Dietetic technicians may want to pursue their education

to become registered dietitians.

FACTOID: Dietetic technicians may start their careers as dietetic aides or assistants which require no formal

training; training is gained by on-the-job learning.

NUTRITION SERVICES / 71


Profile

Cheryl Aiken, Pharm.D.

Pharmacist, Brattleboro Memorial Hospital,

Brattleboro, VT

What’s the prescription for a successful career as a

pharmacist? Cheryl Aiken would tell you it is important to be a “people person,” to

love science and math, and be willing to continue learning.

“I remember as a kid watching while a prescription was filled for my dad and I

wondered how they knew there were 100 pills in the bottle! Just seeing the small

town pharmacy in Walpole, NH [close to Westminster, VT where she grew up] and

working in the front of a chain pharmacy before I went to college, all fascinated

me,” recalls Cheryl.

When students tour the Brattleboro Hospital pharmacy, she tells them it is a secure

job that pays well, and one comes out of college in six years with a doctoral degree.

“It’s never stagnant; there is always new data, new drugs and in a hospital, we get

out on the floors so we are not always behind the counter,” she adds.

Each day, Cheryl fills orders that physicians write for the patients, checking the prescriptions

against their other medications; she educates other staff members as well

as the public about medications, and she accounts for all controlled substances in

the hospital. She also mixes IV solutions, sometimes compounds drugs that do not

come ready-made, and she must ensure the hospital gets proper reimbursement as

well as exercise cost control by ordering the least expensive drug. “The

pharmacist is an important part of the medical team’s ‘checks and

balances’ to prevent errors and contain cost to the health care

system,” Cheryl explains.

Cheryl points out that those who do not enjoy constant interaction

with people can find satisfaction in the research and development

aspect of pharmaceuticals, but it’s clear she enjoys the people side

of her career. “You often see people at their absolute

worst here, so patience and understanding are key.”

The rewards? “Sometimes the patients write to us in

praise of the pharmacy, and we get kudos from other

employees here when we have gone out of our way to help.

It’s very satisfying,” she says.

72 / HEALTH CAREERS


Pharmacy

PROFILE 72

PHARMACIST 74

PHARMACY TECHNICIAN 76

PHARMACY / 73


Pharmacist

Pharmacists work closely with physicians and other

health practitioners to ensure that patients are

treated with the safest, most effective medications.

Pharmacists routinely review medication orders,

prescriptions, and medication profiles to help ensure

appropriate drug selection, dose, and dosing schedule.

They look for drug-drug and drug-food interactions

that may be harmful. If a pharmacist identifies a drug

related problem or detects a potentially dangerous

situation, she/he is responsible for notifying the

doctor, patient, or both, and recommends potential

alternatives.

Pharmacists with advanced training may collaborate

with other providers to focus on direct patient

care activities. These activities may include policy

development or research rather than reviewing and

approving prescription orders. They help make

sure people can afford their medications, look at

responses to drug therapies and address ways to

minimize drug side effects.

Education Programs

There are no pharmacy colleges available in Vermont or

through the New England Regional Student Program,

but the following are accessible from Vermont:

Albany College of Pharmacy (BS, Pharm. D)

106 New Scotland Avenue

Albany, NY 12208

518-445-7200

www.acp.edu

Massachusetts College of Pharmacy (BS, Pharm. D.)

179 Longwood Avenue

Boston, MA 02115

617-732-2800

www.mcp.edu

74 / HEALTH CAREERS


Northeastern University (Pharm. D. only)

Bouve College of Health Sciences

134 Mugar Building

360 Huntington Avenue

Boston, MA 02115

617-373-2210

www.bouve.neu.edu/contact.html

University of Connecticut School of Pharmacy (Pharm. D. only)

372 Fairfield Road, U-92

Storrs, CT 06269-2092

860-486-2215

http://pharmacy.uconn.edu

University of Rhode Island College of Pharmacy (Pharm. D. only)

Fogarty Hall

41 Lower College Road

Kingston, RI 02881

401-874-5842

www.uri.edu/pharmacy

Professional Organizations

American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy

Alexandria, VA

703-739-2330

www.aacp.org

American Society of Health-System Pharmacists

Bethesda, MD

301-657-3000

www.ashp.org

American Pharmaceutical Association

Washington, DC

202-628-4410

www.aphanet.org

Work Environments

Clinics

Government agencies

Home health care agencies

Hospitals

Insurance companies

Mail order pharmacy companies

Pharmaceutical companies

Retail pharmacy stores

Retail store or supermarket pharmacy departments

Job Outlook

The demand for pharmacists is expected to be high

through 2010 due to the increased needs for

pharmaceuticals by a larger and aging population. Also,

scientific advances will make more drug products available,

while increasingly sophisticated consumers will be

seeking more information about medications.

Salary

Pharmacists typically earn between $60,000 and

$80,000 a year.

Education, Certification and Licensing

High school course work should include an emphasis

on math and science, especially biology and chemistry.

To practice in Vermont, as in most other states, a

bachelor or doctoral degree is required. A bachelor

of science (BS) in pharmacy takes five years to complete;

a Doctor of Pharmacy (Pharm. D.) takes six years. All

pharmacy students must complete an internship under

a practicing pharmacist and then pass a licensing exam

after graduation.

National Association of Chain Drug Stores

Alexandria, VA

www.nacds.org

American College of Clinical Pharmacists

Kansas City, MO

816-531-2177

www.accp.com

FACTOID: While earnings are high, some pharmacists are required to work evenings, weekends and holidays,

depending on where they work.

PHARMACY / 75


Pharmacy Technician

Pharmacy Technicians assist licensed pharmacists

in the dispensing of medications and other healthrelated

items to patients. In most settings, pharmacy

technicians receive prescriptions from a prescriber

and verify the patient’s information on the

prescription for clarity and accuracy. They prepare

the medication needed to fill the prescription by

retrieving it, counting, pouring, weighing, measuring

and sometimes mixing the medications. Before the

prescription is given to the patient, a pharmacist

checks it.

Technicians also establish and maintain patient

records, prepare insurance claim forms, stock and

take inventory of prescription and over-the-counter

medications.

Education Programs

Vermont Technical College

(Associate Degree and Certificate Program)

PO Box 500

Randolph Center, VT 05061-0500

802-728-1000

www.vtc.vsc.edu

Professional Organizations

Pharmacy Technician Certification Board

Washington, DC

202-429-7576

www.ptcb.org

Work Environments

Government agencies

Home health care agencies

Hospitals

Mail order pharmacy companies

Pharmacy benefit managers

Pharmaceutical companies

Retail pharmacy stores

Retail store or supermarket pharmacy departments

Job Outlook

Employment growth for Pharmacy Technicians is expected

to increase at a rate that is faster than average through

2010. As a result of a pharmacist shortage, the increasing

impact of prescription medicines on the quality of life,

and the overall cost of health care, the use of pharmacy

technicians for routine procedures will expand to allow

pharmacists to concentrate on more complex roles.

Technicians with formal training and licensure will have

the best employment prospects.

Salary

Pharmacy technicians earn about $22,000 per year for

full time work. Salaries may increase with formal training

and licensing.

Education, Certification and Licensing

Pharmacy technicians entering the field should have

strong backgrounds in math, chemistry, and reading.

Also, strong customer service skills are important. Many

pharmacy technicians receive informal, on-the-job

training, although employers prefer to hire those

technicians who have completed a formal education

program. Formal pharmacy technician education programs

require classroom and laboratory work in various areas

including medical and pharmaceutical terminology,

pharmaceutical calculations, pharmacy record keeping,

pharmaceutical techniques, and pharmacy law.

Some colleges provide associate degrees for pharmacy

technicians and others award certificates for yearlong

programs.

After completing a formal education program, pharmacy

technicians can sit for the licensing exam administered by

the Pharmacy Technician Certification Board. The exam is

voluntary but technicians who pass it demonstrate a level

of competency to prospective employers.

76 / HEALTH CAREERS


Public Health

BIOSTATISTICIAN 78

EPIDEMIOLOGIST 79

HEALTH EDUCATOR 80

PUBLIC HEALTH / 77


Biostatitician

Biostatiticians are more statisticians than biologists

who work with researchers to design studies that

may show the pattern of a disease, the effectiveness

of treatments, or a given health issue’s impact on the

community. They figure out the best way to collect

data and then use mathematics to study what they’ve

collected. Their work helps to define and answer the

questions that ultimately lead to advances in disease

prevention and treatment.

Education Programs

University of Vermont

Department of Mathematics and Statistics

16 Colchester Avenue

Burlington, VT 05401

www.emba.uvm.edu

Professional Organizations

International Society for Clinical Biostatistics

44-0-1625-267880

www.iscb-homepage.org

Society for Clinical Trials

Baltimore, MD

410-433-4722

www.sctweb.org

American Statistical Association

Alexandria, VA

703-684-1221

www.amstat.org

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)

Atlanta, GA

404-639-3311

www.cdc.gov

American Public Health Association

Washington, DC

202-777-APHA

www.apha.org

Work Environments

Colleges and universities

Government agencies

Pharmaceutical companies

State and local health departments

Job Outlook

Job opportunities for statisticians in general are expected

to remain good, with more employment available to wellqualified

statisticians with a master’s degrees or doctorate.

Salary

Biostatisticians can expect to earn from $30,000-$85,000,

depending on level of education and experience.

Education, Certification and Licensing

Typically a master’s level is the minimum education

required for a biostatistician. Undergraduate work should

include calculus, matrix algebra, computer programming

and a major in statistics.

Career Ladder

Some biostatisticians may assume supervisory positions

within their work area.

FACTOID: Statisticians hold about 20,000 jobs, with one-fifth of those located in government and the rest

in private industry and educational institutions.

78 / HEALTH CAREERS


Epidemiologist

Epidemiologists work to understand the causes of disease

and ways to prevent or control it. Understanding

an epidemic means knowing how a given disease works

inside the body, how it passes between people, and how

it can move through a community. Epidemiologists also

work to reduce or even prevent epidemics when they

can. They use academic methods, such as statistics,

demography and scientific research, as well as community-based

approaches, such as vaccination programs

and educational campaigns to help people stay healthy.

Education Programs

There are no graduate epidemiology programs

available in Vermont or through the New England

Regional Student Program. Schools in New

England that do have such programs are:

Boston University (MA)

Harvard University (MA)

Tufts University (MA)

University of Massachusetts at Amherst

Yale University (CT)

Professional Organizations

American College of Epidemiology

Raleigh, NC

919-861-5573

www.acepidemiology.org

American Public Health Association

Washington, DC

202-777-APHA

www.apha.org

Work Environments

Health departments (federal, state and local)

Medical corporations

Research organizations

Universities

Job Outlook

Infectious diseases continue to pose a threat to public

health and chronic conditions such as heart disease and

cancer have become more prevalent. Therefore, the

demand for epidemiologists will likely be high for the

foreseeable future.

Salary

Salary is dependent upon educational level and place of

employment, but salaries range between $40,000-

$100,000 a year.

Education, Certification and Licensing

Candidates for study in epidemiology should have a strong

math and science focus in high school. Undergraduate

study might include biology, microbiology, or public health,

followed by a Master of Science program and/or a Ph.D.

program in epidemiology. Another route is to earn a

medical degree (M.D. or D.O.), followed by a Master of

Public Health degree in epidemiology.

Career Ladder

Those who obtain a doctoral degree are qualified to

assume leadership roles in research and teaching of

epidemiology.

Association for Professionals in Infection Control &

Epidemiology

Washington, DC

202-789-1890

www.apic.org

International Clinical Epidemiology Network

Philadelphia, PA

215-222-7700

www.inclen.org

FACTOID: Epidemiologists are sometimes called “Disease Detectives.”

PUBLIC HEALTH / 79


Health Educator

Health Educators are professionals who design,

conduct and evaluate activities that help improve

the health of all people. For example, they provide

information on preventive health care to the general

public in an effort to prevent disease and promote

the health of individuals and communities.

They address subjects such as sexuality, alcohol/

substance abuse, tobacco control and prevention,

maternal/child health, and nutrition/weight

management. Some health educators also work

on research and planning, studying the health

needs of a population and creating educational

programs to help meet those needs.

Work Environments

Colleges and universities

Corporations

Correctional facilities

Hospitals

Non-profit organizations

Physician offices

Rehabilitation clinics

Public health agencies

Schools

Job Outlook

Demand for health educators is expected to grow with

increasing emphasis on preventive health care.

Salary

Annual salaries range from $20,000 to $40,000

depending on location and experience.

Education, Certification and Licensing

High school course work for this position should include

college prep classes in math, science and humanities.

Health educators might earn a bachelor degree in

education, public health, psychology or other related

fields. For many positions, a Vermont teaching certificate

is required. It is also possible to be a certified health

educator through the National Commission for Health

Education Credentialing.

Career Ladder

Health educators may advance from being practitioners

and teachers to managers and directors within a variety

of health-related fields.

FACTOID: Health educators work as generalists, educating people about a whole spectrum of health issues,

or they may specialize in a certain population group like adolescents or the elderly; they may also specialize

in a certain aspect, such as industrial health, school health, or community health.

80 / HEALTH CAREERS


Education Programs

The following Vermont schools offer an undergraduate

major in education, although they do not

offer a specialization in health education:

Castleton State College

Seminary Street

Castleton, VT 05735

802-468-5611

www.csc.vsc.edu

College of Saint Joseph

71 Clement Road

Rutland, VT 05701

802-773-5900 or 1-877-270-9998

www.csj.edu

Goddard College

123 Pitkin Road

Plainfield, VT 05667

802-454-8311 or 800-468-4888

www.goddard.edu

Green Mountain College

One College Circle

Poultney, VT 05764

800-776-6675

www.greenmtn.edu

Johnson State College

Office of Admission

337 College Hill

Johnson, VT 05656

800-635-2356

www.jsc.vsc.edu

Saint Michael’s College

One Winooski Park

Colchester, VT 05439

802-654-2000 or 800-762-8000

www.smcvt.edu

University of Vermont

Office of Undergraduate Admissions

194 South Prospect Street

Burlington, VT 05401

802-656-3370

www.uvm.edu

Professional Organizations

American Public Health Association

Washington, DC

202-777-APHA

www.apha.org

American Association for Health Education

Reston, VA

800-213-7193

www.aahperd.org

National Education Association

Washington, DC

202-833-4000

www.nea.org

Society for Public Health Education

Washington, DC

202-408-9804

www.sophe.org

Lyndon State College

1001 College Road

PO Box 919

Lyndonville, VT 05851-0919

802-626-6200 or 800-225-1998

www.lsc.vsc.edu

PUBLIC HEALTH / 81


82 / HEALTH CAREERS


Radiation Technologies

NUCLEAR MEDICINE TECHNOLOGIST 84

RADIATION THERAPIST 85

RADIOLOGIC TECHNOLOGIST 86

PROFILE 88

RADIATION TECHNOLOGIES / 83


Nuclear Medicine Technologist

Nuclear Medicine Technologists are highly-skilled

health care professionals who work with patients,

computers, high-tech equipment, and small

quantities of radioactive materials to produce

anatomical and physiological images which provide

accurate diagnostic information for nearly 100

different procedures involving nearly every major

organ system in the human body.

Work Environments

Community hospitals

Medical centers

Private clinics

Universities

Job Outlook

Excellent for the forseeable future.

Salary

In 2002, starting salaries ranged from $30,000 to $50,000.

Education, Certification and Licensing

Nuclear medicine technologists must be team players,

have a good foundation in mathematics, biology, and

computers, and be able to work with patients. Most

states, including Vermont, require nuclear medicine

technologists to be licensed in order to practice.

Graduates of an approved program are eligible to

take a national certifying examination. With additional

education and training, graduates can become involved

with ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging.

Career Ladder

After gaining additional experience and education,

nuclear medicine technologists can become involved

with teaching, administrative positions, PET Imaging,

radiation safety, computer applications development,

and clinical research.

Education Programs

NUCLEAR MEDICINE TECHNOLOGY PROGRAM (B.S.)

College of Nursing and Health Sciences

Biomedical Technologies Department

Room 302 Rowell Building

University of Vermont

Burlington, VT 05405

802-656-3811

www.uvm.edu/biomed/nmt

Professional Organizations

Society of Nuclear Medicine

Reston, VA

703-708-9000

www.snm.org

Nuclear Medicine Technology Certification Board

Atlanta, GA

404-315-1739

www.nmtcb.org

Joint Review Committee on Education Programs

In Nuclear Medicine Technology

Polson, MT

406-883-0003

www.jrcnmt.org

American Registry of Radiologic Technology

St. Paul, MN

651-687-0048

www.arrt.org

American Society of Radiologic Technologists

Albuquerque, NM

800-444-2778

www.asrt.org

FACTOID: There are an estimated 15,000 Nuclear Medicine Technologists in the U.S, and an estimated 10-12 million

nuclear medicine imaging studies are performed each year. Nearly every hospital in the U.S. offers Nuclear Medicine

Technology services. Radiation handling is very safe, as there are many available safety techniques and equipment.

84 / HEALTH CAREERS


Radiation Therapist

Radiation Therapists are highly skilled medical

specialists educated in physics, radiation safety,

patient anatomy and patient care. They administer

targeted doses of radiation to a patient’s body to

treat cancer or other diseases. As the radiation

strikes human tissue, it produces highly energized

ions that gradually shrink and destroy the nucleus

of malignant tumor cells.

Work Environments

Community hospitals

Medical centers

Private clinics

Universities

Job Outlook

Excellent for the foreseeable future.

Salary

In 2002, starting salaries ranged from $30,000 to $50,000.

Education, Certification and Licensing

Radiation therapists must be team players, have a good

foundation in mathematics, biology, and computers, and

be able to work with patients. Most states, including

Vermont, require radiation therapists to be licensed in

order to practice. Graduates of an approved program

are eligible to take a national certifying examination.

With additional education and training, graduates can

become involved with dosimetry.

Career Ladder

After gaining additional experience and education,

radiation therapists can become involved with dosimetry,

teaching, administrative positions, radiation safety, and

clinical research.

Education Programs

RADIATION THERAPY PROGRAM (B.S.)

College of Nursing and Health Sciences

Biomedical Technologies Department

Room 302 Rowell Building

University of Vermont

Burlington, VT 05405

802-656-3811

www.uvm.edu/biomed/radt

Professional Organizations

American Society of Radiologic Technologists

Albuquerque, NM

800-444-2778

www.asrt.org

American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology

Fairfax, VA

800-962-7876

www.astro.org

Joint Review Committee on Education in Radiologic

Technology

Chicago, IL

312-704-5300

www.jrcert.org

FACTOID: The University of Vermont is one of only 23 colleges in the U.S. where you can get a

BS degree in Radiation Therapy. Radiation handling is very safe, as there are many available safety

techniques and equipment.

RADIATION TECHNOLOGIES / 85


Radiologic Technologist

Radiographers, also referred to as radiologic

technologists and technicians, work extensively

with computers and specialized equipment to

create images that allow physicians to diagnose

conditions inside the body. Radiographers work

with X-rays. They might specialize in computed

tomography (CT Scan), mammography, or

angiography (imaging of blood vessels). Some

radiographers specialize in several different areas:

Ultrasound Technologists, or sonographers, use

sound waves to create images inside the body.

Physicians might use these images to assess the

condition of a specific organ or to see the

development of a fetus in a pregnant woman.

Magnetic Resonance Technologists use superconductive

magnets and radiowaves to gather

information about anatomy or the body’s chemical

composition.

Work Environments

Chiropractor offices

Hospitals

Industrial research and development facilities

Medical and dental laboratories

Physician offices

Outpatient clinics

Job Outlook

The outlook is excellent for radiographers. Demand is

expected to increase at a faster than average rate due to

a growing and aging population. Radiographers with

cross training in nuclear medicine technology or other

modalities will have the best job prospects.

Salary

Certified radiologic technologists typically earn between

$32,000 and $40,000 per year. More education and training

can lead to higher salaries and greater opportunities.

86 / HEALTH CAREERS


Education, Certification and Licensing

High school course work should focus on math and

science. Associate and bachelor degrees are both

options for a career in radiologic technology. After

earning a degree or certificate from an accredited

program, candidates must pass an exam by the

American Registry of Radiologic Technologists in order

to become registered.

Education Programs

Champlain College (AS, BS)

Radiography Program

163 South Willard Street

Burlington, VT 05401

800-570-5858

www.champlain.edu

University of Vermont (BS, MS)

College of Nursing and Health Sciences

302 Rowell Building

Burlington, VT 05401

802-656-3811

www.uvm.edu/biomed/bmed

New England School of Radiologic Technology

Rutland Regional Medical Center

160 Allen Street

Rutland, VT 05701

802-775-7111

www.rrmc.org/progandserv/radiology.html

Professional Organizations

American Society of Radiologic Technologists

Albuquerque, NM

800-444-2778

www.asrt.org/asrt.htm

Joint Review Committee on Education in Radiologic Technology

Chicago, IL

312-704-5300

www.jrcert.org

American Registry of Radiologic Technologists

St. Paul, MN

651-687-0048

www.arrt.org

FACTOID: Radiographers are on their feet for long periods of time. Also, they may be expected to lift or

turn disabled patients. Physical stamina is important in radiography.

RADIATION TECHNOLOGIES / 87


Profile

Caren Ruiz, RTR, Radiology Technologist,

Rutland Regional Medical Center, Rutland, VT

Caren Ruiz knew she wanted a career in a helping

profession, but like many people in health care, she

started in one area and switched to another.

“I was in a physical therapy program but wanted

more interaction with patients. I knew a friend who went to the New England School

of Radiologic Technology here and really liked it. It’s a two-year program and not real

expensive, so I decided to try it,” she explains.

When she gets to work at Rutland Regional Medical Center on the second or third

shift she picks up orders for patients who need x-rays and brings them to the department.

“I show them where to change their clothes and take them into the x-ray

room. I explain the procedure to them and position them for different views that I’ll

take. I develop the x-ray in the dark room, making sure I get a good quality image.”

“I enjoy the patients so much. I love the stories older people tell me and when I

have inpatients who return, feeling better, I’m pleased. There are many rewards in

this position; I know I’ve done a good job when I get praise from co-workers, or

doctors and patients. Sometimes the patients tell us we’ve been kind; once I got

flowers and I’ve also received an email.”

In addition to the frequent patient contact, there is variety in her job.

“I like x-ray because there’s so much patient contact but CT scanning is interesting

because of some of the views you see. I’m thinking about

trying other specialties within the diagnostic imaging field.

I encourage young people to enter this profession all the time –

I love it!”

88 / HEALTH CAREERS


Rehabilitation Therapy

AUDIOLOGIST 90

OCCUPATIONAL THERAPIST 91

OCCUPATIONAL THERAPIST ASSISTANT 92

PHYSICAL THERAPIST 93

PHYSICAL THERAPIST ASSISTANT 94

ORTHOTIST/PROSTHETIST 95

RESPIRATORY THERAPIST 96

SPEECH-LANGUAGE PATHOLOGIST 97

REHABILITATION THERAPY / 89


Audiologist

Audiologists are hearing experts. They work with

patients to determine the nature or cause of a

hearing problem and then find ways of addressing

it. Audiologists perform hearing tests, fit people for

hearing aids, and teach lip-reading. They also help

people deal with inner ear and balancing difficulties

and work to educate the public about noise pollution

and ways of preventing hearing loss.

Work Environments

Colleges and Universities

Home health agencies

Hospitals

Private practices

Rehabilitation centers

Research facilities

School systems

Speech and hearing clinics

Job Outlook

Our communities and workplaces are becoming increasingly

noisy as we drive more, listen to louder music, and

use more machines. Not surprisingly, the demand for

audiologists is expected to increase much faster than

average for about the next decade.

Salary

The starting salary for audiologists is around $27,000-

30,000 per year. Experienced audiologists can earn up

to $80,000 per year, depending upon the setting.

Education, Certification and Licensing

Candidates for this profession should emphasize math

and science in their high school and undergraduate

choices. A master’s degree is required to become an

audiologist in Vermont. Vermont will soon also have a

licensing requirement, as most other states do already.

Certification is available from ASHA (American Speech,

Language, and Hearing Association).

Education Programs

BACCALAUREATE DEGREE

University of Vermont

Department of Communication Sciences

Pomeroy Hall

489 Main Street

Burlington, VT 05405

802-656-3861

www.uvm.edu/~cmsi

GRADUATE DEGREE:

There are no graduate audiology programs in Vermont.

However, the following programs are available through

the New England Regional Student Program (RSP).

For more information on RSP go to www.nebhe.org

Southern Connecticut State University

501 Crescent Street

New Haven, CT 06515-1355

888-500-7278 or 203-392-7278

www.southernct.edu

University of Rhode Island

College of Human Science and Services, Dean’s Office

106 Quinn Hall

Kingston, RI 02881

401-874-2244

www.uri.edu/hss

Professional Organizations:

American Speech, Language and Hearing Association (ASHA)

Rockville, MD

301-897-5700

www.asha.org

Vermont Speech, Language and Hearing Association, Inc.

(VSLHA)

Waitsfield, VT

802-496-4668

jessieg@madriver.com

FACTOID: About 28 million people in the U.S. have some degree of reduced hearing sensitivity.

Of this number, 80% have irreversible hearing loss. — Better Hearing Institute, 1999

90 / HEALTH CAREERS


Occupational Therapist

Occupational Therapists (OTs) work with patients who

suffer from a disability due to illness, injury, aging

or developmental, emotional, or mental challenges.

They help people learn (or re-learn) to do every

day activities like writing, cooking, and dressing.

After observation and testing, an OT will develop a

treatment plan to help the patient regain function or

overcome a permanent loss of function. Treatment

plans may include life and work activities, strength

and dexterity exercises, or the design and use of

special adaptive equipment to make daily tasks easier.

Work Environments

Hospitals

Nursing homes

Private practices

Rehabilitation clinics

Schools

Job Outlook

Employment of occupational therapists is expected

to increase faster than average for all occupations

through 2010, as a result of growth in the number of

individuals requiring therapy services with disabilities

or limited function.

Salary

The average starting salary for occupational therapists

is around $32,000, with a median annual earning of

nearly $50,000. The highest salaries are paid by nursing

and personal care facilities, followed by hospitals,

offices of other health practitioners, and elementary and

secondary schools.

Education, Certification and Licensing

A high school diploma is required, with emphasis on

math, science and skills-oriented classes like art. A

bachelor degree or post-bachelor program from an

accredited school, as well as national certification from

the American Occupational Therapy Certification Board,

are required to practice as an occupational therapist.

Education Programs

No occupational therapy programs are available in

Vermont, but the following are available through the

New England Regional Student Program (RSP),

www.nebhe.org:

Salem State College (MA)

Worcester State College (MA)

Professional Organizations

American Occupational Therapy Association (AOTA)

4720 Montgomery Lane

Besthesda, MD

301-652-2682

www.aota.org

Vermont Occupational Therapy Association

www.healthcaresource.com/vota

FACTOID: More than one-third of occupational therapists work part time.

REHABILITATION THERAPY / 91


Occupational Therapy Assistant

Occupational Therapy Assistants (OTAs) work with

people who are in some way disabled and need help

with the every day activities of life – things like

dressing, eating and getting out of the house. OTAs

are supervised by occupational therapists. They work

one-on-one with patients to carry out individual

treatment plans and also assist occupational therapists

during exams and other procedures.

Work Environments

Hospitals

Nursing homes

Private practices

Rehabilitation clinics

Schools

Job Outlook

Employment of occupational therapy assistants is

expected to grow much faster than the average for all

occupations through 2010.

Salary

Salaries for OTA’s start at $24,000 and go up to about

$41,00 per year with work experience.

Education, Certification and Licensing

OTA’s need a high school diploma and an associate

degree from an accredited program or certificate

program in an accredited community college or technical

school. In most states, OTAs must pass a national

certification exam after graduation.

Career Ladder

With additional education, occupational therapist assistants

can become occupational therapists.

Education Programs

There are currently no occupational therapy assistant

programs available in Vermont, but the following

schools are available through the New England

Regional Student Program (RSP), www.nebhe.org:

Bristol Community College (MA)

Community College of Rhode Island

Greenfield Community College (MA)

Housatonic Community College (CT)

Kennebec Valley Technical College (ME)

Manchester Community College (CT)

Massachusetts Bay Community College

New Hampshire Community-Technical College at

Nashua/Claremont

North Shore Community College (MA)

Quinsigamond Community College (MA)

Springfield Technical Community College (MA)

Professional Organizations

The American Occupational Therapy Association

Bethesda, MD

www.aota.org

Vermont Occupational Therapy Association

www.healthcaresource.com/vota

FACTOID: There are about 17,000 occupational therapist assistants and 8,500 occupational therapy aides.

Aides are not licensed, so by law they are not allowed to perform as wide a range of tasks as occupational

therapist assistants do.

92 / HEALTH CAREERS


Physical Therapist

Physical Therapists restore, maintain and promote

the best possible physical health for their patients.

They help prevent, identify, correct and alleviate

short or long-term movement problems. An injured

athlete, a senior citizen dealing with arthritis, and a

child with a developmental disability are all examples

of people who might work with a physical therapist.

Together, they tackle treatments such as movement

exercises, strength training, stretching, and activities

to promote mobility and function. With education

from a physical therapist, a patient can continue

their treatment program at home, at work, and

during leisure activities.

Work Environments

Clinics

Hospitals

Industrial health centers

Nursing homes

Private practices

Rehabilitation centers

Schools

Sports facilities

Education Programs

University of Vermont (MPT Program)

Department of Physical Therapy

305 Rowell Building

Burlington, VT 05405

802-656-3252

www.uvm.edu/physicaltherapy

Clarkson University (Pre PT and MPT)

PO Box 5880

Potsdam, NY 13699-5880

315-268-3786

www.clarkson.edu/health/thecenter.html

Professional Organizations

American Physical Therapy Association (APTA)

Alexandria, VA

800-999-2782

www.apta.org

Vermont Chapter, APTA

White River Jct, VT

802-674-7284

Job Outlook

Demand is expected to grow faster than average as the

number of middle-aged and elderly individuals increases

the demand for therapeutic services.

Salary

The average starting salary for physical therapists is

around $41,000-$62,400 per year.

Education, Certification and Licensing

High school course work should include college prep

courses. Certified physical therapists are required to

complete a master's or Doctoral of Physical Therapy to

be licensed to practice.

FACTOID: The job of a physical therapist can be demanding because they often stoop, kneel, crouch, lift

and stand for long periods during the work day.

REHABILITATION THERAPY / 93


Physical Therapy Assistant

Physical Therapy Assistants (PTA’s) help physical

therapists carry out patient treatment plans as selected

by a supervising physical therapist. Patients work directly

with PTA’s on exercises aimed at building strength

and flexibility in the joints, bones and muscles. PTA’s

also assist physical therapists in patient exams and other

procedures. Together, the physical therapy team helps

people who are in some way disabled to have more

mobility and independence in their lives.

Education Programs

There are no PTA programs available in Vermont,

but the following schools are available through the

New England Regional Student Program (RSP).

For more information on RSP, visit their website

at www.nebhe.org.

Housatonic Community Technical College (CT)

Manchester Community Technical College (CT)

Naugatuck Valley Community Technical College (CT)

Northwestern Connecticut Community Technical College (CT)

Tunxis Community Technical College (CT)

Kennebec Valley Technical College (ME)

Berkshire Community College (MA)

Massachusetts Bay Community College (MA)

Massasoit Community College (MA)

Mount Wachusett Community College (MA)

North Shore Community College (MA)

Springfield Technical Community College (MA)

New Hampshire Community Technical College of Claremont (NH)

Community College of Rhode Island (RI)

Work Environments

Clinics

Hospitals

Industrial health centers

Nursing homes

Private practices

Rehabilitation centers

Schools

Sports facilities

Job Outlook

Demand for physical therapy assistants is very high. The

trend should continue through 2010 as the population

of middle-aged and elderly people increases.

Salary

Physical therapy assistants generally earn between

$25,000 and $40,500 in Vermont.

Education, Certification and Licensing

High school course work should include college-prep classes,

including math and science. Most physical therapy assistant

(PTA) programs lead to an associate of science degree

and take two years to complete. PTA’s are also required to

pass a licensing exam given by the State of Vermont.

Professional Organizations:

American Physical Therapy Association

Alexandria, VA

703-684-2782

www.apta.org

Vermont Chapter, APTA

White River Jct., VT

802-674-7284

FACTOID: Physical therapy assistants should have a moderate degree of strength, due to the exertion

required to assist patients in their treatment.

94 / HEALTH CAREERS


Orthotist & Prosthetist

Orthotists (COs) and Prosthetists (CPs) are certified

specialists who make and fit upper and lower limb

devices designed to replace or repair those lost or

disabled through injury or disease. Orthotists make

and fit orthopaedic braces; prosthetists make and

fit artificial limbs. Some people may be qualified to

work in both areas.

Work Environments

Private practices

Hospitals

Laboratories

Government agencies

Job Outlook

As medical and technological advances in the field of

orthotics and prosthetics continue, demand for skilled

and experienced workers will be great.

Salary

Certified individuals earn between $42,000 and $60,000.

Education, Certification and Licensing

A bachelor degree, specific training courses in orthotics

and prosthetics, and at least one year of supervised

experience in the field. There are only a few accredited

training programs in the U.S. and they award either a

bachelor degree or a certificate. After completion of

education and supervised experience, there is a certification

exam given by the American Board for Certification

in Orthotics and Prosthetics.

Education Programs

Currently there are no academic institutions in

New England that offer a degree in Orthotics and

Prosthetists. There is a Newington (CT) Certificate

Program that is a 9-month post-graduate program.

The telephone number for that program is

860-667-5304.

Professional Organizations:

American Academy of Orthotists and Prosthetists (AAOP)

Alexandria, VA

866-613-0257

www.oandp.com

FACTOID: To be a successful prosthetist and orthotist you should have good eye-hand coordination and

manual dexterity.

REHABILITATION THERAPY / 95


Respiratory Therapist

Respiratory Therapists help people breathe more easily.

Their patients, newborn through elderly, have cardiopulmonary

(heart-lung) problems brought on by

asthma, emphysema, pneumonia, cystic fibrosis and

other conditions. Respiratory therapists test patients for

breathing capacity and analyze oxygen and carbon

dioxide concentrations. To improve breathing, they

treat patients with exercises and physiotherapy, by

administering inhaled medications and, if necessary, by

hooking up ventilators for patients who cannot breathe

for themselves. Respiratory therapists are also educators,

making sure patients and their families know about

maintaining cardiopulmonary function and health.

Education Programs

Champlain College Respiratory Therapy Program

163 South Willard Street

Burlington, VT 05401

802-865-6491

www.champlain.edu/majors/respiratory

Professional Organizations

American Association for Respiratory Care

Dallas, TX

972-243-2272

www.aarc.org

The National Board for Respiratory Care, Inc.

Lenexa, KS

913-599-4200

www.nbrc.org

Vermont/New Hampshire Society for Respiratory Care

West Lebanon, NH

www.vtnhsrc.org

Work Environments

Diagnostic laboratories

Home health care agencies

Hospitals

Industry

Long term care facilities

Outpatient clinics

Patient transport services

Physician offices

Private homes

Rehabilitation facilities

Sleep centers

Job Outlook

Job opportunities are expected to increase faster than

average through 2010 because of the substantial

growth in middle-aged and elderly populations.

Employment opportunities are most favorable for

respiratory therapists with cardiopulmonary care skills

and experience working with newborns and infants.

Salary

Respiratory therapists earn between $30,000 and

$38,000 per year.

Education, Certification and Licensing

Prospective respiratory therapists should emphasize

math and science course work in high school. After high

school, it normally takes two years to complete an associate

degree and prepare for the national registry exam,

which is required. It is possible to work as a Registered

Respiratory Therapist while completing a bachelor

degree. More education can lead to higher levels of

responsibility and higher salaries in the field.

96 / HEALTH CAREERS


Speech-Language Pathologist

Speech-Language Pathologists are concerned with

conditions that affect speech, voice and language.

Their patients may have trouble with stuttering,

swallowing or understanding and using language.

Some have lost the ability to speak after a stroke or

other trauma. Speech-language pathologists teach

sign language, help people strengthen muscles used

in speech and swallowing, and work with patients to

improve lost or compromised abilities.

Work Environments

Colleges and universities

Home health agencies

Hospitals

Private practices

Rehabilitation centers

Research facilities

School systems

Speech and hearing clinics

Job Outlook

The demand for speech-language pathologists is expected

to increase faster than average for the next decade.

Salary

Salaries for speech-language pathologists start at around

$27,000-30,000 per year. Experienced speech-language

pathologists can earn up to $80,000 per year. In both

cases, salary is dependent upon the work setting.

Education, Certification and Licensing

High school and undergraduate course work should

include math and science. It is also possible to focus on

areas such as speech, behavioral science and language

development at the undergraduate level. A master’s degree

is required to work as a speech-language pathologist.

Vermont will soon have a licensing requirement, as most

other states do already. Certification is available from ASHA

(American Speech, Language, and Hearing Association).

Education Programs

University of Vermont (BA, MS)

Department of Communication Sciences

Pomeroy Hall

489 Main Street

Burlington, VT 05405

802-656-3861

www.uvm.edu/~cmsi

Professional Organizations

American Speech, Language and Hearing Association (ASHA)

Rockville, MD

301-897-5700

www.asha.org

Vermont Speech, Language and Hearing Association, Inc.

(VSLHA)

Waitsfield, VT

802-496-4668

jessieg@madriver.com

FACTOID: Sometimes speech-language pathologists are referred to as speech therapists.

REHABILITATION THERAPY / 97


98 / HEALTH CAREERS


Vision Care

OPHTHALMOLOGIST 100

OPTICIAN 101

OPTOMETRIST 102

VISION CARE / 99


Ophthalmologist

Ophthalmologists are physicians who specialize in

diagnosing and treating conditions of the eyes.

Ophthalmologists are required to have medical

degrees and they treat patients of all ages who have

vision-threatening diseases and disorders.

Ophthalmologists perform surgeries that may be

used to treat conditions like glaucoma or cataracts.

Ophthalmologists examine the internal and

external structures of the eye, give eye-sight exams,

and may use medications, corrective lenses, or eye

patches to treat their patients.

Education Programs

University of Vermont College of Medicine

Office of Admissions

E-215 Given

89 Beaumont Avenue

Burlington, VT 05405

802-656-2154

www.med.uvm.edu

Professional Organization

American Academy of Ophthalmology

San Francisco, CA

415-561-8500

www.aao.org/aao

Work Environments

Hospitals

Medical centers

Private practices

University teaching programs

Job Outlook

Ophthalmologists, like other physicians, are highly trained

professionals, and as such, will always be in demand.

Continuing advances in the use of surgery (instead of

glasses) to correct vision problems like nearsightedness

will probably create even more demand in the future.

Salary

Like other physicians, ophthalmologists tend to earn

high salaries, usually between $100,000 to $200,000

per year or more due to the length and difficulty of their

training. Salaries vary according to specialty, geographic

region, and whether a physician works in the public or

private sector.

Education, Certification and Licensing

High school course work for students aspiring to an

ophthalmology career should include a strong emphasis

on math and science, followed by an undergraduate

career that focuses on one of the natural sciences.

Excellent grades along the way are important. An

ophthalmologist must complete a minimum of 12 years

of higher education. This education includes four years

of college, four more years of medical school, one or

more years of general clinical training, and three or

more years in a hospital-based eye residency program.

Any specialization in the area of ophthalmology may

require an additional year or more of fellowship training

beyond residency.

FACTOID: Information about eye conditions and ophthalmology were recorded on an ancient Egyptian

papyrus (circa 1600 B.C.) showing that the specialty was relatively advanced at that time.

100 / HEALTH CAREERS


Optician

Opticians fit glasses and contact lenses, following

prescriptions written by optometrists and ophthalmologists.

Opticians help customers select eyeglass frames,

lenses and lens coatings after considering their

prescription, lifestyle, occupation and facial features.

Opticians prepare work orders for ophthalmic laboratory

technicians, giving them the information they

need to grind and insert lenses into eyeglass frames.

Sometimes opticians do this work themselves. After the

glasses have been made, opticians shape and bend the

frames so the eyeglasses fit the customer comfortably.

Opticians also fit contact lenses, artificial eyes or

cosmetic shells to cover blemished eyes. Opticians

measure the customer’s eye shape and size and select

the appropriate lens material. Fitting contact lenses

requires skill, patience and care. Opticians must take

the time to instruct customers to properly insert,

remove and care for their contact lenses.

Education Program

Community College of Vermont

Wasson Hall, PO Box 120

Waterbury, VT 05676-0120

800-CCV-6686

www.ccv.edu

Professional Organizations

National Federation of Opticianry Schools

Chesterfield, VA

804-790-0026

www.nfos.org

Opticians Association of America

Annandale, VA

202-619-0724

www.aoa.dhhs.gov

National Academy of Opticianry

Landover, MD

301-577-4828

www.nao.org

American Board of Opticianry/

National Contact Lens Examiners

Springfield, VA

703-719-5800

www.abo.org

Work Environments

Clinics

Department stores

Offices of optometry and ophthalmology

Retail optical stores

Job Outlook

Employment for opticians should grow at an average

rate through 2010. The aging population as well as

advances in eyewear such as no line bifocals and

anti-reflective lens coatings will increase the demand

for corrective lenses.

Salary

Opticians can expect to earn between $25,000 and

$35,000, depending on experience and work setting.

Education, Certification and Licensing

Knowledge of physics, math, anatomy and mechanical

drawing are particularly valuable to people starting an

opticianry training program. Opticians should possess

manual dexterity and skill, in addition to the ability to

relate directly with customers. Many employers hire

people with no opticianry experience and offer on-thejob

training or apprenticeships lasting two or more years.

Other pathways into opticianry work come from working

first as an ophthalmic laboratory technician. Opticianary

training is generally offered in community colleges. These

colleges offer either one or two-year programs. Opticians

may apply to the American Board of Opticianry (ABO)

and the National Contact Lens Examiners (NCLE) for

certification of their skills. Certification must be renewed

every three years through continuing education.

FACTOID: The average salary for graduates from Opticianry degree programs is approximately $8,000 higher

than Opticians who only received on-the-job training and $7,000 higher than those trained by formal

apprenticeship programs — Eyecare Business, April, 1997

VISION CARE / 101


Optometrist

Optometrists are vision experts. They help people with

regular eye exams and eye care. They also diagnose and

treat such conditions as nearsightedness, farsightedness,

conjunctivitis, glaucoma, and cataracts. Quite often the

treatment is corrective lenses-either glasses or contact

lenses. Other times an optometrist may treat eye

conditions with prescriptions such as eye drops.

Optometrists are doctors of optometry, and do not

perform eye surgery, unlike ophthalmologists, who are

doctors of medicine. Most optometrists are in general

practice, although some specialize and work with

children, the elderly, or partially-sighted people with

special vision needs.

Work Environments

Chain optical stores

Clinics

Government health agencies

Health maintenance organizations (HMO’s)

Hospitals

Optical manufacturers

Private practices

Job Outlook

Demand for optometrists should grow at an average

pace over the next ten years or so. The need for

optometrists is moderating somewhat due to advancements

in technology that allow a doctor to see more

patients. Also, the increasing use of laser surgery, while

still expensive, may keep patient volume lower.

Salary

Optometrists typically earn between $82,000 and

$111,000 per year, depending upon the work setting and

geographic area. Experienced optometrists who have built

strong private practices may earn considerably more.

Education, Certification and Licensing

Optometry candidates should emphasize math, physics,

and other sciences in high school and as an undergraduate

in college. Most optometry programs take four

years to complete. To gain admission into an accredited

program, three years of undergraduate work are required,

although most optometry students hold a bachelor

degree. Vermont also requires optometrists to be licensed.

Education Programs

There are no optometry programs available in

Vermont or through the New England Regional

Student Program. The following schools are

located in nearby states:

New England College of Optometry

424 Boston Street

Boston, MA 02115

800-824-5526

www.ne-optometry.edu

State University of New York

State College of Optometry

33 West 42nd Street

New York, NY 10036

800-291-3937

www.sunyopt.edu

Professional Organizations:

American Optometric Association

St. Louis, MO

314-991-4100

www.aoanet.org

Association of Schools and Colleges of Optometry

Rockville, MD

301-231-5944

www.opted.org

Vermont Optometric Association

Montpelier, VT

802-223-1197

FACTOID: More than half the people in the United States wear glasses or contact lenses.

102 / HEALTH CAREERS


About AHEC

Champlain

Valley

AHEC

UVM AHEC

Program

Office




Northeastern

Vermont

AHEC

This directory was produced by the University

of Vermont Area Health Education Centers

Program Office (AHEC). There are three

regional AHEC Centers that are excellent

sources for further information about careers

in health care. The AHEC offices in Vermont are

listed below:

UVM AHEC Program Office

UHC, Arnold 5

1 South Prospect Street

Burlington, VT 05401

802-656-2179

www.vtahec.org

Southern

Vermont

AHEC

Champlain Valley AHEC

This office serves Franklin, Chittenden, Grand Isle and

Addison Counties

152 Fairfield Street

St. Albans, VT 05478

802-527-1474

www.cvahec.org

Northeastern Vermont AHEC

This office serves Essex, Orleans, Lamoille, Caledonia,

Washington and Orange counties

177 Western Avenue

St. Johnsbury, VT 05819

802-748-2506

www.nevahec.org

Southern Vermont AHEC

This office serves Rutland, Bennington, Windham and

Windsor counties

370-A River Street

Springfield, VT 05156

802-886-2115

www.southernvermontahec.org

AHEC

HEALTH CAREERS / 103


Careers in Health Care

Administration & Support

Administrator/Chief Executive Officer

Associate Administrator/Finance

Associate Administrator/Patient Care

Chaplain

Director of Materiel Management

Director of Volunteer Services

Group Practice Administrator

Health Educator

Health Planner

Human Resources Manager

Management Engineer

Nursing Home Administrator

Patient Representative

Risk Manager

Alternative Medicine

Acupressure

Acupuncture

Massage Therapy

Naturopathic Medicine

Clinical Lab/Technical Services

Blood Bank Technology Specialist

Cardiovascular Technologist

Clinical Chemist

Clinical Microbiologist

Cytotechnologist

Electrocardiograph Technician (EKG/ECG)

Electroneurodiagnostic Technologist

Emergency Medical Technician

Histologic Technician/Technologist

Immunology Technologist

Laboratory Assistant

Laser Optics Technician

Medical Technologist

Phlebotomist

Dentistry

Dental Assistant

Dental Hygienist

Dental Laboratory Technician

Dentist

Endodontist

Oral Surgeon

Orthodontist

Pediatric Dentist

Periodontist

Prosthodontist

Dietetics

Dietary Manager

Dietetic Technician

Nutritionist

Registered Dietitian

Emergency Services

Emergency Medical Technician

Paramedic

Hospital Information

Biophotographer

Certified Coding Specialist

Health Information Specialist

Health Sciences Librarian

Medical Illustrator

Medical Record Administrator

Medical Record Technician

Medical Transcriptionist

Medical Writer & Editor

Telecommunications Manager

Human Services

Gerontologist

Human Services Worker

Medicine

PHYSICIAN (partial listing)

Primary Care Specialties:

Family Practice

Internal Medicine

Obstetrics/Gynecology

Pediatrics

OTHER SPECIALTIES/SUBSPECIALTIES

Allergy & Immunology

Anesthesiology

Cardiology

Dermatology

Emergency Medicine

Geriatrics

Neurology

Ophthalmology

Orthopedics

Otolaryngology

Pathology

Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation

Plastic Surgery

Radiology

Surgery

Urology

Mental Health

Drug Abuse Counselor

Mental Health Technician

Psychiatrist

Psychiatric Social Worker

Psychiatric Mental Health Technician

Psychiatric Technologist

Psychologist

Nursing Service

Clinical Instructor

Clinical Nurse Specialist

Director of Nursing

Homemaker-Home Health Aid

In-Service Director

Licensed Practical Nurse

Nurse Assistant

Nurse Anesthetist

Nurse Home Health

Nurse Midwife

Nurse Practitioner

Nurse-Public Health

Operating Room Technician

Orderly

Patient Educator

Psychiatric Aide

Registered Nurse

Ward Clerk/Unit Coordinator

Ophthalmology

Ophthalmic Assistant

Ophthalmic Technician

Ophthalmic Technologist

Optician

Optometric Technician

Optometrist

Orthoptis

Pharmacy

Pharmacy Clerk

Pharmacy Technician

Pharmacologist

Biochemical

Cardiovascular

Clinical

Endocrine

Molecular

Veterinary

Registered Pharmacist

104 / HEALTH CAREERS


Physician Support Personnel

Genetic Counselor

Medical Assistant

Medical Secretary

Physician Assistant

Surgical Technologist

Laser Optics Technician

Podiatry

Podiatrist

Podiatric Assistant

Public Health

Behavioral Scientist

Biomedical & Lab Practitioner

Biostatistician

Disease Investigator

Environmental Health Engineer

Epidemiologist

Health Educator

International Public Health Specialist

Public Health Program Specialist

Safety Specialist

Radiology

Imaging Technologist

Nuclear Medicine Technologist

Perfusionist

Radiation Therapy Technologist

Radiologist

Radiologic Technician

Sonographer

Rehabilitation

Art Therapist

Athletic Trainer

Audiologist

Chiropractor

Dance Therapist

Horticultural Therapy

Industrial Therapist

Massage Therapist

Occupational Therapist

Occupational Therapy Assistant

Orthotist & Prosthetist

Physical Therapist

Physical Therapy Assistant

Recreational Therapist

Rehabilitation Counselor

Visually Disabled Specialist

Speech-Language Pathologist

Respiratory

Respiratory Therapist

Respiratory Therapy Assistant

Social Work Services

Child/Adult Protective Services

Child Welfare & Family Services

Criminal Justice

Gerontology

Licensed Social Worker

Policy & Planning

Social Work Assistant

Science & Engineering

Biochemist

Biomedical Engineer

Biomedical Equipment Technician

Environmentalist

Food Scientist

Health Scientist

Microbiologist

Occupational Health & Safety

Veterinary Medicine

Veterinarian

Veterinarian Technician & Assistant

VSAC

Need help planning your future or paying for college?

VSAC has the

resources you need...

and the experts to help!

Info is available:

• at our Resource Center in Winooski

• by calling 1-800-642-3177

• by visiting www.vsac.org

• through presentations statewide

We serve students, parents, & adults seeking new directions!

Vermont Student Assistance Corporation

Resource Center - Champlain Mill, Winooski,Vermont

Mon.-Thurs. 8 a.m.-8 p.m.; Fri 8 a.m.-4:30 p.m.; Sat. 8:30 a.m.-2:30 p.m.

No appointment is necessary, and our services are free!

HEALTH CAREERS / 105


Health Career Educational Requirements

Investing in your education will lead to a fulfilling and challenging career

with a strong outlook for the future. Below are guidelines for the education

required for a sample of health professions. Remember, preparation varies

for health careers. We strongly recommend that you contact a representative

from a reputable institution or training program to obtain specific information

on admissions and certification requirements.

Doctoral Degree

Clinical Psychologist

Dentist

Ophthalmologist

Physician

Psychiatrist

Veterinarian

Master Degree or

5+ Years of Training

Audiologist

Nurse Practitioner

Optometrist

Pharmacist

Physical Therapist

Speech and Language Pathologist

Bachelor Degree or

4 Years of Training

Biostatistician

Health Education Specialist

Counselors

Cytotechnologist

Epidemiologist

Registered Dietician

Medical Technologist

Occupational Therapist

Recreation Therapist

Social Worker

Associate Degree or

2 Years of Training

Dental Hygienist

Dietetic Technician

Human Services Worker

Occupational Therapy Assistant

Physician Assistant (post bachelor)

Physical Therapy Assistant

Radiological Technologist

Registered Nurse

Rehabilitation Engineering Technologist

Respiratory Therapist

Vocational Training

Emergency Medical Technician

License Practical Nurse

Medical Laboratory Technician

Certified Coding Specialist

Paramedic

Pharmacy Technician

Respiratory Therapy Technician

Surgical Technologist

1-12 Months on the Job Training

Dental Assistant

Human Services Assistant

Medical Assistant

Occupational Therapy Assistant

Physical Therapy Aide

Social Services Assistant

Up to a Month of on the Job

Training

Dietetic Assistant

Health Advocate

Home Health Aide

Licensed Nurses Aide

Personal Care Attendant

Phlebotomist

106 / HEALTH CAREERS


Acronym Glossary

A ATR

ATR-BC

B BMET

BSW

Art Therapist Registered

Art Therapist Registered,Board Certified

Biomedical Equipment Technician

Bachelor Degree in Social Work

H HT

HTL

HTM

HTR

HTT

Histologic Technician

Histotechnologist

Horticultural Therapist Master

Horticultural Therapist Registered

Horticultural Therapist Technician

C C-CATODSW

CCC

CCP

CCS

CCS-P

CEO

CFA

CMA

CMD

CMT

CNM

CNS

CO

CPO

CPO

CPOA

CPOT

CPR

CP

CRNA

CRT

CRTT

C-SSWS

CST

C-SWCM

CT

Certified Clinical Alcohol,Tobacco, &

other Drugs Social Worker

Certificate of Clinical Competence

Certified Clinical Perfusionist

Certified Coding Specialist

Certified Coding Specialist, Physician

Chief Executive Officer

Certified First Assistant

Certified Medical Assistant

Certified Medical Dosimetrist

Certified Massage Therapist

Certified Nurse Midwife

Clinical Nurse Specialist

Certified Orthotist

Certified Prosthetist/Orthotist

Certified Paraoptometric

Certified Paraoptometric Assistant

Certified Paraoptometric Technician

Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation

Certified Prosthetist

Certified Registered Nurse Anesthetist

Certified Respiratory Therapist

Certified Respiratory Therapy Technician

Certified School Social Work Specialist

Certified Surgical Technologist

Certified Social Work Case Manager

Cytotechnologist

L LPN

LVN

M MA

MD

MLS

MLT

MRA

MRI

MS

MT

N ND

NMD

NP

O OD

OT

OTA

P PA

PA-C

PharmD

PhD

PsyD

PT

PTA

Licensed Practical Nurse

Licensed Vocational Nurse

Medical Assistant

Doctor of Medicine

Master’s of Library & Information Science

Medical Laboratory Technician

Medical Records Administrator

Magnetic Resonance Imaging

Master’s of Science

Medical Technologist

Naturopathic Medicine

Naturopathic Medical Doctor

Nurse Practitioner

Doctors of Optometry

Occupational Therapist

Occupational Therapy Assistant

Physician Assistant

Physician Assistant, Certified

Doctor of Pharmacy

Doctor of Philosophy

Doctor of Psychology

Physical Therapist

Physical Therapy Assistant

D DC

DDS

DMD

DO

DPM

DTR

DVM

E EEG

EMT

Doctor of Chiropractic

Doctor of Dental Surgery

Doctor of Dental Medicine

Doctor of Osteopathic Medicine

Doctor of Podiatric Medicine

Dietetic Technician, Registered

Doctors of Veterinary Medicine

Electroneurodiagnostic Technologist

Emergency Medical Technician

R RBP

RD

RDT

RHD

RN

RPT

RRT

RTT

Registered Biologic Photographer

Registered Dietitian

Registered Drama Therapist

Registered Dental Hygienist

Registered Nurse

Registered Phlebotomy Technician

Registered Respiratory Therapist

Radiation Therapy Technologists

HEALTH CAREERS / 107


Vermont Education & Training Institutions

Barre Regional Vocational–Technical Center

50 Crimson Tide Way

Barre, VT 05641

802-476-6237

www.vita-learn.org/brvc/index.html

Burlington Technical Center

52 Institute Road

Burlington, VT 05401

802-864-8426

http://burlingtontech.org

Essex Technical Center

3 Educational Drive

Essex Junction, VT 05452

802-879-5558

www.essextechnical.com

Green Mountain Technology & Career Center

PO Box 600, Route 15 West

Hyde Park, VT 05655-0600

802-888-4447

www.gmtcc.k12.vt.us

Hartford Area Career & Technical Center

1 Gifford Road

White River Junction, VT 05001

802-295-8630

www.hartfordsd.com/hactc

Northwest Technical Center

71 South Main Street

St. Albans, VT 05478-2297

802-527-0614

www.missisquoi.k12.vt.us/publications/program_studiesnorthwest.html

Randolph Area Vocational Center

17 Forest Street

Randolph, VT 05060

802-728-9595

River Bend Career & Technical Center

PO Box 618, Upper Plain

Bradford, VT 05033-0618

802-222-5212

www.vtc.vsc.edu/k12/voc/rbend

River Valley Technical Center

303 South Street

Springfield, VT 05156

802-885-8484

www.rvtc.org/newrvtc/index.html

Stafford Technical Center

8 Stratton Road

Rutland, VT 05701

802-770-1033

www.rutlandhs.k12.vt.us/schools/stc

Lyndon Institute Technical Center

PO Box 127

Lyndon Center, VT 05850

802-626-1109

www.lyndoninstitute.org

108 / HEALTH CAREERS


Vermont Colleges & Universities

Bennington College

One College Drive

Office of Admissions and the First Year

Bennington, VT 05201

802-442-5401 or 800-833-6845

www.bennington.edu

Burlington College

Admissions Office

95 North Avenue

Burlington, VT 05401

802-862-9616 or 800-862-9616

www.burlcol.edu

Castleton State College

Seminary Street

Castleton, VT 05735

802-468-5611

www.csc.vsc.edu

Champlain College

163 South Willard Street

Burlington, VT 05401

802-860-2700 or 800-570-5858

www.champlain.edu

College of Saint Joseph

71 Clement Road

Rutland, VT 05701

802-773-5900 or 1-877-270-9998

www.csj.edu

Community College of Vermont

119 Pearl Street

Burlington, VT 05401

(11 other sites around VT)

802-865-4422

www.ccv.edu

Goddard College

123 Pitkin Road

Plainfield, VT 05667

802-454-8311 or 800-468-4888

www.goddard.edu

Green Mountain College

One College Circle

Poultney, VT 05764

800-776-6675

www.greenmtn.edu

Johnson State College

Office of Admission

337 College Hill

Johnson, VT 05656

800-635-2356

www.jsc.vsc.edu

Landmark College

Office of Admissions

River Road South

Putney, VT 05346

802-387-6718

www.landmarkcollege.org

Lyndon State College

1001 College Road

PO Box 919

Lyndonville, VT 05851-0919

802-626-6200 or 800-225-1998

www.lsc.vsc.edu

Marlboro College

Office of Admissions

Marlboro, VT 05344

800-343-0049

www.marlboro.edu

Middlebury College

The Admissions Office

The Emma Willard House

Middlebury, VT 05753-6002

802-443-3000

www.middlebury.edu

Norwich University

The Admissions Office

158 Harmon Drive

Northfield, VT 05663

802-485-2001 or 800-468-6679

www.norwich.edu

Southern Vermont College

982 Mansion Drive

Bennington, VT 05201

802-442-5427

www.svc.edu

Saint Michael’s College

One Winooski Park

Colchester, VT 05439

802-654-2000 or 800-762-8000

www.smcvt.edu

Springfield College

School of Human Services

347 Emerson Falls Road

St. Johnsbury, VT 05819

800-441-1812

www.spfldcol.edu/homepage/dept.nsf/shs

University of Vermont

Office of Undergraduate Admissions

194 South Prospect Street

Burlington, VT 05401

802-656-3370

www.uvm.edu

University of Vermont

College of Medicine

Office of Admissions

Given C-225

Burlington, VT 05405

802-656-2154

www.med.uvm.edu

Vermont College

Union Institute and University

36 College Street

Montpelier, VT 05602

800-336-6794

www.tui.edu/vermontcollege

Vermont Technical College

Director of Admissions

PO Box 500

Randolph Center, VT 05061-0500

802-728-1000 or 800-442-8821

www.vtc.vsc.edu

Woodbury College

660 Elm Street

Montpelier, VT 05602

802-229-0516 or 800-639-6039

www.woodbury-college.edu

HEALTH CAREERS / 109


Directory of Vermont Hospitals & Long Term Care Facilities

HOSPITALS

Brattleboro Memorial Hospital

17 Belmont Avenue

Brattleboro, VT 05301

802-257-0341

www.bmhvt.org

Central Vermont Medical Center

PO Box 547, 103 Fisher Road

Barre, VT 05641

802-371-4100

www.cvmc.hitchcock.org

Copley Hospital

528 Washington Highway

Morrisville, VT 05661

802-888-4231

www.copleyhealthsystems.org

Fletcher Allen Health Care

111 Colchester Avenue

Burlington, VT 05401

802-847-0000

www.fletcherallen.org

Gifford Medical Center

PO Box 2000, 44 Main Street

Randolph, VT 05060

802-728-4441

www.giffordmed.org

Grace Cottage Hospital

PO Box 216, Route 35

Townshend, VT 05353-0216

802-365-7357

www.gracecottage.org

Mt. Ascutney Hospital & Health Center

289 County Road

Windsor, VT 05089

802-674-6711

www.mtascutneyhospital.org

North Country Hospital

189 Prouty Drive

Newport, VT 05855

802-334-7331

www.nchsi.org

Northeastern Vermont Regional

Hospital

PO Box 905, 1315 Hospital Drive

St. Johnsbury, VT 05819

802-748-8141

www.nvrh.org

Northwestern Medical Center

PO Box 1370, 133 Fairfield Street

St. Albans, VT 05478

802-524-5911

www.northwesternmedicalcenter.org

Porter Medical Center

115 Porter Drive

Middlebury, VT 05753

802-388-4701

www.portermedical.org

Brattleboro Retreat Healthcare

PO Box 803, Anna Marsh Lane

Brattleboro, VT 05301

802-257-7785 or 800-RETREAT

www.bratretreat.org

Rutland Regional Medical Center

160 Allen Street

Rutland, VT 05701

802-775-7111

www.rrmc.org

Springfield Hospital

PO Box 2003, 25 Ridgewood Road

Springfield, VT 05156

802-885-2151

www.springfieldhospital.org

Southwestern Vermont Health

Care

100 Hospital Drive East

Bennington, VT 05201

802-442-6361

www.svhealthcare.org

VA Medical & Regional Office

Center

215 North Main Street

White River Jct., VT 05009

802-295-9363

www.visn1.med.va.gov/wrj

Vermont State Hospital

103 South Main Street

Waterbury, VT 05676

802-241-3100

LONG TERM CARE FACILITIES

Derby Green Nursing Home

PO Box 24, 2853 US Route 5

Derby, VT 05829

802-766-2201

Helen Porter Healthcare &

Rehab Center

115 Porter Drive

Middlebury, VT 05753

802-388-4001

Woodridge Nursing Home

PO Box 550, 142 Woodridge Drive

Barre, VT 05641

802-371-4700

Mt. Ascutney Health Center

289 County Rd.

Windsor, VT 05089

802-674-6711

www.mtascutneyhosp.hitchcock.org

SVHC Center for Living &

Rehabilitation

160 Hospital Drive

Bennington, VT 05201

802-447-1547

www.svhealthcare.org/Centers/index

Copley Manor

577 Washington Highway

Morrisville, VT 05661

802-888-5201

www.copleyhealthsystems.org

110 / HEALTH CAREERS


Health Career Websites

AMERICAN MEDICAL ASSOCIATION

www.ama-assn.org/ama/pub/category/3584.html

A list of links to professional health professions websites.

HEALTH CAREERS DIRECTORY

www.med.uvm.edu/ahec/downloads/hcd01.pdf

Published by VT Area Health Education Centers Program

Office, this directory and guide is designed to help middle

school and high school students easily find a broad array of

health careers and understand the educational preparation

that is needed for those careers. They can also learn how to

contact colleges, universities, and professional organizations

that will provide them with more detailed information.

114 pages in PDF format.

HEALTH RESOURCES SERVICES ADMINISTRATION

www.hrsa.gov

HRSA directs programs that improve the nation’s health by

expanding access to comprehensive, quality health care for

all Americans.

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK, 2000-01 Edition

www.bls.gov/oco

The Ocupational Outlook Handbook is a nationally recognized

source for career information, designed to provide valuable

assistance to individuals making decisions about their future

work lives. Search or browse to find career information.

OFFICIAL ALLIED HEALTH ORGANIZATIONS WEB SITE

www.alliedhealth.org

This web site was developed to provide information about

allied health professions, education, and promotion.

PETERSON’S GUIDE TO FOUR YEAR COLLEGES

www.petersons.com

Contains listings of colleges by major and location. Also lists

college prep tests.

RNWEB

www.rnweb.com/rn/index.htm

The web home of RN, a journal for nurses. Includes career

tips, employer profiles and much information of interest to

nurses or those planning a career in nursing.

VERMONT DEPARTMENT OF EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING

www.det.state.vt.us/

This list has job, resume, and talent banks. Contains many

job listings.

VERMONT STUDENT ASSISTANCE CORPORATION

www.vsac.org

The official VSAC website which provides information on

grants, loans, scholarships, career and education planning,

and general information about how you, or others in your

family, can get the education you want.

DISCOVER NURSING

www.discovernursing.com

A great resource for aspiring nurses. Covers everything from

the basics to searching for a nursing program to finding

scholarship information

CHOOSE NURSING VERMONT

www.choosenursingvermont.com

A similar, but regional and equally good site for aspiring

nurses.

To learn more about careers in health care, contact the

Area Health Education Center closest to you:

Champlain Valley AHEC

Serving Franklin, Grand Isle, Chittenden and

Addison counties.

ww.cvahec.org

Northeastern Vermont AHEC

Serving Essex, Orleans, Lamoille, Caledonia, Orange and

Washington counties

www.nevahec.org

Southern Vermont AHEC

Serving Rutland, Bennington, Windham and

Windsor counties

www.southernvermontahec.org

UVM AHEC Program

Providing a statewide focus and a connection to the

University of Vermont

www.vtahec.org

HEALTH CAREERS / 111


Choosing a Career in Health Care

Your first step is deciding if you are well-suited to a career in

health care. To do this, it’s helpful to match the characteristics

of your “ideal job” to those commonly found in health

care careers. In the list below, mark with an X each of the

characteristics that must be a component of your future.

■ Using instruments. You enjoy using your manual dexterity or

skills and working with your hands.

■ Teaching others. You like instructing or showing people

how to do or understand things.

■ Being precise. You expect to meet high standards of accuracy in your work.

■ Complex tasks. You enjoy working with people—for example,

clients seeking services.

■ Evident results. You want to see your progress or tangible

results of your work.

■ Team effort. You like working as part of a group.

■ Ample employment. You want to work in a field with lots of

job opportunities.

■ Problem-solving capacity. You enjoy pinpointing problems and determining

how to solve them.

■ Routine. You want a job with repetitive activities that does not present

many challenges.

■ Working outdoors. You would like to work primarily outside.

■ Fixed location. You want to stay in one site for most of the workday.

■ Creativity. You like taking the initiative; devising original or novel concepts,

products, or programs; and acting upon them.

■ Independence. You want the flexibility to work on your own

without a high degree of supervision.

■ Competition. You want a high-achievement position in

which your success is based on reaching high goals.

Adapted with permission from pages 12 and 14 of Health Care Careers for the 21st Century by Wischnitzer and Wischnitzer;

published by JIST Works, Inc., Indianapolis, IN, 2000.

112 / HEALTH CAREERS


Desirable Personal Characteristics

for Various Health Careers

Diagnosing & Treating Practitioners

Advanced practice nurse ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ●

Physician ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ●

Physician assistant ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ●

Veterinarians ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ●

Associated Health Careers

Dental hygienists ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ●

Registered nurses ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ●

Licensed practical nurses ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ●

Pharmacists ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ●

Technologists, Technician, & Assistant Careers

Dental assistants ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ●

Dental laboratory technicians ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ●

Electrocardiograph technicians ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ●

EEG technologist & technicians ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ●

Emergency medical technicians ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ●

Medical laboratory workers ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ●

Nursing aides, orderlies, and attendants ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ●

Operating room technicians ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ●

Optometric assistants ● ● ● ● ● ● ●

Radiologic (X-ray) technologists ● ● ● ● ● ● ●

Respiratory therapy workers

Rehabilitation Careers

Occupational therapists ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ●

Occupational therapy assistant ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ●

Physical therapists ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ●

Physical therapist assistants and aides ● ● ● ● ● ●

Speech pathologists and audiologists ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ●

Other Health Careers

Problem-solving abilities

Uses Instruments

Instructs others

Repetitious work

Hazardous

Outdoors

Physical stamina

Generally confined

Precision

Works with detail

Frequent public contact

Part-time

Can see results

Creativity

Influences others

Competition on the job

Is part of a team

Jobs widely scattered

Initiative

Health services administrators ● ● ● ● ● ●

Medical records administrators ● ● ●

Medical record technicians and clerks ● ● ● ● ● ●

HEALTH CAREERS / 113


Index

A Advanced Practice Nursing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66

Audiologist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90

B Biostatistician . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78

C Cardiovascular Technologist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38

Certified Nurse Midwife. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66

Certified Registered Nurse Anesthetist . . . . . . . . . . 66

Clinical Nurse Specialist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66

Counselor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48

Cytotechnologist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32

D Dental Assistant. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10

Dental Hygienist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12

Dental Lab Technician. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13

Dentist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14

Dietetic Technicians. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71

Dietitians/Nutritionists . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70

E Emergency Medical Technician. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18

Epidemiologist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79

G Gerontologist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49

H Health Care Office Assistant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22

Health Care Office Manager. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23

Health Educator. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80

Health Information & Medical Records Technician . . . . 26

Health Sciences Librarian. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27

Home Health Aide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58

Human Services Worker. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50

M Medical Transcriptionist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29

Medical Laboratory Technician . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33

Medical Laboratory Technologist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34

N Nurse Practitioner . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66

Nuclear Medicine Technologist. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84

O Occupational Therapist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91

Occupational Therapist Assistant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92

Ophthalmologist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100

Optician . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101

Optometrist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102

Orthotist/Prosthetist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95

P Pharmacist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74

Pharmacy Technician. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76

Physician . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42

Physician Assistant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44

Physical Therapist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93

Physical Therapist Assistant. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94

Psychiatrist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51

Psychologist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53

R Radiologic Technologist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86

Radiation Therapist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85

Registered Nurse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63

Respiratory Therapist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96

S Social Worker . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55

Speech-Language Pathologist. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97

Surgical Technologist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39

L Licensed Nursing Assistant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60

Licensed Practical Nurse. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62

114 / HEALTH CAREERS


Acknowledgements

The Vermont Area Health Education Center Program Office

gratefully acknowledges the following organizations that have

supported and contributed to the production of this Directory:

Funding Support

U.S. Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA)

Fletcher Allen Health Care

Vermont’s Community Hospitals

State of Vermont

University of Vermont

For content review, interviews, photo subjects and

other invaluable advice, we thank the many health care

professionals who shared their time and knowledge.

For planning and content contributions, we thank the

Vermont Association of Hospitals and Health Systems

(VAHHS), Vermont Student Assistance (VSAC), the Vermont

Department of Employment and Training (DET), the

Vermont Area Health Education Centers (AHEC); and the

focus group participants statewide.

Materials consulted include

U.S. Bureau of Labor and Statistics Occupational Outlook

Handbook

Northeast Regional Student Program—The Apple Book

New Hampshire and Texas Health Career Directories

Design and production by Liquid Studio / Lisa Cadieux

Photos by UVM Medical Photography; additional photos

courtesy of Brattleboro Memorial Hospital, Rutland Regional

Medical Center, Visiting Nurse Association of Chittenden

and Grand Isle Counties, and VSAC.

This is a publication of the UVM Area Health Education Center

Program at the University of Vermont College of Medicine

www.vtahec.org


AHECAREA HEALTH

at the University of Vermont College of Medicine

UHC Campus, Arnold 5

1 South Prospect Street

Burlington, Vermont 05401

802-656-2179

www.vtahec.org

EDUCATION CENTERS PROGRAM OFFICE

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