2011 Ops Refresher


2011 Ops Refresher

2011 A.F.D. HazMat

Operations Refresher

Course Objectives

• Getting back to Basics

• HazMat Recognition

• Review Placards & NFPA 704

• Review the ERG

• Defensive Operations

• Your Role in Decon

• Final Quiz

Back to Basics

• Do you remember the “Rule of Thumb”?

• Complacency is Deadly!

• Know your role in the incident

• Review S.I.N.C.I.A.P.C.P.D.D.D. acronym

“Rule of Thumb”

Complacency is Deadly!!!!

Know Your Role

• Respond safely

• Use recognition clues to identify a

possible HazMat event

• Develop a defensive strategy

• Call for additional resources as needed


• S – Safety

• I – Isolation & Deny Entry

• N – Notifications

• C – Command/Management

• I – Identification & Hazard Assessment

• A – Action Planning

• P – Protective Equipment

• C – Containment & Control

• P – Protective Actions

• D – Decontamination & Cleanup

• D – Disposal

• D - Documentation

S - Safety

Approach from:

• Uphill

• Upstream

• Upwind

• Inform incoming units of best approach

I - Isolation

• Isolate and Deny entry

• Determine what you have

• Use ERG, physical state and amount

• Determine initial isolation distance

N - Notification

• Additional resources - HazMat task force,

all or part

• State Police - notification or requesting

ERO (Emergency Response Officer)

• EOC notification - if appropriate

C - Command & Management

• Basic ICS implementation

– 1 st arriving officer assumes Command

– Temporary Command Post established

– Initial actions (S.I.N.)

I - Identification

• Placards, Labels or 704 system

• Shipping papers



I - Hazard Assessment

• Determine the severity of the threat

posed to community & responders

• Realistic assessment of overall

magnitude of the incident

– Leaking 55 gal. drum

– Rail car leak

– WMD event

A – Action Planning

• Identify the resources available

• Identify the problem

• Use available resources to solve

problem (if possible)

• Always ask “ What if we did nothing?”

• Let incident run its course?

• Non-intervention strategy

• Weigh risk vs. gain

P – Protective Equipment

Responders need to protect exposure


Inhalation - Absorption

Ingestion - Injection

Bunkers, Hood & SCBA

• Offer no vapor protection

• Offer limited splash protection

• Offer the best inhalation protection

• Offer the best thermal protection

C – Containment & Control

Three Basic Strategies

• Non-Intervention

– Letting incident run its course

• Defensive

– Focus on confinement

• Offensive (Technician)

– Focus on control measures that will

control, slow or stop release

P – Protective Actions

• Two types of protective actions

– Evacuation

• Remove people from threatened area to a

safe area

– Shelter in Place

• Keep people inside protected structures

D - Decontamination

• May need to be done for victims and


• Wet and dry procedures

• May be able to brush off contaminant

• Removal of outer clothing removes most


• Use preconnect for emergency wet


D- Disposal

• AFD does not conduct disposal

activities at HazMat incidents

• Disposal typically done by private


DO NOT remove fuel, oil, contaminated

kitty litter, etc. and put it on the truck or

bring it back to the station!!!!!

D- Documentation

Reasons for documentation

– It’s required

– Exposure records

– Cost recovery

– Future litigation

– Investigations

– Case studies

HazMat Recognition

• Occupancy / Location

• Container shapes

• Placards and Labels

• Shipping papers and MSDS

Occupancy / Location

Container Shapes

• Pressurized or non-pressurized

• Box trailers or railcar

• Cylinders or drums

• Boxes or bags

Placards & Hazard Classes

The D.O.T. has 9

classifications for Hazardous


Class 1 – Explosives

Class 2 – Gases

Class 3 – Flammable Liquids

Class 4 – Flammable Solids

Class 5 – Oxidizers

Class 6 – Toxic or Poisons

Class 7 – Radioactive

Class 8 – Corrosives

Class 9 – Misc. HazMat

Class 1 - Explosives

Division 1.1

Explosives with a mass

explosion hazard

Division 1.2

Explosives with a

projection hazard

Division 1.3

Explosives with

predominantly a fire hazard

Division 1.4

Explosives with no

significant blast hazard

Division 1.5

Very insensitive explosives

with a mass explosion hazard

Division 1.6

Extremely insensitive


Class 2 - Gases

Division 2.1

Flammable Gases

Division 2.2


Non-Toxic Gases

Division 2.3

Toxic or Poison Gases

Class 3 – Flammable Liquids

Flammable or Combustible Liquids


Flammable: Flash point of not more than 141 degrees F.

Combustible: Does not meet the definition of any other Hazard Class and

has a flashpoint above 140 degrees F. and below 200 degrees F.

Class 3 – Flammable Liquids

• Division 3.1 -

Flashpoint < 0

degrees F

• Division 3.2 -

Flashpoint 0 to <

than 73 degrees F

• Division 3.3 -

Flashpoint 73 to <

than 141 degrees F

Class 3 – Combustible Liquids

Flash Point: >140

degrees F. but < 200

degrees F

Class 4 – Flammable Solids

Division 4.1

Flammable Solids

Division 4.2


Combustible Materials

Division 4.3

Water-Reactive / Dangerous When Wet Materials

Examples: Calcium Carbide, Magnesium Powder, Sodium Hydride

Class 5 - Oxidizers

Division 5.1

Oxidizing Substances

Supports combustion,

intensifies fire

Division 5.2

Organic Peroxides

Unstable / reactive explosives

Class 6 - Poisons

Division 6.1

Toxic or Poisonous Substances

Division 6.2

Infectious Substances

Class 7 - Radioactive

Class 8 - Corrosive

Class 9 – Misc HazMat

Miscellaneous Hazardous Materials / Products, Substances or Organisms

Misc. Placards

UN ID Numbers

Four-digit numbers that identify the material

Placarded Loads

Loads do not have to be placarded unless they have 1,001 lbs or more

of any one particular material. Combined loads 1,000 lbs and under will

only have a DANGEROUS placard if you’re lucky, BE AWARE!!!!

The EXCEPTION to that rule: These materials require that the

load is placarded for ANY AMOUNT!!

NFPA 704

NFPA 704 is a standard maintained by the NFPA. It defines the colloquial "fire

diamond" used by emergency personnel to quickly and easily identify the risks

posed by nearby hazardous materials. This is necessary to help determine what, if

any, specialty equipment should be used, procedures followed, or precautions taken

during the first moments of an emergency response.

NFPA 704 - Defined

NFPA 704 Facts

Only W and OX/OXY are

officially part of the NFPA 704

standard, but other selfexplanatory

symbols are

occasionally used in an unofficial


NFPA 704 placards and labels are

found on buildings, packages,

drums and storage tanks.

Shipping Papers

• The preferred

identification source

for Hazardous


• Know the types and

locations of the

shipping papers

Shipping Paper Locations

Vessel: Dangerous Cargo Manifest

Location: Bridge

Air: Air Bill

Location: Cockpit

Rail: Waybill and Consist

Location: Conductor

Truck: Bill of Lading

Location: Cab near driver seat


A Material Safety Data Sheet

(MSDS) is a form with data

regarding the properties of a

particular substance. It is

intended to provide workers

and emergency personnel with

procedures for handling or

working with that substance in a

safe manner, and includes

information such as physical

data (melting point, boiling

point, flash point, etc.), toxicity,

health effects, first aid,

reactivity, storage, disposal,

protective equipment, and spillhandling


Emergency Response


A review of using the

ERG for the initial

phase of a dangerous

goods / hazardous

material transportation


Sections of the ERG

The White Pages

The Yellow - Bordered Pages

The Blue - Bordered Pages

The Orange - Bordered Pages

The Green - Bordered Pages

ERG – White Pages

The White pages of the ERG contain several

pages of vital information:

• Inside the cover; Where to find Shipping Papers

and how to read them.

• Contents of the guidebook including the definition

of the colored sections and isolation / evacuation


• Who to Call? Such as CHEMTREC, etc……

• Hazard Classes / Placard Identification

• Rail Car / Road Trailer Identification Chart

• Hazard Identification Codes displayed on some

Intermodal Containers

Yellow-Bordered Pages

Index list of dangerous goods in

numerical order of ID number. This

section quickly identifies the guide to be

consulted from the ID number of the

material involved. This list displays the

4-digit ID number of the material

followed by its assigned emergency

response guide and the material name.

Yellow-Bordered Pages

Blue-Bordered Pages

Index list of dangerous goods in

alphabetical order of material name.

This section quickly identifies the guide

to be consulted from the name of the

material involved. This list displays the

name of the material followed by its

assigned emergency response guide

and 4-digit ID number.

Blue-Bordered Pages

Orange-Bordered Pages

This section is the most important

section of the guidebook because it

is where all safety

recommendations are provided.

Each guide provides safety

recommendations and emergency

response information to protect

yourself and the public.

Orange-Bordered Pages

The left-hand page provides

safety related information.

The right-hand page provides

emergency response guidance.

Green-Bordered Pages

This section contains initial isolation

distances and protective action distances

for TIH materials, certain chemical

warfare agents and water-reactive

materials which produce toxic gases

upon contact with water. These materials

are highlighted in GREEN in the

YELLOW and BLUE sections of the


Green-Bordered Pages

Defensive Actions

• Defined –

– Defensive actions are those actions taken at

an incident that do not place responders in

direct contact with the materials involved.

Defensive Operations

Remember the “Uphill, Upstream, Upwind”? Use It!!!!

A shovel and dirt are your best friend!


• Prevent that liquid from entering the storm drain or running down the street.

• Be careful when using water, you will increase the volume of your spill

greatly and make sure your product does not react with water.

• Use remote shut-offs to stop or slow the release of product - with caution

• Vapor suppression activities – Foam application or vapor dispersion

• Cooling off flame-impinged pressurized containers with hoselines or



• Definition:

• Placing a barrier within a body of water to

prevent spread of a product

– Usually used on small spills in water

– Water solubility and specific gravity of the

product must be considered

– Overflow or Underflow dam??


• Definition:

• Placing a physical barrier on a surface to

minimize or prevent further product spread

– Dirt

– Sorbent Boom

– Charged Hoseline


• Definition:

• To change the direction or channel the flow of

the material by building a raised partition or

digging a trench

– Used to divert product from sewers,

waterways, or into containment areas

Your Role in Decon

Occasionally, non-task force Ops level firefighters WILL be

needed for decon operations. Especially at a large incident

such as a MCI or a WMD incident. You will need to get into

a level “B” protective suit occasionally, but most of the time

you will be in your bunker gear. But your main tasks will be

assisting the task force, assisting with evacuation and

maintaining the zones.

When in Doubt…..

• Call a Squad for assistance

In Summary

• Remember the Basics to HazMat response

• Be able to understand and recognize HazMat

placards and symbols.

• Recognize the need for a HazMat response early.

• Be proficient in using the ERG.

• Understand your role in Defensive Operations

• Don’t be complacent, respond safely!!

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