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Millennium Development Goals – grass root

experiences and perspectives

Sumesh Mangalassery

15 th March 2013 , Muenster


Millennium Development Goals and India

Country Initiated Many Programmes

The National Development Goals adapted to correspond with MDGs

• National Rural Employment Guarantee Programme

• National Rural Health Mission

• SARVA SIKHSHA ABHIYAN (Education for all)

• Indira Awaas Yojana (IAY) or Indira Housing Scheme

• Targeted Public Distribution Scheme (TPDS)

• Rajiv Gandhi National Drinking Water Mission


Achievements so far

• Out of 20.67 million households demanded employment,

20.57 million were provided

• .

• Over 4 Million houses have been constructed

• 2.7 Million of Self Help Groups (SHGs) have been

formed under.

• People living below a dollar a day has also come down

from 42% to 24%.

• The number of undernourished people has decreased

from 214.8 million in 1991 to 212 million in 2002.


Contradicting policies and programmes

• GDP centric development

• Liberalization agenda

• Diluting or replacing existing regulations

• Privatisation of basic services

• Opening up of various sectors

• Bilateral and other free trade agrements

• Cutting of subsidies and incentives for the poor

• More centralised governing system

• Bye passing democratic Institutions


As a Result

• Land, forests, water, bio-diversity and natural and productive resources

being destroyed

• Traditional livelihood being destroyed

• Low agricultural production and Food security under threat

• 50 million Internally Displaced People

• Migration form villages to cities increased

• Growing extremism

• An un even and not inclusive development

This undermines the achievements so far …


Challenges

• Out of the 14.07 million tons of BPL quota of PDS, only 5.93 million

tons was delivered

.

• 77% Indians i.e 836 million live less than half a dollar a day

• 20 % of women and children are under nutrition

• Conversion of forest land for non forest use is very high

• Income inequality has doubled in the last 20 years and the worst

performer of all emerging economies

• Failed to address the structural causes of poverty


Challenges

• 37.2% of the population lives below the national poverty line

• 41.8% of the rural population lives below the poverty line

• 80% of the rural poor belong to marginalized castes and tribal

communities.

• More than 90% of the overall workforce works in the informal

economy.

• 96% of the women work in the informal economy.

• 27% of the rural households have access to formal credit.

• 254 women per 100,000 births die due to maternity-related causes.


Tourism & the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs)

UNWTO is working with UN sister agencies,

governments, the private sector and civil society to

catalyse action and advance the tourism sector’s

contribution to the achievement of the MDGs.


The UNWTO (UN World Tourism Organization)

Tourism, one of the world’s top job creators and a lead

export sector, especially for developing countries, can

play a significant role in the achievement of MDG1 –

eradication of poverty, MDG3 – gender equality, MDG7 –

environmental sustainability and MDG8 – global

partnerships for development “.


Tourism and poverty alleviation

• UNWTO, UNDP , UNCTAD (UN Conference on Trade and Development) and

UNEP (UN Environment Programme), the European Union , a number of

bilateral development agencies that actively support poverty-focused tourism

projects.

• ‘Sustainable Tourism for Eliminating Poverty’, or in short: ST-EP, to

contribute to the fulfilment of the UN’s MDGs. From 2006 to 2010, ST-EP

supported 44 projects in 31 countries.

• During the LDC-IV conference, a Tourism Special Event for sustainable

development and poverty reduction was organized by the UN Steering

Committee on Tourism for Development (SCTD)4.

• Concepts like Pro – Poor Tourism (PPT) emerged.

• Developing countries and LCDs taking tourism as a means for poverty

alleviation.

• This countries allocating resources for developing tourism infrastructure


Sustainable Tourism Eliminating Poverty

(ST-EP)

UNWTO is tapping money earmarked for

development cooperation to promote tourism

instead of

effectively tapping tourism industry resources to

alleviate poverty


Realities from the ground !

Tourism

Alleviating or aggravating

poverty?


Water and Poverty Alleviation

The Millennium Development Goals call for

• Reducing the proportion of people living on less than $1

a day

• Reducing the proportion of people without sustainable

access to safe drinking water to half the 1990 level by

2015.

Ensuring access to safe drinking water is an integral

part of the fight against poverty!


Tourism, Poverty and Safe Water

Tourism should contribute to improving people’s access to

safe drinking water.

However, the opposite

is often the case!


Access to water

Water problems often increase

with tourism

• water scarcity

• ground water depletion

• water pollution

• commodification of water


Tourism – A Thirsty business !

• 1,500 cubic metres of water could sustain 100 rural families in a

destination for five years and 100 urban families for two years. Yet

the same amount was used by 100 tourists in 55 days.

• Water consumption in golf courses: It would take 2.5 billion gallons

of water per day to support 4.7 billion people at the UN daily

minimum rate; the same amount of water – 2.5 billion gallons – is

used, per day, to irrigate the world’s golf courses

• The amount of water used by 60,000 villagers in Thailand is on

average, per day, 6,500 cubic metres; the same amount – 6,500

cubic metres – is used by one golf course in Thailand, on average

per day


Who Really benefits from tourism and who bear

the costs ?

In many countries the tourism industry enjoys subsidies and

incentives such as

• Tax holidays, tax exemptions

• Investment subsidies

• Reduced electricity rates, water rates

• Infrastructure such as roads, electricity, water supply

• Facilitation of land acquisition

• Government promotion of the destination

• etc.

Governments regard themselves as “catalysts” for the promotion

of tourism


Good Governance in tourism

Redefining the role of governments in tourism

development:

A people-centred approach!!!

Provide a people-centred legislative and

regulative framework


Good Governance in Tourism

… means: Generating economic benefits (state

revenues!) from tourism that are needed to support

development (in terms of achieving goals that benefit

the people and especially the poor)

instead of

using the resources of the “common man” to support an

industry that is (or may be) economically viable


A Post 2015 Agenda – Towards a Paradigm

Shift

• Integrate community experiences and expectations

• Ensure corporate accountability

• Address structural causes of poverty and integrate issues

such as discrimination, social exclusion, government

policies system and governance

• Ensure Participatory and Just governance

• People centered and a decentralized approach

• Provide a people-centred legislative and regulative

framework

• A human right and sustainability approach

• Larger broader civil society cooperation beyond UN

process


Thank you

www.kabani.org

kabanitour@yahoo.com

contact@kabani.org


Human rights abuses in tourism

Back Waters , Kerala, South India


The Backwaters

• A waterlogged stretch of

about 110,000 ha of lake,

rivers and canals

• 50,000 ha are 60 to 220 cm

below sea level


Water – A Human Need

“More than 80 per cent of

the people in Kuttanadu rely

on the contaminated canal

water for their daily water

requirements. About 40 per

cent of them use the water

without boiling it first.”

- Centre for Water Resources

Development and

Management (CWRDM),

Kozhikode,


• Over 10,000 people

live on fishing

Fishing –

A Major Source of Income

• 580 tonnes of fish and

prawns are harvested

annually on the

Southern part of the

lake alone


Water Pollution in Kuttanadu

“Pollution levels in the

backwaters of Kerala are rising

as the number of houseboats

and resorts increases, since fuel

refilling is done without proper

care and sewage and kitchen

wastewater are released directly

into the waters.”

- K.K. Mustafah

In: The Hindu Business Line, 29

August 2002


Houseboat Waste

“The houseboats are a big

menace now. They are

discharging human

excreta, condoms and

other wastes to the lake.

The bottom of the lake is

full of plastics carry bags

and bottles. The industry

don't have any social

commitment.”

Z2

- R. Visakhan, Panchayat

President, Kainakari Gram

Panchayat


Folie 27

Z2

photo from clip Visakhan

Zone; 15.02.2005


Dead Fish – Victims of Pollution

“The gills, though which

the fish breaths, are coated

with oil. The fish have been

showing a tendency to

migrate en masse to the

area of the lake where the

film is thin or absent. If the

situation goes unchecked,

fish and other aquatic

organisms will perish

soon.”

- K.G. Padmakumar, Kumarakom Regional Agricultural Research Station

In: Indian Express, 24 January, 2005


Livelihood of Fishermen at Stake

“We have taken a loan from

the bank for the small fishing

boat and net. Now we are

unable to repay the loan

because we are not getting

enough catch and sale.

At night, houseboats are

anchoring on the lake. They

are destroying the fishing

nets, which is also causing

conflicts.”

- Sibichan, fisherman, Kainakari


Agriculture Adversely Affected

“The houseboats are

disturbing the agricultural

activities. Kerosene and oil

are spreading to the paddy

fields and are adversely

affecting the rice cultivation.

Government authorities are

ignoring the plea of the

people to prevent pollution

and supply drinking water.

Government should bring

some regulation!”

- Madusoodanan, President

of the Rice Cultivators

Collective, Valiyakari

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