Asking answerable questions - Iuhpe.gesundheitsfoerderung.ch

iuhpe.gesundheitsfoerderung.ch

Asking answerable questions - Iuhpe.gesundheitsfoerderung.ch

Asking answerable

questions

The McCaughey Centre

VicHealth Centre for the Promotion of Mental Health and Community Wellbeing

Melbourne School of Population Health


Evidence-based process

1. Ask an answerable question

2. Find the evidence to answer that

question

3. Critically appraise the evidence

4. Integrate the evidence with your

expertise and values of population

5. Evaluate your effectiveness in EBP

Sicily Statement on evidence-based Practice

BMC Medical education 2005, 5:1

The McCaughey Centre VicHealth Centre for the Promotion of Mental Health and Community Wellbeing

Melbourne School of Population Health


Evidence-based process

1. Ask an answerable question

2. Find the evidence to answer that

question

3. Critically appraise the evidence

4. Integrate the evidence with your

expertise and values of population

5. Evaluate your effectiveness in EBP

Sicily Statement on evidence-based Practice

BMC Medical education 2005, 5:1

The McCaughey Centre VicHealth Centre for the Promotion of Mental Health and Community Wellbeing

Melbourne School of Population Health


From practice to evidence: asking answerable

questions

• Converts situations and problems from practice

into searching

• Key words of questions become key terms for

searching

• Focusing the questions makes the search much

more efficient

The McCaughey Centre VicHealth Centre for the Promotion of Mental Health and Community Wellbeing

Melbourne School of Population Health


Questions of interest

Effectiveness:

• Does the intervention work/not work?

• Who does it work/not work for?

Other important questions:

• How does the intervention work?

• Is the intervention appropriate?

• Is the intervention feasible?

• Is the intervention and comparison relevant?

The McCaughey Centre VicHealth Centre for the Promotion of Mental Health and Community Wellbeing

Melbourne School of Population Health


Answerable questions

EFFECTIVENESS

A description of the populations

P

An identified intervention

I

An explicit comparison

C

Relevant outcomes

O

The McCaughey Centre VicHealth Centre for the Promotion of Mental Health and Community Wellbeing

Melbourne School of Population Health


PICO questions

Time-consuming question:

Q. What are the benefits of flexible working

conditions?

The McCaughey Centre VicHealth Centre for the Promotion of Mental Health and Community Wellbeing

Melbourne School of Population Health


PICO questions

An answerable PICO question:

Q. What are the effects (benefits and harms) of

flexible working interventions on the physical,

mental and general health and wellbeing of

employees and their families?

The McCaughey Centre VicHealth Centre for the Promotion of Mental Health and Community Wellbeing

Melbourne School of Population Health


The PICO(T) chart

Problem,

population

Adults of

working age

working for

profit or pay in

formal labour

Intervention Comparison Outcome Types of

studies

a) self-scheduling/

flexible scheduling

b) flexitime

c) annualised hours

d) overtime

e) teleworking

f) gradual/ partial

retirement

g) involuntary parttime

work

h) fixed-term

contract

i) job share

a) Flexible

working

intervention

b) No

intervention

a) Physical health

(physician diagnosis; Pain

questionnaire; change in

physiological parameters)

b) Mental health (GHQ-

12; MHI; HADS; Warwick-

Edinburgh Mental Well-

being Scale)

c) General health (UK

Census style measures of

general health)

d) Secondary outcomes:

sickness absence, health

service usage, health/

lifestyle behavioural effects

etc

a) RCT

b) Controlled

before and after

studies

c) Interrupted

time series

The McCaughey Centre VicHealth Centre for the Promotion of Mental Health and Community Wellbeing

Melbourne School of Population Health


Take home message

• Formulating the question is an important part of

a Cochrane Review

– Defines scope

– Helps design search strategy

– One way to avoid bias

• These techniques can be used to guide

your own searching

– Clarifies what you want to find out from

the evidence base

– Maximises efficiency

The McCaughey Centre VicHealth Centre for the Promotion of Mental Health and Community Wellbeing

Melbourne School of Population Health


Activity

• With the person next to you, think of a

question that you would like to search

and write it in a PICO format

The McCaughey Centre VicHealth Centre for the Promotion of Mental Health and Community Wellbeing

Melbourne School of Population Health

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