Conservation and Sustainable Use of the Biosphere - WBGU

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Conservation and Sustainable Use of the Biosphere - WBGU

XI

E

E 1

E 1.1

E 1.2

E 1.3

E 2

E 2.1

E 2.1.1

E 2.1.2

E 2.2

E 2.2.1

E 2.2.2

E 2.2.3

E 2.2.4

E 2.3

E 2.3.1

E 2.3.2

E 2.3.3

E 2.3.4

E 2.3.5

E 2.4

E 2.4.1

E 2.4.2

E 2.4.3

E 2.4.4

E 2.4.5

E 3

E 3.1

E 3.1.1

E 3.1.2

E 3.1.3

E 3.1.4

E 3.1.4.1

E 3.1.4.2

E 3.1.5

E 3.2

E 3.2.1

E 3.2.2

E 3.2.3

E 3.2.4

E 3.2.5

E 3.2.6

E 3.3

E 3.3.1

Diversity of landscapes and ecosystems 87

Natural and cultivated landscapes 89

Classification of landscapes by geography and function 89

From natural to cultivated landscapes 90

Anthropogenic influence on the biosphere in terms of landscape –

case studies 92

Development of landscapes under human influence 93

Development of the cultivated landscape in Central Europe 93

Background 93

Human influence 95

Amazonia: Revolution in a fragile ecosystem 100

Geological and climatic features of the Amazon basin 100

Emergence of biological diversity in the Amazon basin 102

Human intervention 102

Comparison of intervention in tropical and temperate forests 104

Introduction of the Nile perch into Lake Victoria: a Pyrrhic victory in economic

terms? 104

The eutrophication of Lake Victoria 105

Formation of the tilapia species as a textbook example of the theory of

evolution 106

The changing face of Lake Victoria’s ecosystem 106

Is the transformation of Lake Victoria a blessing for the local population? 106

Loss of world natural heritage: destruction of native fish populations in favour of

a alien species 107

The Indonesian shallow sea: destruction of an ecosystem through overuse and

mismanagement 107

Coral reefs 108

Mangroves 110

Fisheries 110

Conflict between economic use and the preservation of biotopes and

species 110

The future 111

Focal issues 112

Perception and evaluation 112

Introduction 112

People-nature interfaces 112

Traditional societies (‘ecosystem people’) 113

Industrial societies (‘biosphere people’) 115

Pluralistic lifestyles and the perception of nature 115

Towards a ‘biospheric perspective’ 117

Summary 119

Spatial and temporal separation of biogeochemical turnover processes in

ecosystems 119

Biogeochemical cycles in ecosystems 119

Biogeochemical fluxes in the soil 120

Biogeochemical fluxes in water bodies 120

Biogeochemical fluxes in agro-ecosystems 122

Impact of settlement growth on biogeochemical fluxes 122

Spatial and temporal separation of biogeochemical turnover processes in

ecosystems: The future 123

Sustainable land use 124

Types of landscape use 124

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