Conservation and Sustainable Use of the Biosphere - WBGU

Conservation and Sustainable Use of the Biosphere - WBGU

170 E Diversity of landscapes and ecosystems

taking measures to prolong the life of existing installations.

Promoting conversion to sustainable and

well-adapted forms of aquaculture

The Council considers it to be reasonable to continue

to promote conversion to environmentally friendly,

long-term and well-adapted forms of aquaculture by

means of international programmes or bilateral

cooperation, eg within the framework of Federal

Ministry of Economic Cooperation development

projects. Partnership research projects should contribute

not only to solving specific ecological problems,

but also to training local specialists (capacity

building). In many of the poorest countries (for

example, in Bangladesh) aquaculture has so far only

been used to earn export profits. In order to improve

the diet of the local population, especially with proteins,

it would make sense to promote the additional

production of food from aquaculture for domestic

consumption. In particular, rearing herbivorous

freshwater fishes, such as carp, can make a contribution

to the growing need for protein in developing

and newly industrialized countries with little technical

effort. In the field of prawn rearing there are

already some approaches towards adapting the present

crops and depleted areas to the principles of sustainability

and environmental compatibility. One

possibility is to combine integrated mangrove forest

culture with brackish water aquaculture (‘silvofisheries’).

This form permits the maintenance of relatively

high integrity mangrove forests alongside

extensive cultivation of fish, prawns and shellfish.

Establishing international criteria and

labelling systems for environmentally

friendly aquaculture

The development and implementation of international

criteria and labelling systems for sustainable

aquaculture is urgent. In the above-mentioned code

of conduct the FAO has already set out requirements

for the environmentally compatible development of

aquaculture and drawn up guidelines for their implementation.

Within this context, the establishment of

internationally valid labelling schemes also merits

attention. Research in this direction must adopt differentiated

approaches for the various aquaculture

sectors. A decisive criterion for all forms of aquaculture

is the stocking rate and the lifetime of the rearing


E 3.5

Conserving natural and cultural heritage

E 3.5.1

Cultural change and heritage conservation as

preconditions for successful biosphere policy

The environmental crisis as a cultural


The previous sections outlined human interventions

in the landscape and the consequences of this for biological

diversity (Section E 1–E 3). Under the guiding

principle of sustainable use of the landscape and

resources, proposals for various types and intensities

of use of terrestrial, aquatic and urban ecosystems

(Section E 3.8) have been discussed, and used as a

framework for weighing up use and conservation

interests. ‘Conservation before use’, ‘conservation

through use’ and ‘conservation despite use’ designate

prototypes of human activities relating to land and

water.Their purpose is to help introduce sustainable,

environmentally sound development – here with particular

emphasis on the conservation of the biosphere.

With reference to the three-dimensional sustainability

concept, the ecological and economic dimensions

were the focus of analysis here. In the process,

links to activities, demands and value scales of human

communities were repeatedly created and thus to the

third dimension of the sustainability triangle: the

social aspect. This dimension refers to all social or,

more accurately, socio-cultural conditions of humanity

– including but also extending beyond the economic

dimension – but is often abbreviated to the

aspects of intra- and inter-generational social justice

and equality of opportunities. For this reason, some

sustainability theoreticians consider another dimension

to be necessary, which holds the other three

together or upon which these three depend, ie the

cultural dimension. The three dimensions are structured,

linked and weighed up against each other by

cultural schemata, values and practices.

Since its first report (WBGU, 1994) the Council

has tried to analyse environmental problems such as

climate change, soil degradation, the freshwater

problem and now the risk to the biosphere as a global

complex of relationships (WBGU, 1995a, 2000a;

Chapter C), which is characterized by multi-faceted

direct and indirect interactions between the natural

sphere and the anthroposphere. In the process it can

be seen how and to what extent humans cause

changes in the environment with their cultural activities,

but that they are also affected by natural

changes.The role of humankind in overcoming envir-

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