Conservation and Sustainable Use of the Biosphere - WBGU

Conservation and Sustainable Use of the Biosphere - WBGU

268 G Biosphere-anthroposphere linkages: The Overexploitation Syndrome

Policy failure



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Figure G 4.2-2

Measure of the trend policy failure with regard to forest resource conservation.

Source: Cassel-Gintz et al, 1999

degree of corruption in state bureaucracy from the

viewpoint of business and society in almost 100 countries.The

basis for this is up to 12 different sources in

which individual countries are evaluated independently

of one another (eg the World Competitiveness

Report or the Political Risk Service). To determine

the resultant components of the trend in policy failure

it was also taken into account that legally binding

forest protection programmes are more difficult to

circumvent than non-binding declarations of intent

on the environment or conservation.

In order to estimate the degree of lobbying in

terms of continued use of forest resources, an

approximation of the forest sector as a proportion of

the gross domestic product was used. Political decisions

in provinces are not reflected in this indicator.

This measure, combined with the composite corruption

index, forms the indicator for policy failure given

in Fig. G 4.2-2 with regard to the protection of forest

resources for the period under analysis (1990–1995).

It may be recognized that in the tropical countries

a high degree of policy failure is present, in particular

in the classic ‘deforestation countries’: Brazil,

Indonesia, Malaysia or the Democratic Republic of

Congo. The trend is much less pronounced in the

North. Exceptions are Canada and Sweden where

lobbying long prevented, and indeed still prevents,

implementation of forest protection measures. In the

South there are only a few exceptions from the otherwise

high level of policy failure. For instance, South

African and Thailand demonstrate a somewhat

weaker form of the trend.

G 4.2.3

Combined intensity

The individual indicators outlined above can with the

help of a fuzzy logic AND operation be combined to

derive an overall indicator for the Overexploitation

Syndrome. This indicator, for which the geographic

distribution is depicted in Fig. G 4.2-3, is the second

component for measuring intensity alongside the

‘type indicator’ in Fig. G 4.1-2.

The map shows that the firewood-determined natural

components in India, China and Nigeria are

reflected in the intensity.The overexploitation of biological

resources in these countries generally affects

secondary forests and constitutes an oft neglected

problem. The Council therefore wishes to emphasize

that in the debate on global forest resources the secondary

forests must not be disregarded.

In addition to these regions, the Overexploitation

Syndrome emerges particularly in Indonesia, Brazil,

Finland, Canada, Congo and a number of other countries.

For this region or group of countries it is important

to consider that the strong importance of the

forestry sector generally speaking and in combina-

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