Motivational approaches I 2.4 323 cause of domination by short-term interests (Section I 2.1). Funds could in this situation purchase tradable permits with which the owners of resources are obligated to renounce extraction of stocks or at least couple extraction with certain regulations. The idea here is not government funds weighed down by bureaucracy and financing rules. Private funds mobilize a specific kind of willingness-to-pay and ensure full institutional diversity so that the protective concern can be addressed in a flexible manner. The positive impact this sort of private fund can have is demonstrated by the foundation system in the United States. Philanthropic foundations, such as Carnegie, Rockefeller or Stanford, were from their very inception intended to relieve the educational burden on the state and establish a kind of ‘private society’ with a mission for the common good with private backing for school education, libraries or science and research (Hüttl and Semmerl, 1998). In this context a considerable degree of institutional diversity emerged with interesting competitive elements in a field of activity that is highly complex. Similar forces could be allowed to develop for the sake of biosphere policy. For this kind of private initiative to develop and expandthe foundation law in Germany would have to be changed and contribution of monies to such foundations made attractive. Swifter assertion of protective standards International agreements on concrete measures to protect the biosphere can only be reached in lengthy negotiating rounds given the differing starting points with which they contend. By contrast incorporating national preservation strategies into worldwide marketing campaigns, eg by multinational food, tourism or pharmaceutical companies, increases the option of making clear the direct economic importance of biological resources and thus the incentives to join the cause (Suchanek, 1998; Klemmer and Wink, 1998). The pressure of competition, or rather the prospect of competitive advantages, also triggers incentives to develop new ways of implementing conservation and usage concepts for biological diversity and in this way the lines of conflict between social safety nets, commercial success and preserving biological diversity may be overcome. Worldwide protection of competition For private markets to function consumers must be given the opportunity to select and direct the flow of goods. When individual states give breaks or privileges to producers it prevents adherence to the standard of preserving the biosphere from becoming a relevant criterion in the purchasing decision. Onesided limitations on supply or government-induced price hikes distort the consumers’ information. Such national privileges are often asserted by strong interest groups with the argument of securing jobs.Worldwide however they lead to a reduction in incentives for investment in the conservation ofthe biosphere and in the long-term to structural deterioration ofthe competitiveness of national sites.This kind of protection is what the GATT/WTO system is meant to prevent in the context of international trade. In practice, these efforts come up against a host of barriers. Even within the European Union trade regulations are used as a vehicle for protecting assert able interests (Winkler, 1998). Alternatively, therefore, the concept of system competition relies on private sector regulation of trade flows, in other words regulation via the market and competitive processes. In order to provide consumers with all the relevant information about products, however, there is a particular need to communicate information about the environmental impact in recipient countries. Information and labelling obligations can do a certain amount. Essentially, however, to prevent protectionist measures, a different understanding ofthe opportunities offered by international economic interconnectedness is required. Foreign direct investment by German companies is an opportunity to open up new markets and in this way secure domestic jobs, create jobs in the investment target countries and thus make clear to the local population the value oftheir biological resources. Direct investment in the countries of origin of biological diversity therefore promotes the interests that are oriented to preserving the biosphere. By contrast, intervention in competition by protectionist measures endangers not only the conservation ofthe biosphere but in addition to that also the long-term competitiveness of domestic jobs. Consumer information Even if the consumer has often proved him/herself to be more independent and reasonable than well intentioned control measures would lead one to believe, excessive diversity of different information (eg labelling) would actually confuse rather than assist a conscious decision in favour ofthe conservation of biodiversity. New labels also run the risk of not making it into the range of important suppliers, eg the major retail chains, unless they can count at least one larger multinational company in its circle of cooperating partners. Therefore, informational instruments have an important role to play. The Council sees above all support for the development of independent consumer reports – similar to Stiftung Warentest in Germany – and market launches of new labels as areas where policy needs to act. This could prove more effective than exclusive trust in political negotiations.
324 I Global biosphere policy International agreements will in the light ofthe global importance of biological diversity continue to play a crucial role in the conservation and sustainable use of biological resources. But the Council calls also for the world not to regard global competitive processes as a danger to the preservation ofthe biosphere. Especially in an age where national power of enforcement is being devalued, private self-regulating regimes are becoming important. The Council will therefore in a subsequent report take a more detailed position on ways in which such self-regulating mechanisms can be used to promote sustainability in the context of market-economy systems. I 2.5 Environmental education and environmental learning I 2.5.1 Introduction The conservation and sustainable use ofthe biosphere and its resources is a difficult task for environmental policy and makes it necessary to deploy all available policy instruments intelligently. These instruments include environmental education that is oriented to bringing about long-term changes in attitudes and behaviour. Deployed at all levels of formal and non-formal education, environmental education must provide socialization contexts and learning strategies in order to reflect in a new way the relationship of humankind to its natural resource bases and develop new patterns of action. It must not just focus on the acquisition of knowledge relevant to the environment, but also incorporate all relevant perception, experience and behavioural modalities relevant to the people-environment relationship. Beyond this narrow framework of school-based and non-school-based primary education, training and further training, however, it is also about achieving new, sustainable lifestyles for all groups in society in their various professional contexts and life situations and thus it is all about (life-long) ‘learning’. These processes, which since the 1980s have been termed ‘environmental learning’, take place in an ‘experimenting society’ (Fietkau, 1984) in which through information, communication and participation, but also targeted intervention, new forms of living and consuming can be tried out that ultimately guarantee a sustainable and future-viable society of which the sound use ofthe biosphere is an important element. A concrete approach to environmental learning at town/municipal level will be presented using the example of promoting the decision to buy organic products (I 2.5.5). This goal of sustainable development has gained ever greater weight since the Rio Conference in 1992.The Commission on Sustainable Development (CSD) also points out the need for a comprehensive programme of sustainable environmental education. They emphasize the importance of awareness-raising in a non-school context andthe promotion of sustainable lifestyles. Since sustainable development is however far more extensive than ‘just’ environmentally friendly development, since it must incorporate economic and sociocultural development too, strictly speaking the terms ‘environmental education’ and ‘environmental learning’ have become too narrow and should be replaced by ‘education’ or ‘learning for sustainable development’. If the Council continues to use the old terms in this section it is not just because they are more familiar to most readers but also because for the issue of protecting the biosphere many learning processes on ecological contexts are still necessary in order even to be able to link these to the economic and socio-cultural conditions of social development. Over the last few years experts have been engaged in a lively discussion on the status and re-direction of environmental education within the education system (eg de Haan et al, 1997; Trommer and Noack, 1997; Beyer, 1998), also in response to stimulus from the German Council of Environmental Advisors (SRU, eg 1994) andWBGU (eg 1994, 1996). The Council welcomes the fact that the current version ofthe orientation framework ofthe Bund-Länder Commission already adopted (BLK, 1998) on ‘Education for sustainable development’ creates the necessary framework for the implementation of educational practices that must now be fulfilled by all ofthe constituent states (Länder) of Germany. In these guidelines, however, a certain neglect ofthe social dimension of sustainability in particular cannot be overlooked. Issues such as international development policy must not be allowed to be left unconsidered in the educational system andthe necessary interlocking of environmental and development issues must be reflected in any educational practice that follows the model of sustainable development. In the evaluation study commissioned by the Federal Ministry for Education and Research (BMBF) on ‘Environmental education as innovation – assessments and recommendations relating to model experiments and research projects’ (de Haan et al, 1997), however, implementation weaknesses were evident that still call for consistent endeavours on the part of all players in the educational system. In particular it may be noted that tuition on the environment and nature has over the course of time increased in scale (number of school hours) and is not just restricted to the ‘natural’ or ‘exact’ sciences, but has