International institutions K 2.4 391 friendly aquaculture. The principles enumerated in the FAO Code of Conduct andthe directives for implementation ofthe same provide a basis, which could be built upon. K 2.4.13 Improving coordination between global environmental agreements In order to avoid duplication, overlaps or contradictory developments, coordination of individual processes under global environmental and sustainability policy is necessary. For instance, there was no timely coordination between the Biodiversity, Desertification and Climate Change Conventions prior to adoption ofthe Kyoto Protocol, that deals with offsetting biological sinks and sources against greenhouse gas reduction commitments for the purposes of climate protection (Section I 3.4.3). The possibilities envisaged in that protocol ofoffsetting afforestation, deforestation and reforestation against fulfilment ofthe obligation to reduce carbon dioxide emissions are not reconcilable with the objectives of climate, soil and biosphere conservation (WBGU, 1998b). The ongoing deliberations ofthe Intergovernmental Forum on Forests (IFF) were also not taken into account. Alongside a general improvement in the exchange of information and increased coordination between the individual negotiating processes, the Council recommends a harmonization of reporting systems within existing environmental conventions and joint development of indicators. In particular, the scientific committees ofthe COPs should increasingly address issues of overlap with other environmental conventions. to make intensive use of this instrument. Support should be given especially to projects that place the valorization of nature and thus the strategy of ‘conservation through use’ increasingly at the service of integrated support for economic development and conservation ofthe biosphere (Section E 3.3.3). The work ofthe GTZ in the area of bioprospecting andthe development of international standards for access to genetic resources and benefit-sharing (Section I 3.2.9) and protective systems for indigenous knowledge (Section I 3.2.10) should also be continued since they support important goals within the CBD. Furthermore, it should be examined in what way the concept of bioregional management might be combined with the existing approaches of rural regional development (Section E 3.9). Finally, the exchange of information and capacity-building through the transfer of technology are important pillars of international biosphere policy.Therefore, support should be given to the development of research institutions oftheir own in biodiversity-rich countries andthe readiness of companies to invest in such initiatives should be mobilized accordingly. The Council recommends giving close attention to the possibilities for expanding technology transfer in the interests ofthe conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity when drawing up national biodiversity strategies. K 2.4.14 Strengthening development cooperation as an instrument of biosphere conservation In the context of its development cooperation, Germany makes an important contribution to global biosphere conservation for instance by establishing national parks in developing countries, drawing up environmental action plans or supporting nature conservation-oriented rural development.Within the framework ofthe sectoral project ‘Implementing the CBD’ launched in 1993 and a number of other projects with similar objectives (eg the Tropical Ecology Support Programme and numerous projects under bilateral cooperation) the BMZ is directly engaged in implementing the goals ofthe CBD (Section I 3.5.3). The Council welcomes this commitment and recommends that the federal government continue
K 3 Funding and international cooperation K 3.1 Increasing deployment of combined incentive systems Article 10 ofthe CBD calls on the parties to deploy social and economic incentive measures increasingly for the conservation and sustainable use ofthe biosphere.The Council supports the information advantages that go along with the incentive system at a decentralized level in order to achieve ecological goals in as efficient a manner as possible. In the light ofthe complexity of issues faced both with regard to ecological interconnections andthe large number of players involved, a broad spectrum of incentive instruments should be introduced and deployed in combination with one another. This combined deployment of incentive instruments calls for suitable scientific, technical and political capacities. K 3.2 Strengthening bilateral and multilateral cooperation Germany is highly committed to international biosphere conservation and, after Japan andthe United States, is the third largest contributor to the GEF. Also, in the case ofthe debt-for-nature swaps, the Federal Republic of Germany is one ofthe leaders worldwide providing annual support of around US$100 million. Debt-for-nature swaps are intended to allow developing countries to reduce their debt burden and, at the same time, make investments in the conservation of biological resources. This instrument is a meaningful option for funding nature conservation projects if the conditions attached to it are accepted and controls are possible. The Council explicitly welcomes the German federal government’s initiative for debt waivers for the highly indebted poor developing countries (Cologne Debt Initiative) because it provides the impacted countries with greater scope for action in favour of nature conservation (Section I 126.96.36.199). However, given the declining development funds from the OECD countries over many years, at the same time as the problems are exerting a greater pressure than ever, higher financial commitment from the international community is unavoidable. The Council notes with concern that the international community is further away from the 0.7 per cent target than ever. Therefore, the increase in German development cooperation funding already advocated in earlier reports to a target level of 1 per cent of gross national product is not just compatible with the UNCED resolutions thus worthy to be pursued and proportionate to the urgency ofthe problems, but also to be understood as an appeal from the Council for urgent action to take place in this area. K 3.3 Developing ‘nature sponsorship’ as an instrument of biosphere policy By analysing the three pillars of biological diversity (genes/species, ecosystems, global systems) the Council has outlined in the present report biological imperatives for a guard rail strategy for the biosphere, in compliance with which it defines the minimum requirement for ‘good’ environmental policy. From this approach a geographically explicit catalogue of keystone species, ecosystems and landscapes that should be preserved could be derived. One could speak ofthe ‘green heart’ of our planet that must continue beating. As outlined above, public monies should be deployed in a considerable degree for the achievement of this goal with the most effective instruments in economic terms being selected. It would be illusory, however, to expect that funding would come from tax revenues of individual states alone. Therefore, the Council suggests providing political support for the efforts initiated already by various NGOs (eg WWF) to create a privately operated ‘Biosphere Fund’ – in particular, with regard to integration of this idea to become a worldwide concept.