Conservation and Sustainable Use of the Biosphere - WBGU

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Conservation and Sustainable Use of the Biosphere - WBGU

K 3

Funding and international cooperation

K 3.1

Increasing deployment of combined incentive

systems

Article 10 of the CBD calls on the parties to deploy

social and economic incentive measures increasingly

for the conservation and sustainable use of the biosphere.The

Council supports the information advantages

that go along with the incentive system at a

decentralized level in order to achieve ecological

goals in as efficient a manner as possible. In the light

of the complexity of issues faced both with regard to

ecological interconnections and the large number of

players involved, a broad spectrum of incentive

instruments should be introduced and deployed in

combination with one another. This combined

deployment of incentive instruments calls for suitable

scientific, technical and political capacities.

K 3.2

Strengthening bilateral and multilateral

cooperation

Germany is highly committed to international biosphere

conservation and, after Japan and the United

States, is the third largest contributor to the GEF.

Also, in the case of the debt-for-nature swaps, the

Federal Republic of Germany is one of the leaders

worldwide providing annual support of around

US$100 million. Debt-for-nature swaps are intended

to allow developing countries to reduce their debt

burden and, at the same time, make investments in

the conservation of biological resources. This instrument

is a meaningful option for funding nature conservation

projects if the conditions attached to it are

accepted and controls are possible. The Council

explicitly welcomes the German federal government’s

initiative for debt waivers for the highly

indebted poor developing countries (Cologne Debt

Initiative) because it provides the impacted countries

with greater scope for action in favour of nature conservation

(Section I 3.5.3.2). However, given the

declining development funds from the OECD countries

over many years, at the same time as the problems

are exerting a greater pressure than ever, higher

financial commitment from the international community

is unavoidable. The Council notes with concern

that the international community is further

away from the 0.7 per cent target than ever. Therefore,

the increase in German development cooperation

funding already advocated in earlier reports to

a target level of 1 per cent of gross national product

is not just compatible with the UNCED resolutions

thus worthy to be pursued and proportionate to the

urgency of the problems, but also to be understood as

an appeal from the Council for urgent action to take

place in this area.

K 3.3

Developing ‘nature sponsorship’ as an instrument

of biosphere policy

By analysing the three pillars of biological diversity

(genes/species, ecosystems, global systems) the

Council has outlined in the present report biological

imperatives for a guard rail strategy for the biosphere,

in compliance with which it defines the minimum

requirement for ‘good’ environmental policy.

From this approach a geographically explicit catalogue

of keystone species, ecosystems and landscapes

that should be preserved could be derived. One could

speak of the ‘green heart’ of our planet that must

continue beating.

As outlined above, public monies should be

deployed in a considerable degree for the achievement

of this goal with the most effective instruments

in economic terms being selected. It would be illusory,

however, to expect that funding would come

from tax revenues of individual states alone. Therefore,

the Council suggests providing political support

for the efforts initiated already by various NGOs (eg

WWF) to create a privately operated ‘Biosphere

Fund’ – in particular, with regard to integration of

this idea to become a worldwide concept.

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