Conservation and Sustainable Use of the Biosphere - WBGU

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Conservation and Sustainable Use of the Biosphere - WBGU

Impact loops in the biosphere-centred network of interrelations C 1.3

25

HYDROSPHERE ATMOSPHERE PEDOSPHERE

Sea-level rise

Changes in loads of particulate

and dissolved matter

Stratospheric

ozone depletion

Loss of fertility

(organic matter, nutrients)

Salinization,

alkalization

Changes in ice-caps

and glaciers

Changes in

oceanic circulation

Freshwater scarcity

Changes in water quality

(pathogens, nutrients, toxins)

Changes in local

water balance

Changes in

groundwater level

Zunehmende lokale

Luftverschmutzung

Enhanced

greenhouse effect

Tropospheric

pollution

Global and regional

climate change

Increase in

trace gases

Erosion,

morphological changes

Surface sealing

Compaction

Overfertilization

Acidification,

contamination

Increased deposition and

accumulation of waste

POPULATION

Rural exodus

Urbanization

Population growth

International

migration

Urban sprawl

Increasing damage to health

Loss of

biospheric sinks

Substance overload of

natural ecosystems

Fragmentation of

natural ecosystems

BIOSPHERE

Increase of anthropogenic

introduction of species

Damage to ecosystem

structure and function

Reinforcement of

biospheric sources

Resistance formation

Overexploitation of

biological resources

Conversion of

natural ecosystems

Genetic and

species loss

Increased food

production

Expansion of

agriculturally used lands

Intensification of

agriculture

Decline of

traditional agriculture

Expanding

monetary sector

Increase of environmentally

sound economic processes

Increased

tourism

Increased consumption of

energy and resources

Enhanced

labour productivity

Enhanced resource

productivity

Tertiarization

Increasing

protectionism

Expansion of

traffic routes

Globalization

of markets

ECONOMY

Enhanced

capital intensity

International

indebtedness

Industrialization

Increasing

world trade

Growing traffic

volume

Growing environmental

awareness

Increased

mobility

Growing interest

in participation

Sensibilization to

global problems

PSYCHOSOCIAL SPHERE

Demand for higher

standards

Women's emancipation

Growth of fundamentalist

movements

Spreading of western lifestyle

and consumption patterns

Widening national social

and economic disparities

Widening international social

and economic disparities

Individualization

Mounting poverty

Decline of traditional

social structures

Institutionalization of

social services

SOCIAL ORGANIZATION

Increasing significance

of NGO's

Increasing

regional conflicts

Democratization

Increasing international

agreements and institutions

Increasing environmental

protection at national level

Structural unemployment

on the rise

Growing importance of national

economic policy strategies

Knowledge and

technology transfer

Intensification of education

and capacity building

Progress in

information technology

Advances in environmental

engineering

Development of renewable

energies and resources

Construction of

technical megaprojects

Medical

progress

Mounting

technological risks

Automation,

mechanization

Progress in biotechnology

and genetic engineering

Development of new materials,

material substitution

SCIENCE / TECHNOLOGY

= amplifying effect = attenuating effect

Figure C 1.3-4

Network of interrelations for the positive impact loop in the biosphere.

Source: WBGU

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